Publications by authors named "Asger Reinstrup Bihlet"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Response letter to the Editor.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2021.05.001DOI Listing
May 2021

Long-term structural and symptomatic effects of intra-articular sprifermin in patients with knee osteoarthritis: 5-year results from the FORWARD study.

Ann Rheum Dis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Rheumatology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK.

Objective: The FORWARD (FGF-18 Osteoarthritis Randomized Trial with Administration of Repeated Doses) trial assessed efficacy and safety of the potential disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD) sprifermin in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Here, we report 5-year efficacy and safety results.

Methods: Patients were randomised to intra-articular sprifermin 100 µg or 30 µg every 6 months (q6mo) or 12 months, or placebo, for 18 months. The primary analysis was at year 2, with follow-up at years 3, 4 and 5. Additional post hoc exploratory analyses were conducted in patients with baseline minimum radiographic joint space width 1.5-3.5 mm and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain 40-90, a subgroup at risk (SAR) of progression.

Results: 378 (69%) patients completed the 5-year follow-up. A significant dose-response in total femorotibial joint cartilage thickness with sprifermin (trend test, p<0.001) and a 0.05 mm mean difference with sprifermin 100 µg q6mo versus placebo (95% CI 0.00 to 0.10; p=0.015) were sustained to year 5. WOMAC pain scores improved ~50% from baseline in all groups. No patient in the 100 µg q6mo group had replacement of the treated knee. 96%-98% of patients receiving sprifermin and 98% placebo reported adverse events, most were mild or moderate and deemed unrelated to treatment. Adverse event-related study withdrawals were <10%. Differentiation in WOMAC pain between sprifermin 100 µg q6mo and placebo in the SAR (n=161) at year 3 was maintained to year 5 (-10.08; 95% CI -25.68 to 5.53).

Conclusion: In the longest DMOAD trial reported to date, sprifermin maintained long-term structural modification of articular cartilage over 3.5 years post-treatment. Potential translation to clinical benefit was observed in the SAR.

Trial Registration Number: NCT01919164.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-219181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292562PMC
May 2021

The effects of sprifermin on symptoms and structure in a subgroup at risk of progression in the FORWARD knee osteoarthritis trial.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2021 04 11;51(2):450-456. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, and NIHR Leeds Biomedical Research Centre, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess pain outcomes and cartilage thickness change in a subgroup at risk (SAR) of further progression in the FORWARD trial of knee osteoarthritis patients treated with sprifermin.

Methods: Patients were randomised 1:1:1:1:1 to: sprifermin 100 µg every 6 months (q6mo), 100 µg q12mo, 30 µg q6mo, 30 µg q12mo, or placebo for 18 months. SAR was defined as baseline medial or lateral minimum joint-space width (mJSW) 1.5-3.5 mm and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score 40-90 units. Follow-up to 3 years was included in the analysis. Treatment benefit was explored by repeated measures, linear dose-effect trends by timepoint.

Results: The SAR comprised 161 (29%) of 549 patients. Mean difference (95% CI) in WOMAC pain at year 3 for sprifermin 100 µg q6mo vs placebo SAR was -8.75 (-22.42, 4.92) for SAR vs 0.97 (-6.22, 8.16) for the intent-to-treat population. SAR placebo patients lost more cartilage over 2 years than the modified ITT (mITT) placebo arm (mean change from baseline, mm [SD]: -0.05 [0.10] vs -0.02 [0.07]). Net total femorotibial joint thickness gain with sprifermin 100 µg q6mo (adjusted mean difference from placebo [95% CI] was similar in the SAR and in the mITT group: 0.06 [0.01, 0.11] vs 0.05 [0.03, 0.07]).

Conclusions: Selection for low mJSW and moderate-to-high pain at baseline resulted in more rapid disease progression and demonstrated translation of structure modification (with maintained net benefit on total cartilage thickness) into symptomatic benefit. This subgroup may represent a target population for future trials.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01919164.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2021.03.005DOI Listing
April 2021

A novel diclofenac gel (AMZ001) applied once or twice daily in subjects with painful knee osteoarthritis: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2020 12 24;50(6):1203-1213. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Amzell B.V., Hoofddorp, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) Expert Consensus Guidelines recommend topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as first-line medications for osteoarthritis (OA) knee pain, but several voluminous daily applications are required to achieve efficacy. There is a need to develop new and improved topical analgesics with a faster onset, longer duration of action, and the requirement to apply less gel. This trial investigated the safety and efficacy of a new 3.06% diclofenac gel (AMZ001) in subjects with knee OA.

Methods: In total, 444 subjects (AMZ001 twice daily (BID) [n = 121], AMZ001 once daily (QD) + placebo QD [n = 121], placebo BID [n = 121], or Voltaren 1% 4-times daily [n = 81]) were enrolled. All except Voltaren 1% (single-blinded) were applied topically in a double-blind manner for a total of 4-weeks. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to week 4 in the WOMAC pain sub-score in the target knee. Secondary and exploratory endpoints included additional efficacy measures (WOMAC total score, WOMAC function and stiffness sub-scores, WOMAC pain weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing sub-scores, ICOAP, chair-stand test, OMERACT-OARSI responder rate, PGA, WPAI, EQ-5D, rescue medication use, satisfaction questionnaire) and safety.

Results: Treatment with AMZ001 QD was effective at reducing WOMAC pain sub-scores vs placebo (estimated treatment difference [ETD]: -4.61 [95% confidence interval (CI): -9.09, -0.12]; p = 0.0440); however, BID application was not (ETD: -3.76 [95% CI: -8.21, 0.68]; p = 0.0969). For several secondary endpoints, changes from baseline to week 4 conferred nominally statistically significant improvements in favor of AMZ001 vs placebo, including PGA score (AMZ001 BID vs placebo, ETD: -0.61 [95% CI: -1.11, -0.11]; p = 0.0162; AMZ001 QD vs placebo, ETD: -0.63 [95% CI: -1.13, -0.13]; p = 0.0134), WPAI overall work impairment score (AMZ001 QD vs placebo, ETD: -10.44 [95% CI: -20.84, -0.04]; p = 0.0492), and EQ-5D VAS score (AMZ001 BID vs placebo, ETD: 4.70 [95% CI: 0.55, 8.85]; p = 0.0264). Post-hoc analysis excluding 11-14 subjects per group with pain scores that decreased between screening and baseline suggests a consistent effect of both AMZ001 QD (ETD: -5.84 [95% CI: -10.71, -0.97]; p = 0.0189) and BID (ETD: -5.35 [95% CI: -10.16, -0.54]; p = 0.0292) in reducing WOMAC pain sub-scores vs placebo. In general, treatment satisfaction was high, as measured by the satisfaction questionnaire. The frequency and incidence of adverse events (AEs) was greatest in the placebo group. Most AEs (>99%) were of mild or moderate severity. There were no serious AEs. There were no notable effects of any treatment on vital signs, ECGs, physical examination findings, or other laboratory assessments.

Conclusions: Treatment with AMZ001 BID for 4 weeks improved WOMAC pain sub-scores; however, only QD application conferred nominally statistically significant improvements vs placebo. AMZ001 was generally well tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.09.007DOI Listing
December 2020

Clinical and biochemical factors associated with risk of total joint replacement and radiographic progression in osteoarthritis: Data from two phase III clinical trials.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2020 12 15;50(6):1374-1381. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Nordic Bioscience A/S, Herlev, Denmark.

Objectives: Clinical trials of new disease-modifying treatments for osteoarthritis should demonstrate a positive effect on a functional outcome or reduction in joint failure in order to be considered successful. Total joint replacement (TJR) surgery may be considered as joint failure, but great variation in the incidence of TJR complicates its use as a study endpoint. Factors predicting elevated risk of TJR could potentially be used to enrich such outcome-trials.

Methods: Using cumulative data from two phase three clinical trials with urine samples from 1255 knee OA patients followed for two years, we assessed the value of a series of baseline clinical variables including the uCTX-II biomarker, as predictors of joint-space narrowing, Kellgren-Lawrence-grade progression, and total joint replacement.

Results: A prediction-model incorporating age, sex, BMI, CTX-II and KL-grade predicted TJR within the two-year period with an AUC of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.72-0.77). The participants with a cumulative KL-grade between knees of 5, 6, or 7 had a more than 3 times higher risk of TJR in the study period compared to lower (HR: 3.03, 95% CI: 1.54 to 5.96, p = 0.001). Age was associated with increased TJR risk (per 5 years of age: HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.03-3.79, p = 0.05). Baseline u-CTX-II was associated with elevated risk of radiographic progression in terms of both JSN and KL-grade.

Conclusions: A composite model combining baseline age, sex, BMI, u-CTX-II and KL-grade was able to acceptably predict TJR during a two-year period. In the absence of baseline radiographic OA severity, u-CTX-II independently contributed to prediction of TJR. Baseline urine CTX-II was associated with risk of radiographic progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.03.002DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of Intra-Articular Sprifermin vs Placebo on Femorotibial Joint Cartilage Thickness in Patients With Osteoarthritis: The FORWARD Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2019 10;322(14):1360-1370

Institute of Anatomy, Department of Imaging and Functional Musculoskeletal Research, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg and Nuremberg, Salzburg, Austria.

Importance: Sprifermin is under investigation as a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of sprifermin on changes in total femorotibial joint cartilage thickness in the more symptomatic knee of patients with osteoarthritis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: FORWARD (FGF-18 Osteoarthritis Randomized Trial with Administration of Repeated Doses) was a 5-year, dose-finding, multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted at 10 sites. Eligible participants were aged 40 to 85 years with symptomatic, radiographic knee osteoarthritis and Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or 3. Enrollment began in July 2013 and ended in May 2014; the last participant visit occurred on May 8, 2017. The primary outcome at 2 years and a follow-up analysis at 3 years are reported.

Interventions: Participants were randomized to 1 of 5 groups: intra-articular injections of 100 μg of sprifermin administered every 6 months (n = 110) or every 12 months (n = 110), 30 μg of sprifermin every 6 months (n = 111) or every 12 months (n = 110), or placebo every 6 months (n = 108). Each treatment consisted of weekly injections over 3 weeks.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was change in total femorotibial joint cartilage thickness measured by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging at 2 years. The secondary end points (of 15 total) included 2-year change from baseline in total Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is unknown for the primary outcome; for total WOMAC score in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis, the absolute MCID is 7 U (95% CI, 4 to 10 U) and the percentage MCID is 14% (95% CI, 9% to 18%).

Results: Among 549 participants (median age, 65.0 years; 379 female [69.0%]), 474 (86.3%) completed 2-year follow-up. Compared with placebo, the changes from baseline to 2 years in total femorotibial joint cartilage thickness were 0.05 mm (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.07 mm) for 100 μg of sprifermin administered every 6 months; 0.04 mm (95% CI, 0.02 to 0.06 mm) for 100 μg of sprifermin every 12 months; 0.02 mm (95% CI, -0.01 to 0.04 mm) for 30 μg of sprifermin every 6 months; and 0.01 mm (95% CI, -0.01 to 0.03 mm) for 30 μg of sprifermin every 12 months. Compared with placebo, there were no statistically significant differences in mean absolute change from baseline in total WOMAC scores for 100 μg of sprifermin administered every 6 months or every 12 months, or for 30 μg of sprifermin every 6 months or every 12 months. The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse event was arthralgia (placebo: n = 46 [43.0%]; 100 μg of sprifermin administered every 6 months: n = 45 [41.3%]; 100 μg of sprifermin every 12 months: n = 50 [45.0%]; 30 μg of sprifermin every 6 months: n = 40 [36.0%]; and 30 μg of sprifermin every 12 months: n = 48 [44.0%]).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among participants with symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis, the intra-articular administration of 100 μg of sprifermin every 6 or 12 months vs placebo resulted in an improvement in total femorotibial joint cartilage thickness after 2 years that was statistically significant, but of uncertain clinical importance; there was no significant difference for 30 μg of sprifermin every 6 or 12 months vs placebo. Durability of response also was uncertain.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01919164.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.14735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6784851PMC
October 2019

Associations between biomarkers of bone and cartilage turnover, gender, pain categories and radiographic severity in knee osteoarthritis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2019 09 3;21(1):203. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Nordic Bioscience Biomarkers and Research, Herlev Hovedgade 207, DK2730, Herlev, Denmark.

Background: Excessive cartilage degradation is a known characteristic of osteoarthritis (OA). Biochemical markers, such as uCTX-II, have been shown to be associated with disease severity, yet the tissue origin of CTX-II has been disputed. This analysis investigates the association between OA knee joints at different radiographic stages and pain categories with levels of uCTX-II and biomarkers of bone resorption and formation.

Methods: Baseline data of two randomised clinical trials (NCT00486434 and NCT00704847) in patients with radiographic OA and presence of pain were analysed post hoc. A subgroup with available urine samples and evaluable radiographs for both knees (N = 1241) was analysed. Urine CTX-I, urine CTX-II and serum osteocalcin were analysed for associations with combined Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scores, gender and pain for both knees to assess the contribution of joints at different stages.

Results: Pain, BMI, age, gender and KL grade were all significantly associated with uCTX-II. The association between pain and CTX-II appeared to be driven by weight-bearing pain. The level of uCTX-II incrementally increased with higher radiographic severity of each knee. Levels of bone markers CTX-I and osteocalcin were both significantly associated with BMI and gender, but neither were associated with radiographic severity. Biomarker levels between male or female groups of identical KL scores were found to be higher in females compared to males in some but not all KL score groups.

Conclusions: These results indicate that levels of uCTX-II are independently associated with radiographic severity of OA and pain intensity. CTX-II was associated with weight-bearing pain, but not non-weight-bearing pain, independent of co-variates. Bilateral OA knee joints appear to contribute to uCTX-II levels in an incremental manner according to radiographic severity of single joints. The data suggest that biomarker differences between genders should be taken into account when evaluating these markers in the context of structural features of OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-019-1987-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6724319PMC
September 2019

Protein biomarkers associated with pain mechanisms in osteoarthritis.

J Proteomics 2019 01 25;190:55-66. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Nordic Bioscience A/S, Herlev, Denmark.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common arthritic disease in the world, leading to debilitating pain and destruction of joint tissues. While pain is the hallmark symptom of osteoarthritis, clear associations between pain and disease processes involved in joint deterioration are lacking. OA pain is multifactorial and may arise from multiple distinct or concurrent mechanisms, and may thus present as different pain sub-types. Several biomarkers developed to reflect important pathological processes are available, and associations between such biomarkers and OA pain may give hints to important pathological features, which have not been possible to assess using clinical, radiographic or magnetic resonance imaging techniques. This review highlights a selection of important, protein-derived biomarkers measured in body fluids from OA patients, which have been associated with different types and aspects of OA pain, and discusses the potential mechanisms behind the associations. SIGNIFICANCE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a heterogenous disease affecting the entire joint, including cartilage, bone and synovium. While pain is the hallmark symptom of osteoarthritis, clear associations between pain and disease processes involved in joint deterioration are lacking. Thus, there is clear need for biomarkers that can accurately describe the underlying processes and distinguish between different disease and pain pathologies. In this review we discuss a selected number of biomarkers which have been directly or indirectly associated with pain mechanisms and development of pain in OA either via structural correlates or as molecular sensitizing agents. We further evaluate the challenges that the OA field faces in the development and application of biomarkers for OA pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2018.04.030DOI Listing
January 2019

Matrix Metalloproteinase Mediated Type I Collagen Degradation is an Independent Predictor of Increased Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Postmenopausal Women.

Sci Rep 2018 03 29;8(1):5371. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

ProScion, Herlev, Denmark.

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is often underdiagnosed in women. It is therefore of interest to identify biomarkers that indicate increased risk of AMI and thereby help clinicians to have additional focus on the difficult AMI diagnosis. Type I Collagen, a component of the cardiac extracellular matrix, is cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) generating the neo-epitope C1M. We investigated the association between serum-C1M and AMI and evaluated whether C1M is a prognostic marker for outcome following AMI. This study is based on The Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor (PERF) Study including postmenopausal women. 316 out of 5,450 women developed AMI within the follow-up period (14 years, median). A multivariate Cox analysis assessed association between serum-C1M and AMI, and re-infaction or death subsequent to AMI. The risk of AMI increased by 18% (p = 0.03) when serum-C1M was doubled and women in the highest quartile had a 33% increased risk compared to those in the low quartiles (p = 0.025). Serum-C1M was, however not related to reinfarction or death subsequent to AMI. In this study C1M was be an independent risk factor for AMI. Measuring MMP degraded type I collagen could be useful for prediction of increased risk of AMI if replicated in other cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23458-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5876321PMC
March 2018

Identification of pain categories associated with change in pain in patients receiving placebo: data from two phase 3 randomized clinical trials in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2018 01 17;19(1):17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.

Background: Pain is the principal clinical symptom of osteoarthritis (OA), and development of safe and effective analgesics for OA pain is needed. Drug development of new analgesics for OA pain is impaired by substantial change in pain in patients receiving placebo, and more data describing clinical characteristics and pain categories particularly associated with this phenomenon is needed. The purpose of this post-hoc analysis was to investigate clinical characteristics and pain categories and their association with radiographic progression and placebo pain reduction (PPR) in OA patients as measured the Western Ontario and McMasters Arthritis (WOMAC).

Methods: Pooled data from the placebo groups of two phase III randomized clinical trials in patients with knee OA followed for 2 years were analyzed. Differences between individual sub-scores and pain categories of weight-bearing and non-weight bearing pain over time were assessed. Selected patient baseline characteristics were assessed for association with PPR. Association between pain categories and radiographic progression was analyzed.

Results: The reduction of pain in placebo-treated patients was significantly higher in the composite of questions related to weight-bearing pain compared to non-weight-bearing pain of the target knee. Baseline BMI, age and JSW were not associated with pain change. Pain reduction was higher in the Target knee, compared to the Non-Target knee at all corresponding time-points. A very weak correlation was found between weight-bearing pain and progression in the non-target knee.

Conclusions: These results indicate that the reduction in pain in patients treated with placebo is significantly different between pain categories, as weight-bearing pain was significantly more reduced compared to non-weight-bearing pain. Further research in pain categories in OA is warranted.

Trial Registration: NCT00486434 (trial 1) and NCT00704847 (trial 2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-018-1938-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5773024PMC
January 2018

Biomarkers of extracellular matrix turnover are associated with emphysema and eosinophilic-bronchitis in COPD.

Respir Res 2017 01 19;18(1):22. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado, 1400 Jackson Street, Room K715a, Denver, CO, 80206, USA.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow obstruction and loss of lung tissue mainly consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM). Three of the main ECM components are type I collagen, the main constituent in the interstitial matrix, type VI collagen, and elastin, the signature protein of the lungs. During pathological remodeling driven by inflammatory cells and proteases, fragments of these proteins are released into the bloodstream, where they may serve as biomarkers for disease phenotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the lung ECM remodeling in healthy controls and COPD patients in the COPDGene study.

Methods: The COPDGene study recruited 10,300 COPD patients in 21 centers. A subset of 89 patients from one site (National Jewish Health), including 52 COPD patients, 12 never-smoker controls and 25 smokers without COPD controls, were studied for serum ECM biomarkers reflecting inflammation-driven type I and VI collagen breakdown (C1M and C6M, respectively), type VI collagen formation (Pro-C6), as well as elastin breakdown mediated by neutrophil elastase (EL-NE). Correlation of biomarkers with lung function, the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire, and other clinical characteristics was also performed.

Results: The circulating concentrations of biomarkers C6M, Pro-C6, and EL-NE were significantly elevated in COPD patients compared to never-smoking control patients (all p < 0.05). EL-NE was significantly elevated in emphysema patients compared to smoking controls (p < 0.05) and never-smoking controls (p < 0.005), by more than 250%. C1M was inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) (r = -0.344, p = 0.001), as was EL-NE (r = -0.302, p = 0.004) and Pro-C6 (r = -0.259, p = 0.015). In the patients with COPD, Pro-C6 was correlated with percent predicted Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) (r = 0.281, p = 0.046) and quality of life using SF-36. C6M and Pro-C6, were positively correlated with blood eosinophil numbers in COPD patients (r = 0.382, p = 0.006 and r = 0.351, p = 0.012, respectively).

Conclusions: These data suggest that type VI collagen turnover and elastin degradation by neutrophil elastase are associated with COPD-induced inflammation (eosinophil-bronchitis) and emphysema. Serological assessment of type VI collagen and elastin turnover may assist in identification of phenotypes likely to be associated with progression and amenable to precision medicine for clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-017-0509-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5248528PMC
January 2017

The impact of clinical trial monitoring approaches on data integrity and cost--a review of current literature.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2016 Apr 4;72(4):399-412. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Nordic Bioscience Clinical Development A/S, Herlev Hovedgade 205-207, 2730, Herlev, Denmark.

Purpose: Monitoring is a costly requirement when conducting clinical trials. New regulatory guidance encourages the industry to consider alternative monitoring methods to the traditional 100 % source data verification (SDV) approach. The purpose of this literature review is to provide an overview of publications on different monitoring methods and their impact on subject safety data, data integrity, and monitoring cost.

Methods: The literature search was performed by keyword searches in MEDLINE and hand search of key journals. All publications were reviewed for details on how a monitoring approach impacted subject safety data, data integrity, or monitoring costs.

Results: Twenty-two publications were identified. Three publications showed that SDV has some value for detection of not initially reported adverse events and centralized statistical monitoring (CSM) captures atypical trends. Fourteen publications showed little objective evidence of improved data integrity with traditional monitoring such as 100 % SDV and sponsor queries as compared to reduced SDV, CSM, and remote monitoring. Eight publications proposed a potential for significant cost reductions of monitoring by reducing SDV without compromising the validity of the trial results.

Conclusions: One hundred percent SDV is not a rational method of ensuring data integrity and subject safety based on the high cost, and this literature review indicates that reduced SDV is a viable monitoring method. Alternative methods of monitoring such as centralized monitoring utilizing statistical tests are promising alternatives but have limitations as stand-alone tools. Reduced SDV combined with a centralized, risk-based approach may be the ideal solution to reduce monitoring costs while improving essential data quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-015-2004-yDOI Listing
April 2016
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