Publications by authors named "Asghar Khan"

19 Publications

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Effects of safety pattern, cabin ergonomics and sleep on Work-Related stress and burnout of city and transit bus drivers in lahore, Pakistan.

Ergonomics 2021 Sep 20:1-24. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Transportation Engineering and Management, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Pakistan.

Health and working environment of bus drivers is compromised in low-middle-income countries like Pakistan which leads to burnout and excessive Road Traffic Crashes. Hence, this study delves into factors affecting their safe operations from health and work environment perspectives and measures their associated stress and Burnout level. In a study of four hundred and ninety-nine (499), 86% city and 14% transit bus drivers are surveyed through a questionnaire. Stress is estimated for city and transit bus drivers, using the Effort/Reward Imbalance Model (ERI) of Siegrist, and burnout is calculated using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). For determination of important determinants, descriptive and regression analyses are conducted. Findings show that stress has emerged as negative factor for physical and psychological health of city and transit bus drivers. Results based on bus drivers' responses suggest that organisational awareness and emphasis on health and safety level can significantly reduce driver stress and burnout. This study explores burnout and work-related stress of bus drivers in Lahore (Pakistan). City and transit bus drivers were interviewed through a questionnaire, containing three sections, using different subjective ratings based upon their past reliability. Results indicate that stress in bus drivers emerged as a physical and psychological health-damaging factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2021.1983029DOI Listing
September 2021

In vitro anticancer activity of extracted oil from Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Decne) Rehder.

Phytomedicine 2021 Oct 5;91:153697. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Background: Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana, commonly referred to as "Beranj" in the local community, is widely used traditionally and has numerous health benefits. However, no studies have been conducted to investigate its anticancer potential, particularly its extracted oil.

Purpose: The present study was put forth to appraise the anticancer potential of Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana extracted oil against liver (hcclm3 and hepg2) and breast cancer (mda-mb 231 and mcf-7) cell lines relative to normal cell lines (lo2 and mcf-10a) via MTT assay.

Methods: Flow cytometry indicated the apoptotic effect whereas invasion and migration capabilities of oil against cancer cells were determined by Matrigel invasion chamber and wound-scratch assays.

Results: The results of oil revealed a time and dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation inhibition, conferring to least IC50 shown against hcclm3 (144.9 ± 0.75 μg/ml) and mda-mb 231 (145.7 ± 0.32 μg/ml) cell line at 72 h, whereas no cytotoxic effect on normal cells was observed. In addition, the oil significantly (p < 0.001) suppressed the migration and invasion of hcclm3 and mda-mb 231 cells, showing noteworthy anti-metastatic potential. Furthermore, cell death was confirmed by Annexin‒V/PI staining where the maximum apoptotic percentage was calculated for oil (200 μg/ml) alongside mda-mb 231 conferring to 15.36 ± 1.22, 26.7 ± 1.2, and 36.43 ± 1.65 at 24, 48, and 72 h whereas 12.33 ± 1.05, 19.36 ± 1.62, and 29.3 ± 0.79 was recorded alongside hcclm3 at similar time intervals, respectively.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the extracted oil exhibited strong anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic, and apoptotic effects and therefore may have potential applications in cancer treatment, however, further studies of oil regarding the action mechanisms and compounds involved in anticancer therapy are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153697DOI Listing
October 2021

Green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Decne) Rehder leaf extract and its biological activities.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (Decne) Rehder aqueous extract of leaf was used for biosynthesis of AgNPs and characterized through UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform-infrared, diffraction light scattering, and scanning electron microscope analysis. Moderate to strong antioxidant activity during in vitro antioxidant assays for scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO) radicals, iron chelation, and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching was recorded with minimum IC value (27.70 ± 2.67 μg/ml) calculated for OH radicals. The AgNPs were evaluated against six multidrug resistant human bacterial strains and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) along with minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values was determined and all were found remarkably susceptible. The bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible with MIC = 5 μg/ml and MBC = 10 μg/ml. Among six fungal strains, Fumigatus esculentum was the most susceptible with MIC and MBC of 10 μg/ml. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2 yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) screening assay against cancer cell lines (HCCLM3, HEPG2, MDA-MB 231, and MCF-7) revealed the least IC values against HCCLM3 (74.20 ± 5.04) and MCF-7 (91.90 ± 1.17). While no cytotoxicity against normal cell lines; LO2 and MCF-10a was recorded. Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana silver nanoparticles (PJAgNPs) significantly (p > .001) prevented the migration of HCCLM3 cells in a dose-dependent style, relative to control. The wound healing potential of AgNPs in rat was found higher (p < .05) for wound contraction rates, hydroxyproline content, hemostatic and re-epithelization and regeneration efficiency in comparison to the reference group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23882DOI Listing
July 2021

A facile calcination conversion of groundwater treatment sludge (GTS) as magnetic adsorbent for oxytetracycline adsorption.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5276. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Science and Technology Innovation Center for Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Water Quality Protection, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130117, China.

In this paper, groundwater treatment sludge (GTS) was recycled as a magnetic adsorbent via a facile calcination process without adding any reductant. The prepared magnetic adsorbents (MAs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), vibrating sample magnenometer (VSM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that GTS comprised 33.2% Fe, 1.4% Al and 6.2% Si, and exhibited a weak saturation magnetization of 0.0008 emu/g. Without NaOH, the GTS calcinated at 700 and 500 °C were well magnetized with Ms of 20.1 and 7.1 emu/g, separately, but exhibited a low Ms of 0.43 emu/g at 300 °C. By adding NaOH powder, the Ms of GTS apparently increased to 4.9 emu/g after calcination at 300 °C, and further to 8.5 emu/g at 500 °C. In GTS, about 96.1% Fe was involved in ferrihydrite form. The Ms of calcinated GTS was accompanied with the phase transformation of ferrihydrite to maghemite. Si/Al oxides in GTS coordinated on the surface sites of ferrihydrite and inhibited the conjunction and phase transformation of adjacent ferrihydrite particles, but were effectively desorbed as in the presence of NaOH. Na500, preparing by calcinating GTS at 500 °C with NaOH, showed an optimal total surface sites (H) of 0.65 mmol/g. Oxytetracycline (OTC) was used as a target for studying the adsorption characteristics of synthetic magnetic adsorbents and a high adsorption capacity of oxytetracycline of 862.1 mg/g in comparison with the other calcinated GTS, and the adsorption data was consistent with the Langmuir model. By adding 6 g/L Na-500, approximately 100% of oxytetracycline and tetracycline and nearly 40% total organic carbon were removed from real pharmaceutical wastewater. With the method, GTS can be converted in mass production to magnetic adsorbent that exhibits effective application in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84231-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935931PMC
March 2021

Quantification of biochemical compounds in Linn flower extract and its hepatoprotective effect.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 8;28(1):247-254. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

University Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (UIBB), PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Liver disorders may occur as a result of exposure to chemical compounds capable of inducing the oxidative stress and hepatic injuries. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of flower extracts of for the treatment of liver injury induced by the CCl. About 1 ml/kg body weight (b.w) of CCl4 was induced to experimental mice by intraperitoneal way for 14 days. The methanol and chloroform extracts (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w) were administered to experimental animals for 14 days along with standard drug Silymarine (100 mg/kg b.w). The extracts alone showed no evidence of hepatic toxicity but animals exposed to CCl without the treatment with presented variations in levels of liver enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, proteins and blood cells as well as injuries in liver cells were also observed during histopathological study. However, after the treatments especially with 300 mg/kg b.w of methanol flower extracts levels of liver markers (ALT, AST and ALP), antioxidant enzymes and blood cells decreases and turned towards normal levels. Whereas level of total proteins and bilirubin was improved and damaged liver cells were repaired. The curative activity of flower extracts can be correlated to the higher potential of antioxidants and occurrence of Quercetin and some other organic compounds those were investigated from flower extracts of . during HPLC and GC-MS analysis. The finding of this study supports the use of . flower formulation in folk medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.09.056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785441PMC
January 2021

Proteome-wide mapping and reverse vaccinology-based B and T cell multi-epitope subunit vaccine designing for immune response reinforcement against .

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Sep 14:1-15. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biological Statistics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, P.R China.

a prominent pathogen responsible for acute periodontal diseases, is widely studied by the scientific community for its successful evasion of the host immune system. is associated with rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, and Alzheimer's. The pathogen successfully survives itself against the heavy load of conventional antibiotics because of its ability to evade the host immune system. Subtractive proteomics and reverse vaccinology approaches were employed in order to prioritize the best proteins for vaccine designing. Three vaccine candidates with Uniprot ID: Q7MWZ2 (histidine Kinase), Q7MVL1 (Fe (2+) transporter), and Q7MWZ2 (Capsular polysaccharide transport protein) were identified for vaccine designing. These proteins are antigenic and essential for pathogen survival. A wide range of immunoinformatics tools was applied for the prediction of epitopes, B, and T cells, for the vaccine candidate proteins. Molecular docking of the predicted epitopes against the MHC molecules were carried out. vaccine was constructed using carefully evaluated epitopes and consequently modeled for docking with human Toll-like receptor 2. Chain C of Pam3CSK4 (PDB ID; 2Z7X) was linked to the vaccine as an adjuvant to boost immune response towards the vaccine. For stability evaluation of the vaccine-TLR-2 docked complex, Molecular Dynamics simulations were performed. The reverse-translated nucleotide sequence cloned in to attain the maximal expression of the vaccine protein. The maximal expression was ensured by CAI score of 0.96. The current vaccine requires future experimental validation to confirm its effectiveness. The vaccine developed will be helpful to protect against associated infections.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1819423DOI Listing
September 2020

The Effect of Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) on Quality of life in Patient with Coronary Artery Disease not Amenable to PCI or CABG.

Cureus 2020 May 6;12(5):e7987. Epub 2020 May 6.

Cardiology, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, PAK.

Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive FDA approved therapy for patients with refractory angina pectoris. The EECP mechanism of action is similar to that of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) by administering a vigorous pressure pulse via external blood pressure cuffs during the diastole. The benefit of EECP includes improvement in angina severity, angina stability, maximal walking capacity and generalized improvement in overall health. Seatle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) is a valid, reliable and sensitive measure of health-related quality of life. It is also a sensitive and reproducible evaluation tool to measure the response to an intervention. We did a pre-test post-test designed prospective study to evaluate the effect of EECP on the quality of life in patients with CAD. There was a significant difference between SAQ-7 health-related quality of life between the pre-EECP and post-EECP groups (P value= <0.01). Moreover, a positive correlation was reported between the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification before treatment and post-EECP SAQ-7 health-related quality of life (P value=0.015).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273423PMC
May 2020

Design Optimization and Non-Linear Buckling Analysis of Spherical Composite Submersible Pressure Hull.

Materials (Basel) 2020 May 26;13(11). Epub 2020 May 26.

College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China.

This paper describes an optimization study of a spherical composite submersible pressure hull employing a genetic algorithm (GA) in ANSYS. A total of five lay-up arrangements were optimized for three unidirectional composites carbon/epoxy, glass/epoxy, and boron/epoxy. The minimization of the buoyancy factor () was selected as the design optimization objective. The Tsai-Wu and Tsai-Hill failure criteria and buckling strength factor () were used as the material failure and instability constraints. To determine the effect of geometric non-linearity and imperfections on the optimized design, a non-linear buckling analysis was also carried out for one selected optimized design in ABAQUS. The non-linear buckling analysis was carried out using the modified RIKS procedure, in which the imperfection size changed from 1 to 10 mm. A maximum decrease of 65.937% in buoyancy factor () over an equivalent spherical steel pressure hull was computed for carbon/epoxy. Moreover, carbon/epoxy displayed larger decreases in buoyancy factor () in the case of 4 out of a total of 5 lay-up arrangements. The collapse depth decreased from 517.95 m to 412.596 m for a 5 mm lowest mode imperfection. Similarly, the collapse depth decreased from 522.39 m to 315.6018 for a 5 mm worst mode imperfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13112439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321073PMC
May 2020

Hepatic arterial system anomalies encountered during pancreaticoduodenectomy - our experience.

J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Feb;70(2):337-340

Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Lahore, Pakistan.

We present our experience of incidence and management of aberrant hepatic arterial anatomy encountered during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Patients undergoing PD between December 2014 and November 2016 at the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Lahore were included in this short report. Preoperative imaging and operative findings of these patients were reviewed to evaluate the hepatic arterial anatomy and classified according to Hiatt classification. Sixty-four PD were performed with aberrant arterial anatomy identified in 24 (37.5%) of the cases. Most common anomaly was replaced right hepatic artery (rRHA) arising from the superior mesenteric artery seen in seven (11%) of the patients. Aberrant vessels were recognised and preserved in 23 cases. In one patient, the rRHA was coursing through the pancreatic parenchyma needing resection and reconstruction with uneventful postoperative recovery. Hepatic arterial anomalies are common and it is possible to preserve these vessels with careful surgical dissection using artery first technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/JPMA.9783DOI Listing
February 2020

Hepatic Artery Variations in a Sample of Pakistani Population.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2020 Feb;30(2):187-191

Department of Surgical Oncology and Radiology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan.

Objective: To identify the frequency of different arterial variants of common hepatic artery (CHA) overview identified at abdominal CT angiography (CTA) performed in a large series of patients undergoing CT scans for various reasons.

Study Design: Observational study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Surgical Oncology and Radiology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan, from October 2016 to September 2018.

Methodology: Findings in randomly selected 1000 patients who underwent CTA were retrospectively evaluated. The pattern of aortic origin of branches of the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric arteries was analysed. The CHA anatomy was then investigated. Hepatic artery anomalies were classified by the Hiatt's method.

Results: There were 629 males and 371 females with a median age of 54 years. Type 1 variation (normal anatomy) was seen in 644 patients. Type 2 variation (left hepatic artery, LHA, aberrations), was seen in 135 patients. LHA was seen arising from left gastric artery or common hepatic artery (CHA) in most of the cases. One patient had a replaced LHA from superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Sixteen patients had an accessory LHA and 119 had a replaced LHA. Type 3 variation (unusual anatomy of right hepatic artery, RHA) was seen in 121 patients, 7 patients had an accessory and 114 had a replaced RHA . The replaced or accessory right hepatic artery originated anywhere from SMA, celiac trunk, aorta, CHA or gastroduodenal artery (GDA). Type 4 variation (unsual origin of both RHA and LHA) was seen in 73 patients. Type 5 variation (CHA arising from SMA) was seen in 23 patients. Type 6 variation (CHA arising directly from aorta) was seen in four patients.

Conclusion: Arterial variations are common in our population of patients. A detailed understanding and knowledge of these variations is necessary for surgeons and radiologists to avoid any inadvertent injuries during various procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2020.02.187DOI Listing
February 2020

Physiological response of spinach to toxic heavy metal stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Nov 4;26(31):31667-31674. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, KPK, 29050, Pakistan.

This study was carried out to investigate the concentration of two heavy metals, i.e., mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in soil and plant. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was used as a test vegetable in a pot experiment. Five spiked concentrations of both the metals along with sewage water were used as treatments. The analyses of the metals were determined in two cuttings. The results showed significant effect of treatments on the concentration of the two metals in soil and plant. The concentrations of As recorded were higher in 1st spinach cutting and reduced in the second harvest. However, comparing the two metal concentrations, it was found that As was absorbed greater as compared with Hg. Analyzing the plant growth parameter, it was found that metal stress has significantly influenced the plant growth. In sewage water pots, As was significantly higher than Hg. The transfer factor from soil to plant showed higher As in plants at lower concentration, but at higher As levels, the transfer rate declined, while Hg showed it was completely inverse. Positive correlation was found between soil applied metal concentration and plant uptake. It may be concluded from the above results that spinach is a good accumulator of heavy metals and has shown significant result of both As and Hg accumulation in plant. The concentration increased with the increasing concentration in soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06292-7DOI Listing
November 2019

Biosynthesis of anti-leishmanial natural products in callus cultures of Artemisia scoparia.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2019 Dec;47(1):1122-1131

c Department of Biotechnology , Bacha Khan University , Charsadda , Pakistan.

Clinically, available synthetic chemotherapeutics in the treatment for leishmaniasis are associated with serious complications, such as toxicity and emergence of resistance. Natural products from plants can provide better remedies against the Leishmania parasite and can possibly minimize the associated side effects. In this study, various extracts of the callus cultures of Artimisia scoparia established in response to different plant growth regulators (PGRs) were evaluated for their anti-leishmanial effects against Leishmania tropica promastigotes, followed by an investigation of the possible mechanism of action through reactive apoptosis assay using fluorescent microscopy. Amongst the different callus extracts, higher anti-leishmanial activity (IC:19.13 µg/mL) was observed in the callus raised in-vitro in the presence of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BA) plus 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) at the concentration of 1.5 mg/L, each. Further, the results of apoptosis assay showed a large number of early-stage apoptotic (EA) and late-stage apoptotic (LA) cells in the Leishmania under the effect of callus extract grown in-vitro at BA plus 2,4-D. For the determination of the potent natural products in the callus extracts responsible for the anti-leishmanial activity, extracts were subjected to Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the metabolite analysis. Nonetheless, higher levels of the metabolites, such as nerolidol (22%), pelletierine (18%), aspidin (15%) and ascaridole (11%) were detected in the callus grown in vitro at BA plus 2,4-D (1.5 mg/L, each). This protocol determines a novel method of production of anti-leishmanial natural products through callus cultures of A. scoparia, a medicinal plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2019.1593856DOI Listing
December 2019

RETRACTED: An epidemiological investigation of associated risk factors with equine influenza (H3N8) epidemic 2015-16 in Pakistan.

Acta Trop 2018 10 9;186:63-68. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

The University of Kentucky, United States of America.

This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief. The article duplicates significant parts of a paper that had already appeared in Preventative Veterinary Medicine, 149, 132-139; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.12.005. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that the paper has not been previously published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a misuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.07.006DOI Listing
October 2018

Investigating the epidemiology of EI epidemic spread in the Province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in 2015-16.

Prev Vet Med 2018 Jan 9;149:132-139. Epub 2017 Dec 9.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.

EI in non-vaccinated population causes disruption and economic losses. To identify the risk factors associated with the EI epidemics in equids in Pakistan, a 1:1 matched case control study was conducted during 2015-2016. Including a total of 197 laboratory confirmed cases and negative controls, matched on the basis of geography, time of sampling, specie and age. A piloted questionnaire was used to collect data regarding risk factors associated with the occurrence of EI in face to face interviews. Conditional logistic regression was performed to analyze the data. A total of 16 out of 23 variables were found associated as risk factors in Univariable conditional logistic regression analysis. Multivariable conditional logistic-regression analysis was also performed. Monthly removal of manure doubles the risk of EI (EI) compared to its daily removal. Due to lack of vaccination; the spread of disease was favored by high equine density. Investigating the index-case it was recorded that infected cases were imported from Afghanistan. Most of these risk factors related to biosecurity and management were due to low awareness level regarding EI amongst the respondents. These findings are in line with the results of many other studies identifying similar risk factors for EI infection in various countries. Adopting protective practices, vaccination and controlling the risk factors identified in the present study could reduce the spread and future outbreaks of EI in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.12.005DOI Listing
January 2018

Molecular Epidemiology of a novel re-assorted epidemic strain of equine influenza virus in Pakistan in 2015-16.

Virus Res 2017 08 27;240:56-63. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Arid Agricultural University, Rawalpindi, 44000, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Background: A widespread epidemic of equine influenza (EI) occurred in nonvaccinated equine population across multiple districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan during 2015-2016.

Objectives And Methods: An epidemiological surveillance study was conducted from Oct 2015 to April 2016 to investigate the outbreak. EI virus strains were isolated in embryonated eggs from suspected equines swab samples and were subjected to genome sequencing using M13 tagged segment specific primers. Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences were concluded using Geneious. Haemagglutinin (HA), Neuraminidase (NA), Matrix (M) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the isolated viruses were aligned with those of OIE recommended, FC-1, FC-2, and contemporary isolates of influenza A viruses from other species.

Results: HA and NA genes amino acid sequences were very similar to Tennessee/14 and Malaysia/15 of FC-1 and clustered with the contemporary isolates recently reported in the USA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were mostly identical (with 99.6% and 97.4% nucleotide homology) to, and were reassortants containing chicken/Pakistan/14 (H7N3) and Canine/Beijing/10 (H3N2) like M and NP genes. Genetic analysis indicated that A/equine/Pakistan/16 viruses were most probably the result of several re-assortments between the co-circulating avian and equine viruses, and were genetically unlike the other equine viruses due to the presence of H7N3 or H3N2 like M and NP genes.

Conclusion: Epidemiological data analysis indicated the potential chance of mixed, and management such as mixed farming system by keeping equine, canine and backyard poultry together in confined premises as the greater risk factors responsible for the re-assortments. Other factors might have contributed to the spread of the epidemic, including low awareness level, poor control of equine movements, and absence of border control disease strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2017.07.022DOI Listing
August 2017

Central odontogenic fibroma of the gingiva: a case report.

Open Dent J 2014 6;8:280-8. Epub 2015 Jan 6.

University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, MD, USA.

In this paper, we present a case of an uncommon and slow-growing tumor known as a central odontogenic fibroma (COF). The patient in question is a 53-year-old African-American man who was referred for periodontal evaluation of asymptomatic space formation between the mandibular central incisors. Clinical and radiological evaluations disclosed tumor-like tissue expanding the alveolar ridge in the buccolingual dimension, along with thinning of the cortical plates. Surgical excision was performed, and the specimen was sent for histopathology, which later confirmed that the lesion was a COF. Periodontal regenerative therapy was performed to rebuild the hard and soft tissue that had been compromised as a result of tumor expansion. The site was grafted, with excellent results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874210601408010280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4311396PMC
February 2015

Efficacy of Paraffin Wax Bath with and without Joint Mobilization Techniques in Rehabilitation of post-Traumatic stiff hand.

Pak J Med Sci 2013 Apr;29(2):647-50

Dr. Syed Shakil-ur-Rehman, Assistant Professor, Riphah College of Rehabilitation Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Objective: Post-traumatic stiff hand is common a condition which causes pain and disability, the paraffin wax bath and joint mobilizations have the key role in its rehabilitation. We conducted the present study to determine the efficacy of paraffin wax bath with mobilization techniques compared with joint mobilization alone.

Methodology: This single blind randomized control trial was conducted on 71 patients in department of physical therapy and rehabilitation, Riphah International University Islamabad, and patients with post-traumatic stiff hand after distal upper extremity fractures, were included. The patients were randomized into two groups: the joint mobilization techniques with paraffin wax bath were included in group A, and joint mobilization techniques without paraffin wax bath in group B. The study variables were pain score on visual analogue scale (VAS) 0/10, thumb function score (TFS) and passive range of motion (PROM) of wrist flexion, extension, radial and ulnar deviation, and were compared at baseline and at completion on plan-of-care after six weeks.

Results: Seventy one patients with post-traumatic stiff hand were enrolled and placed randomly into two groups. The baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Six week after intervention, patients in group A had more improvement in pain score (p=0.001), TFS (p=0.003), and PROM of wrist flexion (p=0.002), extension (p=0.003), radial deviation (p=0.013), and ulnar deviation (p=.004), as compared to group B. However, in group B the improvement was less in pain score (p=0.104), TFS (p=0.520), and PROM of wrist flexion (p=0.193), extension (p=0.1081), radial deviation (p=0.051), and ulnar deviation (p=.168), as compared to group A.

Conclusion: Paraffin wax bath with joint mobilization techniques are more effective than mobilization techniques without paraffin wax bath in the rehabilitation of post traumatic stiff hand.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3809244PMC
April 2013

Characterizations of ordered semigroups in terms of (∈, ∈ ∨q)-fuzzy interior ideals.

Neural Comput Appl 2012 Apr 4;21(3):433-440. Epub 2010 Dec 4.

In this paper, we give characterizations of ordered semigroups in terms of (∈, ∈ ∨q)-fuzzy interior ideals. We characterize different classes regular (resp. intra-regular, simple and semisimple) ordered semigroups in terms of (∈, ∈ ∨q)-fuzzy interior ideals (resp. (∈, ∈ ∨q)-fuzzy ideals). In this regard, we prove that in regular (resp. intra-regular and semisimple) ordered semigroups the concept of (∈, ∈ ∨q)-fuzzy ideals and (∈, ∈ ∨q)-fuzzy interior ideals coincide. We prove that an ordered semigroup S is simple if and only if it is (∈, ∈ ∨q)-fuzzy simple. We characterize intra-regular (resp. semisimple) ordered semigroups in terms of (∈, ∈ ∨q)-fuzzy ideals (resp. (∈, ∈ ∨q)-fuzzy interior ideals). Finally, we consider the concept of implication-based fuzzy interior ideals in an ordered semigroup, in particular, the implication operators in Lukasiewicz system of continuous-valued logic are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00521-010-0463-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3299970PMC
April 2012
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