Publications by authors named "Asela Gamage"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Influenza Virus Infection Induces Platelet-Endothelial Adhesion Which Contributes to Lung Injury.

J Virol 2016 02 4;90(4):1812-23. Epub 2015 Dec 4.

Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada Division of Respirology and Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Lung injury after influenza infection is characterized by increased permeability of the lung microvasculature, culminating in acute respiratory failure. Platelets interact with activated endothelial cells and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of some forms of acute lung injury. Autopsy studies have revealed pulmonary microthrombi after influenza infection, and epidemiological studies suggest that influenza vaccination is protective against pulmonary thromboembolism; however, the effect of influenza infection on platelet-endothelial interactions is unclear. We demonstrate that endothelial infection with both laboratory and clinical strains of influenza virus increased the adhesion of human platelets to primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells. Platelets adhered to infected cells as well as to neighboring cells, suggesting a paracrine effect. Influenza infection caused the upregulation of von Willebrand factor and ICAM-1, but blocking these receptors did not prevent platelet-endothelial adhesion. Instead, platelet adhesion was inhibited by both RGDS peptide and a blocking antibody to platelet integrin α5β1, implicating endothelial fibronectin. Concordantly, lung histology from infected mice revealed viral dose-dependent colocalization of viral nucleoprotein and the endothelial marker PECAM-1, while platelet adhesion and fibronectin deposition also were observed in the lungs of influenza-infected mice. Inhibition of platelets using acetylsalicylic acid significantly improved survival, a finding confirmed using a second antiplatelet agent. Thus, influenza infection induces platelet-lung endothelial adhesion via fibronectin, contributing to mortality from acute lung injury. The inhibition of platelets may constitute a practical adjunctive strategy to the treatment of severe infections with influenza.IMPORTANCE There is growing appreciation of the involvement of the lung endothelium in the pathogenesis of severe infections with influenza virus. We have recently shown that the virus can infect human lung endothelial cells, but the functional consequences of this infection are unknown (S. M. Armstrong, C. Wang, J. Tigdi, X. Si, C. Dumpit, S. Charles, A. Gamage, T. J. Moraes, and W. L. Lee, PLoS One 7:e47323, 2012, Here, we show that this infection causes platelets to adhere to the lung endothelium. Importantly, blocking platelets using two distinct antiplatelet drugs improved survival in a mouse model of severe influenza infection. Thus, platelet inhibition may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy to improve the host response to severe infections with influenza.
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February 2016

Influenza infects lung microvascular endothelium leading to microvascular leak: role of apoptosis and claudin-5.

PLoS One 2012 24;7(10):e47323. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Severe influenza infections are complicated by acute lung injury, a syndrome of pulmonary microvascular leak. The pathogenesis of this complication is unclear. We hypothesized that human influenza could directly infect the lung microvascular endothelium, leading to loss of endothelial barrier function. We infected human lung microvascular endothelium with both clinical and laboratory strains of human influenza. Permeability of endothelial monolayers was assessed by spectrofluorimetry and by measurement of the transendothelial electrical resistance. We determined the molecular mechanisms of flu-induced endothelial permeability and developed a mouse model of severe influenza. We found that both clinical and laboratory strains of human influenza can infect and replicate in human pulmonary microvascular endothelium, leading to a marked increase in permeability. This was caused by apoptosis of the lung endothelium, since inhibition of caspases greatly attenuated influenza-induced endothelial leak. Remarkably, replication-deficient virus also caused a significant degree of endothelial permeability, despite displaying no cytotoxic effects to the endothelium. Instead, replication-deficient virus induced degradation of the tight junction protein claudin-5; the adherens junction protein VE-cadherin and the actin cytoskeleton were unaffected. Over-expression of claudin-5 was sufficient to prevent replication-deficient virus-induced permeability. The barrier-protective agent formoterol was able to markedly attenuate flu-induced leak in association with dose-dependent induction of claudin-5. Finally, mice infected with human influenza developed pulmonary edema that was abrogated by parenteral treatment with formoterol. Thus, we describe two distinct mechanisms by which human influenza can induce pulmonary microvascular leak. Our findings have implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of acute lung injury from severe influenza.
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April 2013