Dental College, Baqai Medical University
Professor, Director Post Graduate Dental Studies
Karachi, Sindh | Pakistan
Main Specialties: Dentistry
Additional Specialties: Operative Dentistry
I graduated as Dentist in 1978 from Liaqaut Medical College Hyderabad, Pakistan and practiced as General Dental Practitioner for 15 years. I Joined teaching as lecturer in 1992 and having passed membership examination (MCPS) in Operative Dentistry from College of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan in 1995, I was promoted to the post of Assistant Professor. In 2005 after completing MDS degree got promoted to position of a Professor in the Dept of Operative Dentistry and worked at Qassim University and Majmmah University, Saudi Arabia in the same capacity. I worked as Principal of Baqai Dental College and Vice Dean of College of Dentistry at Ha’il University, Saudi Arabia. I have 52 research publications in national and international journals. I was awarded Fellowship (FICD) from International College of Dentists USA, keeping in view my services for the profession.
My research interest is dental education, technique and biomaterials utilized in operative dentistry and endodontics.
At present, I work as Director Post Graduate Dental Studies at Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.
Primary Affiliation: Dental College, Baqai Medical University - Karachi, Sindh , Pakistan
CPQ Dentistry. 2019;1(2):1-9
Caries is a multifactorial disease which has been conventionally treated in the past by surgical intervention as a primary measure to treat it. In-depth knowledge about cariology, biomaterial sciences and innovative technology, makes it possible to manage caries without drilling. The currently recommended philosophy of caries management is termed as CAMBRA. In USA, UK and many European countries, it is being practiced by dental clinicians but evidence reveals that it has not gained acceptance from dentists in the subcontinent, especially Pakistan. This study was planned to assess whether dental fraternity in Pakistan follows the new philosophy or treats caries in a traditional drill - fill manner.
A meticulously prepared pretested questionnaire was used as a study tool. It was distributed among 750 practicing dentists in three cities of Pakistan. The Sample size of the study was determined by Material using non-probability convenient sampling. Responded questionnaire received during 1st April - 31st August 2017 were included in the study.
The results show that the total CAMBRA protocols are not followed by any responding dentist and insignificant number of dental practitioner follows few of them.
Most of the dentists who participated in the study have not implemented CAMBRA philosophy in their clinical practices
Scientific Archives Of Dental Sciences 1.1 (2018): 01
Scientific Archives of Dental Sciences
Dentistry is a profession established on a strong scientific foundation. To progress and stay viable, creation of new knowledge is mandatory which must be made essential constituent of dental practice and education. The fundamental contrivance used to create new knowledge is research. Research is a creative work undertaken on a methodical basis in order to augment the existing knowledge and the use of this fresh knowledge to invent new applications. Research prevents the professionals from sleeping on their past achievements and glories and protects them from syncing into the depth of mediocrity. It would be impossible to specify the many advances made by dental profession during the past few decades. Unlike past, with new discoveries, new medical disciplines and new methods, the entire program of dental education has been changed and now dentistry is poised to stand shoulder to shoulder with medical profession. During the last sixty years, the current research and technological discoveries within the profession of dentistry have led to dramatic changes and paradigm shifts in terms of clinical practice. Role of saliva as diagnostic tool for oral and systemic diseases has been lime lighted by the researchers and mankind is being benefitted. Implantology is continuously growing dental discipline saving the patients from the agony of using removable prostheses where previously it was inevitable to use. Root canal therapy was time consuming and painful procedure for the patients to undergo. But hard work of researchers has made it simple onevisit painless clinical procedure. Buonocore and Bowen’s research work made it possible for dentists to use adhesive biomaterials which subsequently revolutionized the profession. Today, the patients having dental cavities don’t have to bear unnecessary tooth cutting by the dentists’ drill as current restoratives have adequate adhesive property. Discoveries in genetics, immunology, molecular biology, cell biology, material sciences and computersciences will redesign the character and focus of dental practice and dental education. Vaccines against caries and periodontal disease, new anti-infectious agents, sophisticated simulation models, even genetic therapies are all likely to become visible in the near future.
“Publish or perish” is a common saying. The research of today may perish if there is no means for its dissemination. Seminars, symposia and conferences provide good forum for spread of fresh knowledge but scientific research requires a sound understanding of the literature review process. Literature review is the critical evaluation and synthesis of peer-reviewed published articles which only a scientific Journal can provide. Moreover, journals give immortality and international visibility to a research. For publication of current research work, there is increasing demand from dental researchers and professional to introducenew and quality dental Journal. Keeping the requirement in mind, Scientific Archives of Dental Sciences (SAODS) is being introduced with the goal to facilitate the researchers by quick publications. The SAODS is a peer reviewed journal that provides rapid publication of research articles and case reports relevant to all disciplines of basic and clinical dentistry. It will publish original research articles from all basic and clinical disciplines of dentistry.SAODS has firm intention to work for the amelioration of the global dental fraternity. The policy is to publish Original Articles, Case Reports, Review articles, Letters to the Editor, Special communication, Short Reports, Student's research.
EC Dental Science 17.11 (2018)
This clinical case report presents the management of furcation-bone defect that is considered as one of the most significant prognostic factors for the loss of molars. Treatment of furcation-bone loss is a challenge to dentists due to the misdiagnosis. Early and appropriate diagnosis is therefore, essential for the successful outcome of treatment provided. A young female patient with history of repeated facial swelling and failure of treatment at two dental clinics attended our clinic. Radiographic examination revealed that she had undiagnosed radix entomolaris and was suffering from large furcation- bone loss. Non-surgical Root canal treatment was performed with multiple intracanal Ca(OH)2 dressings in offending tooth # 36 which had a big composite restoration. Regular clinical and radiographic follow up showed gradual elimination of swelling and radicular radiolucency on the intraoral radiographs. The tooth was reinforced with porcelain fused to metal crown in the month of July last year and since then without any clinical or radiographic complaint.
International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research 2017;4(9):1829-1832.
International J Contemporary Medical Research
Introduction: Dental panoramic radiography, also known as orthopantomography (OPG) is a commonly performed investigation for assessment of dental pathologies, including dental impactions. OPG in case of dental impactions can assist in determination of the location and angulation of the 3rd molars and their relation to the adjacent teeth and structures. The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of impacted third (3rd) molars in dental students of the Hai’l Region of Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: The study population of this observational study comprised 170 male and female dental students of the College of Dentistry (CoD), University of Hai’l (UoH). On induction, the study participants underwent clinical examination and OPG. The clinical and OPG assessments assisted in determining the presence of impaction and patterns of angulation of the 3rd molars in maxilla and mandible. Results: From the 170 OPGs, 95 (55.8%) showed at least one impacted 3rd molar with significant differences between males (30; 31.5%) and females (65; 68.4%). The proportion of impacted mandibular 3rd molars was 2.3 times higher in comparison to the impaction of maxillary 3rd molars. Both in mandible and maxilla, the most common patterns of 3rd molar angulation were vertical. Among females, vertical angulation remained the most common pattern of impaction followed by mesio-angular angulation. Among males, horizontal impaction remained the most common pattern of impaction followed by same numbers for vertical and disto-angular angulation. Conclusion: The results show a high frequency of 3rd molar impactions among dental students of the Hai’l Region of Saudi Arabia. The proportion of 3rd molar impactions were higher in female students and mandible. Surgical removal of 3rd molars should only be reserved for impactions associated with clinical complexities.
Asaad Javaid Mirza, Maaz Asad Javaid, Mohsin Nazi, Shaheen AbuBaker, and Mohammad Khalid Shafiq, “Efficacy of Root Canal Irrigants against Self-inducted Streptococci – An Exvivo Study.” International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research, vol. 6, no. 5 (2018): 134-137
International J Dental Sciences and Research
Objective: To compare antibacterial efficacy of various root canal irrigants against self-inducted streptococci in purposely sterilized root canals. Material and Method: Sixty (60) extracted mandibular & maxillary molars were collected and stored in saline at ambient temperature. The teeth were deroofed & their wider canals (distal canal in mandibular & palatal canal in maxillary molars) were selected for preparation. Working lengths of specimens was recorded by inserting K file# 20into the canals. All teeth were washed thoroughly with normal saline& autoclaved. Apical widening of canals was done using K-file # 30 with a step back technique. Streptococci were inducted in the sterile canals and their colonies were counted. Result: There was apparent difference in the antibacterial efficiency between 1% NaOCl, 0.12% chlorhexidine, 1% Povidone Iodine, NaCl, NaOCl with NaCl as final rinse NaOCl with 0.12% chlorhexidine as final rinse. The best results were achieved with 1 % NaOCl with Chlorhexidine as final irrigant. Conclusion: 1% NaOCl can be safely used by undergraduate dental students as main root canal irrigant with 0.12 % chlorhexidine as a final rinse.
Dentistry - open Journal
Introduction Controversy among dentists exists to use conventional hand files or contemporary rotary protapers for intracanal instrumentation. The controversy arose because of variable findings on post-instrumentation pain felt by the under treatment patient that acts as a deterrent to receive further endodontic treatment. This study has been planned to assess post-instrumentation pain, swelling, tenderness or redness using the hand files and rotary protapers in confined environment where rubber dam is not used for operative field isolation from oral fluids. Material and Methods One hundred and sixty vital and non-vital teeth were root treated. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. “Group A” was treated using hand files with step-back technique and “Group B” with rotary protapers. All the root therapies were accomplished in two or multiple visits depending on the satisfactory disinfection of the canal. Access to pulp chambers was obtained using sterile bur without rubber dam isolation and the preparation in either group was performed under normal saline irrigation. Drying of canal was obtained using paper points followed by cotton and temporary packing to ensure tight leak proof coronal seal and the subjects were recalled on subsequent day. Results Results revealed that the highest symptomatic adversity was faced by n=40 subjects with non-vital pulps after hand filing. Least frequent symptomatic complaints were made by the group with vital pulps and were treated by rotary protapers. In vital teeth, pain was reported more in hand filed teeth than in teeth that were treated with protapers. Non-vital teeth showed a similar pattern with greater number of complaints about pain in both hand filed and protaper subjects. Conclusion Rotary protapers induced less post-instrumentation symptoms than hand files in vital as well as non-vital teeth.
Int J Dental Sciences and Research
Radiographs facilitate dentists to envision diseases of the teeth and neighboring tissues that cannot be visualize through a clinical oral examination. A competent authority, in Pakistan for approving and monitoring dental curricula – Pakistan Medical and Dental Council has set 5 hours for didactic and clinical teaching of oral radiology to undergraduate dental students. This study has been planned to confirm whether the undergraduate students acquire the obligatory knowledge and interpretation competency or not within the stipulated time for oral radiology teaching. Material and Methods: A pretested power point presentation was shown to the clinical undergraduates present on the day of the evaluation. Among the twelve slides presented, seven slides contained radiographs showing basic pathological lesions like caries, bone loss, periodontal pocket, apical radiolucency and amalgam restoration opacity & five slides showed radiographs with anatomical structures; enamel, lamina dura, PDL, mental foramen and inferior alveolar nerve. The responders were asked to answer with anonymity on provided response sheets. Results: A total of N=97 students took part in the study; n=43 were from third year of Bachelors of Dentistry tenure and n=54 were from the final year. Apical radiolucencies, PDL spaces, and mental foramina were the toughest to identify for most of the participants involved whereas it was considerably too easy for both groups to radiographically report caries, missing teeth, and amalgam restorations. Conclusion: Despite very easy interpretation skill assessment, none of the student could score 100% marks revealing some weakness in radiology teaching which could be attributed to lesser number of teaching hours allocated for oral radiology.
Saudi J Oral and Dental Research
GV Black proposed a classification for recording caries which served the purpose efficiently for almost 100 years. Owing to its inbuilt shortcomings and current knowledge on cariology and induction of modern technology and restorative materials, Black‘s philosophy has been rendered despondently ineffective. Though various more comprehensive classifications and caries management systems have been evolved but Black‘s classification remains popular tool for recording of caries worldwide. The similar situation is found among dental professionals in Pakistan. This study was planned with the objective to know the reason for not using other classification systems and awareness about the existence of newer systems among Operative Dentistry / cariology specialists or teachers. A content validated close-ended questionnaire was used as a tool for this survey based study. The questionnaire based on two-point Likert scale with options of ―Yes ―and ‗No‖ comprising of ten simple queries regarding Black‘s caries classification was sent personally to all those who showed willingness to participate in the study and was recollected within 15 days. 85% of the participant agreed that Black‘s classification focuses on treating dental cavities and not the carious process itself and 95% were aware of existence of more conservative modes of caries classification. Majority confirmed that Black‘s classification isn‘t compatible with minimal interventional approach to dental treatment. Even then, this is the chief classification that is followed in dental schools in Pakistan. Black‘s classification isn‘t well-suited for existing philosophy for caries management and dental profession should switch over to already existing more compatible classification.
International Medical Journal Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 36 - 38 , February 2018
Int Medical Journal
Background: Dental amalgam is extensively used as a material of choice for posterior restorations and Mercury (Hg) is its essential component. Mercury is a toxic substance which can be harmful for a Dentists and clinic staff due to long term exposure to Hg vapors in the clinic atmosphere. To avoid adverse effects of Hg on health of clinic personnel, American Dental Association (ADA) has laid down recommendations to follow while handling Hg or amalgam. Majority of general dentists practicing in Karachi - a metropolitan city of Pakistan place amalgam restorations more than the restorations of any other material. Despite frequent use of amalgam and Hg, no much data is available to show level of safety precautions taken by these dentists. This study was planned to assess the Hg hygiene practices of general dentists who run their private dental clinics in Karachi. Methods: A questionnaire based study conducted among general dentists practicing in Karachi. Results: Except use of personnel protective equipment, prevalence of following other precautions recommended by ADA for Hg hygiene is not encouraging. Conclusion: Practicing general dentists work in Hg - rich environment and are at risk of jeopardizing their health. Moreover, they are persistent source of atmospheric pollution with Hg which requires strict monitoring.
Int Medical Journal
Objective: This is a baseline study that will facilitate diagnosis and planning of oral health care services and further serve as a guide for future referrals and related studies in the local population. Methodology: This is an observational descriptive study with cross sectional design that involves analysis of 100 cases of oro-facial lesions diagnosed at the Department of Oral Maxillofacial and Dental Surgery at the Jinnah postgraduate medical training center Karachi (JPMC) from January 2014-October 2015. Results: Out of a total of 100 orofacial lesions, 56 were benign and 46 malignant with posterior mandible as the most affected site. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most prevalent pathology amongst them. The soft tissue lesion were prevalent in 40% males and 36% females of 4th 5th 6th decades of life. These included pyogenic granuloma 15.0%, fibrous epulis 10.0%, squamous cell carcinoma (well differentiated) 31.0%, Conclusion: Oral squamous cell carcinoma presented the highest occurrence reported affecting the adolescence and elderly with posterior mandibular region being the most common site.
International Medical Journal Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 39 - 41 , February 2018
Int Medical Journal
Objective: One of the major reasons for root canal failure is microleakage through the apex. There are various types of root apex sealers being used in endodontic practices with varying rate of clinical success. This study was planned to evaluate the sealing ability of Zinc oxide eugenol based, Calcium hydroxide based, resin based and tricalcium based root canal sealers using dye penetration method. Material and Methods: It was an experimental study with randomized control trial. Fifty (50) extracted incisors were prepared for root canal obturation. The apical enlargement up to K file 25 was done using stepback technique and resto of the canal was flared up to K file 60.Sodium Hypochlorite was used as irrigant. After instrumentation, the 40 teeth were obturated using various sealers and 10 were obturated without any sealer followed by lateral condensation technique. Prepared samples were divided into four groups (10 teeth each with one of the sealers) of experimental study and two groups (5 teeth each without sealer) for control. 45 samples were coronally sealed with sticky wax and surface coated with nail polish leaving apical 2 mm. Among samples obturated without a sealer, 5 were coronally sealed with sticky wax but surface treated to the full length of the root. All the samples were then assessed for 2% methylene blue dye penetration test. Results: Inter group comparison showed that samples apically obturated with tricalcium phosphate sealer performed the best sealing ability as compared to other ones used in the study. Conclusion: No sealer used in this study perfectly seals apex.
J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19(1):1-4.
J Contemporary Dental Practice
Aim: Teeth maintain the functionality and esthetic of oral cavity, they are also important for psychological and social well-being. This study aims to assess awareness of patients toward replacement of missing teeth. People with unrestored or missing teeth tend to have poor self-esteem and oral health-related quality of life; hence, their knowledge toward restoring and replacing teeth is an important aspect to be measured. Materials and methods: It was an observational study having a cross-sectional design. Face- and content-validated questionnaire was used as study tool. Nonprobability, convenient sampling technique was employed that yielded information from 183 respondents residing in various areas of Hail city. Data were collected after written informed consent. The study was approved by the University of Hail ethical committee. Results: Two hundred questionnaires were distributed, out of which 183 were returned. Regarding knowledge of restoring missing teeth, 145 (79.2%) respondents know that function and esthetic can be maintained by replacing missing teeth. Information about the availability of various types of prosthesis was mostly obtained by them through their dentist (70; 48.3%), while books/magazines/Internet was the second source (38; 26.2%) and 37 (25.5%) heard it from someone who has already undergone the replacement of teeth. Conclusion: The present study indicated that a good number of respondents have the knowledge of teeth replacement, and dentists were the most common source of information to the patients in terms of education about different treatment options. Clinical significance: Evaluate and plan treatment options based on patients’ expectations and perceptions
International Journal of Current Advanced Research Vol 6, Issue 11, pp 7374-7377, November 2017
International Journal of Current Advanced Research
Background: Providing an adequate care based on patient’s perceptions and expectations is an absolute must to accomplish comprehensive dental treatment because patients are considered to be the core of health care facilities. Material & Method: It wasan observational study having a cross conducted in Hail, Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from eight different private dental clinics in Hail city using non probability, convenientsampling Study tool was a self-administered face and content validated questionnaire. Data was displayed as number and percentage. Results: It was observed thatpatient’sexpectations were belowtheir satisfaction level in most of the parameters measured.Compared to 126 (82.4%) listen to their problems, 143 (93.5%) dentist did so. Additionally, dentist to discuss the treatment options while 131 (85.6%) expected dentist explanation of the chosen treatment procedure, Conclusion: The present study resulted in an overall satisfaction level of 88.9% recommend further researches regarding this issue and expanding the study to reach governmental dental clinics and also emphasizing on the importan community health programs.
Int med j 2017 Dec; 24(6): 492
International Medical J
Methods: The present study consists of a retrospective design. Fifty patients' notes written by dentists were selected at our convenience. The evaluation of notes was performed by comparing the findings with General Dental Council (GDC), Royal College of Anaesthetists (RCOA) and Royal College of Surgeons (RCOS), UK guidelines and recommendations. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Results: Merely 50% of the notes documented valid consent and 58% updated their patients' medical history. In 80% of notes administration of local anaesthesia, further 68% also recorded the dose of LA and 60% had mentioned the type and concentration of vasoconstrictor present. Fifty eight (58%) documented the site of LA administration and use needle type was recorded in only 8% of patients notes. Conclusion: The study has found that the current standards of clinical record keeping of consent, medical history update and documentation of local anaesthesia details in the patients' records is inadequate. Reiteration to clinicians of the guidelines is required so as to improve the situation. KEY WORDS GDC guidelines for record keeping, documentation in dental practice, record of anaesthesia
Int med j 2017 Dec; 24(6): 484
International Medical J
Introduction: It was a questionnaire based study conducted among senior most clinical students studying in dental school at Sofia University Bulgaria. Objective: The purpose of the present study is to assess knowledge of clinical students about current caries management protocols versus their practices, and to determine barrier for not following Caries Management by Risk Assessment CAMBRA protocol for adult patients at Sofia University. (CAMBRA) is an evidence-based methodology to prevent arrest and reverse clinically evident caries. Though CAMBRA is more preventive and less restorative and has shown promising results in caries reduction, it has not been accepted and practiced by dentists worldwide. The reason might be the lack of emphasis given to CAMBRA protocols and hands-on training dental students receive during clinical sessions in their dental schools. Results: In the present study almost 100 % of the students had didactic knowledge about CAMBRA but its clinical implementation was significantly low employing McNemar test using SPSS - 20. Conclusion: There is a necessity to integrate a more comprehensive caries prevention program for adults into the dental curriculum of the dental school at Sofia University, Bulgaria. KEY WORDS CAMBRA, current caries management strategies, caries prevention
Ann ASH&KMDC 2017 22(3):159-164
Objective: To find out the frequency of rubber dam usage among clinical students, interns and dental practitioners and the barriers they come across to place it routinely in their practices. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was performed from October 2016 to January 2017 using non-probability convenience sampling. A questionnaire was meticulously designed based on questionnaires used in similar studies in the past. The target population in this study was clinical dental students, interns and the faculty members working in various teaching institutions in Karachi and involved in general dental practice. Data from completed questionnaire was analysed using SPSS version 20. Results: With the healthy response rate of 81%, this study shows that the majority (76%) of clinical students, interns and practicing dentists in Karachi, Pakistan continue to ignore the rubber dam placement in their routine practices. Total 89% of non-users did not use it as they find it time consuming and 66% of them mentioned that it is difficult to place. Couple of other reasons for which more than 50% of respondents avoid using rubber dam are frequent tearing of the sheet and patient's fear or abhorring attitude towards placement of rubber dam. Conclusion: This study suggests that use of rubber dam is an unpopular method for isolation of operative site among clinical students, interns and clinicians working in Karachi. Keywords: Rubber dam, dentists, foreign bodies.
Baqai J Health Sciences
Isolation of operating site from saliva and other oral fluids prior to commencing a restorative or endodontic procedure via rubber dam is considered as standard health care protocol. Numerous studies have been globally done including Saudi Arabia to assess use or non-use of this magnificent method of isolation by dental clinicians. To the best of our knowledge, no such study is available about attitude of dentists working in Northern region of Saudi Arabia – Ha’il. This study has been planned to fill the gap by assessing the dentists’ attitude towards use of this imperial isolation technique. Material & Methods: A meticulously prepared and prepiloted questionnaire was used as survey tool. It was distributed among licensed public sector dentists participating in various continuing dental education programs. Results: The young dentists between 24 – 35 years of age were found using rubber dam in majority ( 74 %) whereas the 75 % senior dentists (above 35 years) responded as not using rubber dam isolation. The most responded reasons for non- use of rubber dam were difficulty in placement and time consumption. Conclusion: Despite that the most of responding senior dentists feel that there is no lack of training in rubber dam placement, majority of them doesn’t utilize this splendid way of field isolation. Keywords: Dental operating field isolation, Oral Operation site isolation, Rubber Dam Placement, Rubber Dam isolation
Annals of Int Medical Dental Research
Background: Unlike in the past, caries nowadays, is stressed to be treated by employing preventive strategies. Though in many countries, treating caries by surgical intervention is reducing but surprisingly most dentists in Karachi, Pakistan continue to treat it by drilling and placing a restoration as primary measure. A question comes to one’s mind is whether the graduating dentist from dental colleges in Karachi receive information and training to management caries using preventive strategies or not? This study therefore, was planned to assess the status of teaching about these preventive protocols. Clinical students of dental colleges were chosen as study subjects as they in few months’ time become clinicians and practice what they have learnt in their colleges. Aims and Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practices of dental students regarding caries management and practices. Methods: A face and content validated and pretested questionnaire with close-ended questions was used as a study tool. 250 Clinical dental students studying in five dental colleges in Karachi were the study subjects. Results: 215 responses were received at a healthy response rate of 86 %. The most responding students have the knowledge about currently recommended caries preventive strategies but its clinical implementation is very low. Fissure sealing and fluoride applications are the only preventive measures followed by sizeable amount of the responders. Conclusion: Participants of this study despite having knowledge about preventive caries management don’t practice it in their clinics. For its implementation, CRA based curricula should be introduced.
Annals of INt Medical Dental Research
Dental fluorosis is a dental public health concern in many regions of Saudi Arabia. The aim of this review is to report all studies undertaken till now on concerned issue. Google scholar was searched for last 25 years based on key words provided below. Out of 15 articles, 8 were selected based on inclusive criteria. The only inclusive criteria was studies that reported either prevalence or severity of dental fluorosis, studies that only reported well water concentration of fluoride were excluded. This review concludes that dental fluorosis varies greatly region wise, whilst Hail region had more fluorosis in Saudi Arabia. Regarding severity of dental fluorosis mild to very mild fluorosis was widely reported. It is therefore recommended further research on dental fluorosis in each region of Saudi Arabia, so that further recommendation can be made and implemented such as measurement of topical use of fluoride, as well as measurement of diet enriched with fluoride such as sea food and tea.
JICMR 2017; 2(04): 512-514
Int J Contemporary Medical Research
Introduction: Traumatic dental injury among primary school children’s considered as significant public health problem. Injuries at early stage may leads to functional limitation and disability; hence role of teachers at primary school in managing dental trauma is of primary concern. The present study was conducted to know insight about what school teachers know about concerned issue and its management. Objective of the study were to determine the frequency of dental trauma among primary school children’s, confronted by primary school teachers, and to assess their confidence in managing dental trauma Material and Methods: An observational study having cross-sectional design was conducted among primary school teachers in Hail, Saudi Arabia. It was conducted in January 2017. Face and content validated questionnaire was used as study tool. Data from 400 primary school teachers from 18 schools were gathered using non probability, convenient sampling technique. Data was displayed as number and percentage, Chi square test were used to measure association, using SPSS version 20. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of 400 a total of 378 (94.5%) responded to the questionnaire. 281 (74.3%) of primary school teachers encountered a child with a dental trauma in school hours, and noted that 209 (55.3%) of the primary school teachers were not confident enough in dealing with it. A statistical significance was found in between the years of experience and the confidence of the teachers in managing the situation.Conclusion: The present study concluded that almost 75% of teachers had handled dental trauma during school hours, whilst 55.3% are not confident to manage it. Based on this finding we suggest further research on concerned issue in Hail, Saudi Arabia
J Pak Dent Assoc
BACKGROUND: Periodontal diseases are more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. According to a WHO report, despite all good efforts oral health problems still persist among underprivileged communities. Gadap is a rural, under privileged community of Karachi, Pakistan where paucity of oral and general health facilities prevails. This study has been carried out to explore periodontal status in the Gadap – an area of low socioeconomic population and to establish association of age and gender with BPE scores. RESULTS: The sample size was 1253 subjects including 64.9% males and 35.1 % females. There were no significant association between gender and BPE score. Males had higher percentages of code 1 and 2 (Gingivitis) and code 3 and 4 (Periodontitis 10.1%). Females had gingivitis (28.8%) and periodontitis (5%). Results show significance between the age and the BPE scores. Percentage of healthy individuals (code 0) without any pocket formation, bleeding or calculus is 5%. The other prominent finding (code 1 and 2) that is presence of calculus and pockets of less than 3.5mm in 80% of the subjects suggesting gingivitis. Subjects affected with periodontitis are 15%. According to specific age higher cases of gingivitis (48.1%) are reported between 18-30 years and periodontitis (4.62%) are reported between 31-40years. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of periodontal diseases among young population of 18 – 30 years age group is very high. KEYWORDS: Prevalence of Periodontal diseases, Periodontal profiles, Basic periodontal examination.
Int J Dent Sci and research
Abstract Introduction: Dental caries has long been considered as an irreversible disease of hard tissues of the teeth and was treated accordingly using drill and fill technique. Extensive research work done in the field of cariology has proved it wrong. Current strategies to manage caries include assessing patients’ caries risk, controlling bacterial level in saliva, using various therapeutic agents, reminerlizing incipient carious lesions and finally restoring the cavitated lesions. In Saudi Arabia, dentists of various nationalities, especially from Asia and Africa come to work in the ministries of health and higher education. It is astonishingly observed that most of these dentists including Saudi national dentists continue to treat caries by traditional drill & fill technique. This study was done with an objective to assess percentage of the dentists following current pathways of caries management. Material & Methods: A user-friendly questionnaire was thoroughly prepared and distributed to dental schools in Saudi Arabia and to dentists working in ministry of health and in private clinics and hospitals consisting of 13 queries about clinical implication of current caries-treating strategies. Results: 239 Arabic speaking and 276 non-Arabic speaking dentists working in Saudia participated in the study by filling out the questionnaire sent to them. The data was analyzed using SPSS 17. Conclusion: Most of the participating dentists working in Saudia Arabia having different nationalities treat caries by surgical intervention and do not follow currently recommended strategies. Keywords: caries management by risk assessment, caries preventive strategies
Int J Dent Science and Research
This study assessed the clinical implementation of contemporary pulp protection protocol among dentists in the Ha’il Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A cross-sectional, paper based survey was conducted among dentists in the Ha’il Region. An easy-to- answer questionnaire was distributed among 200 licensed dentists in the region and recollected after more than a month. Results: The response rate was 47.5% (95 n) with majority (70.2%) of male respondents. The mean age of participants was 35.65 years Analysis of data reveals that majority of the dental clinicians did not clinically implement the contemporary protocols for pulp protection. Conclusion: Most of the dentists practicing in Ha’il region, KSA were not following current pulp protection protocol during operative dentistry procedures.
Int j Health Science qassim University
Objectives: To assess the dental health knowledge and the interest of secondary school teachers in imparting oral health education in Hail, Saudi Arabia Methods: It was a questionnaire based cross-sectional survey of secondary school teachers in Hail, Saudi Arabia, carried out from November 2014 to January 2015. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to determine teachers’ oral health knowledge and their interest in participating in oral health education of school children. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Results: Two hundred and twenty three secondary school teachers responded to the survey. Results showed that about 80 to 90 % of teachers had sufficient knowledge of causes and prevention of dental caries and gingivitis. About 94% of teachers agreed that they can play an effective role in oral health promotion while 96% were found to be interested in performing additional duty as oral health promoter. A large majority (91.9 %) had the opinion that oral health education must be included in school curriculum. Conclusion: Teachers in Hail region had adequate amount of knowledge regarding oral health, and they were interested to play their role in promoting oral health education. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended to include dental health education in curriculum at secondary school level and to provide sufficient training to teachers to enable them to participate actively in oral health promotion activities
Int j Dent science and research
This is a successfully managed clinical case report of a young lady whose tooth # 11 was root treated in 2010 which reinfected after three years. The root treatment was repeated but was iatrogenically perforated because of the operating dentist’s error. The tooth was therefore opened for surgical correction. During the procedure, it was found that labial wall of the tooth was missing in the mid-root area. The labial wall was built using glass ionomer cement keeping the endodontic file in the canal to avoid obliteration of canal space by glass ionomer. The rebuilt canal was treated with Calcium Hydroxide dressings at an interval of 7 days. In two weeks as the sinus healed, swelling subsided and the canal became effortlessly dryable using just two absorbent points, the canal was obturated with a custom made gutta percha cone, employing glass ionomer as a canal sealer.
J Pak Dent assoc
ABSTRACT: Pulp is a vascular and vital part of a healthy tooth. Pulps of teeth with breached enamel become vulnerable to infections and succeeding necrosis if the lost tissue remains unreplaced. The dentists replace it using restorative materials which are not friendly to the pulp. Pulp protection measures are therefore necessary to be taken to save pulp vitality during a restorative procedure. Concepts about pulp protection have changed with time. Previously, pulp was considered under threat due to toxicity or heat conductivity of restorative materials. It is now believed that ingress of bacteria under a restoration causes pulp inflammation. The materials with enhanced sealing ability protect pulp very effectively. Contemporary pulp protection protocol were therefore, put forward 12-14 years ago. This study is designed to assess clinical execution of these protocols in Pakistani institutions of undergraduate dental education. METHODS: A meticulously designed questionnaire was circulated in various dental schools situated in various cities of Pakistan. Data collected was analyzed with the help of a biostatistician using SPSS version 18. RESULTS: If the remaining dentin thickness is more than 1.5 mm, there is no need to use any cement base or liner for pulp protection. 89 % of respondents do not care about dentin thickness before using liners / bases. Materials employed for cavity lining may be a cement, varnish or dentin adhesive. 70 % of them consider it essential to give cement lining under the restorations. A vast majority uses Calcium Hydroxide as base and 90 % of them cover the whole exposed dentin with it. Dentin sealer and Dentin adhesives are not used as pulp protecting agent respectively by 76 % and 63 % of participants of the study. CONCLUSION: Contemporary protocols for pulp protections are not being followed in the institutions which participated in the survey.
International Dental Journal of Student’s Research
Betel nut (BN) also referred to as Chalia/ Supari has been used for thousands of years. BN chewing is an important and popular cultural activity in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan (the subcontinent). The use of BN is common in the rural and urban areas of Pakistan. In several studies, an association between BN chewing and oral health problems including oral sub mucous fibrosis, leukoplakia, erythroplakia, mouth blisters and traumatic ulcers has been identified. These lesions are reported in children and adolescents. This is of great concern not only because of the high cost involved in their management but the morbidity and mortality associated with it. Low cost, easy availability, advertising, role modeling, social acceptance and perception of BN as harmless, contribute to its use. The aim of this cross-sectional study in Central District of Karachi (CDK) was to assess the prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions and to investigate associations which may exist between oral conditions and BN chewing among the young school going children. Three hundred and sixty students from 17 different schools participated in the study. The mean age was 13.86 ±1.2 years with the age range of 12 to 16 years. Out of these 360 students, 175 were females and 185 were males. The results showed a high prevalence of the pre-cancerous lesion, oral submucous fibrosis among BN chewers (BNC) compared to non-chewers (NBNC) (19% and 3% respectively). The high prevalence of BN chewing (59% of the low socio-economic young population studied) should be addressed at local and government level through support for effective preventive programs and health promotion campaigns. Promotion of oral health and eradication of BN chewing are important goals for the prevention of oral cancer among this population.
JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES
Owing to induction of modern technology in dentistry, advent of adhesive restorative materials and better understanding of caries and its prevention modalities, caries treatment has turn out to be less invasive and more effective. Despite having all of the options for caries management at hand, most of the dentistscontinue to treat caries by traditional drill & fill technique. This can be well observed in Middle Eastern countries where dentists of various nationalities, especially from Asian and African countriescome to work in health sector. This multinational study accomplished in Asian and African countries was done to assess the status of practicing dentists’ knowledge about the modern pathways for caries management and its implementation in their clinical practices. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess knowledge of practicing dentists about caries treatment and to assess percentage of the dentists following modern caries- treating strategies. Material & Methods: A meticulously prepared userfriendly questionnaire was displayed on social media consisting of 12 queries each on dentists’ knowledge about caries management and practice of its clinical implementation. Results: Dentists from many Asian and African countries participated in the study and 515 responses were received. The data was analyzed using SPSS 17. Conclusion: Most of the participating dentists lack pragmatic approach towards caries treatment despite having up-to-date pedagogic knowledge about caries management strategies.
J Bahria univ.medical and dental college
males. Diabetes and hepatitis were more frequent in males while joint pain was found to be almost evenly distributed among both genders. Conclusion: Due to marked decline in mortality and increased life expectancy in Pakistan, dentists are expected to cater more medically compromised patients in their clinics; management of frequently prevailing medical conditions therefore should be emphasized in the dental curriculums taught in Pakistan.
Aperito Journal of Oral Health and Dentistry
The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of carbamazepine as primary definitive diagnostic aid in patients with classical/idiopathic and symptomatic/ pathological trigeminal neuralgia by analyzing the pain relief. Advantages of using carbamazepine is its easy availability, cost effective, non-invasive, no machine needed, simple, no specialized team needed and is itself a mode of treatment for trigeminal neuralgia as compared to MRI and CT. Methods: 100 patients with clinical characteristics signifying trigeminal neuralgia were included in this study in the age group of 50-65 years from both sexes who were examined clinically and radiographically. Sensory input of trigeminal nerve, gross motor input, diagnostic analgesic blocking and 0.5cc of normal saline at test site is also used to differentiate pain. All 100 patients were given tab. carbamazepine 100 mg twice daily to analyze the pain relief. Results and Conclusion: Clinical signs and symptoms were present in all 100 patients who were given tab. carbamazepine. 76 patients without any known cause for trigeminal neuralgia responded well so had pain relief and Keywords: Fluoride; Fluorosis; Drinking Water Other 24 patients did not responded and had pain existing who on further evaluation were diagnosed with symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia due to some other irrelevant pathological causes. This suggests response to treatment with tab. carbamazepine as pain relief can be used as a universal primary definitive diagnostic aid in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Failure to obtain any improvement with this treatment should bring the diagnosis into question? Sometimes patient is not able to afford costly investigations like MRI and CT, hence the medical management can be started with tab. carbamazepine to diagnose the condition. We recommend MRI and CT as further secondary investigations to rule out cause for symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia due to some other irrelevant pathological causes.
The basic principles of any prosthetic design include preservation of the remaining tissues along with retention, stability, support, and aesthetics. Partial Overdenture is a logical method in preventive prosthodontics that emphasizes on the importance of any rehabilitative procedure to delay or eliminate the future prosthodontic problems. This clinical report describes “conventional” prosthodontic management of a diffuse hyperplastic goitrous patient who presented with complete maxillary and partially edentulous mandibular arch with several periodontally compromised teeth. The rehabilitation of this patient was done with conventional cast complete denture in maxillary arch and a teeth-tissue supported cast partial overdenture in mandibular arch. This prosthodontic treatment spectrum renders the patient, the satisfaction of preserving their own natural teeth as well as a definitive prosthesis even in an extremely critical clinical condition.
MAJMAAH JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCE
There are many classifications for mandibular fractures but all are not without complexity, making it difficult to use in emergency departments. A radiologist, maxillofacial surgeons and other clinicians feel problems in classifying these fractures. Researchers proposed many classifications to facilitate clinicians in describing these fractures. All these efforts remained an successful as no such classification has been put forward. A comprehensive and easy to use classification is being proposed in this article. Objecti ve: 1. To analyze mandibular fractures on clinical and radiological bases. 2. To classify mandibular fractures on the basis of this analysis. Material & Methods : In this study we evaluated 2767 fracture lines in 1745 patients. The location and the number of fracture lines were analyzed. Results : The patterns of multiple mandibular fractures show the fracture of the body of the mandible on both side (b-b) occurred in 421 (24.1%) patients while fracture of the body of the mandible with condylar process fracture (b-c) occurred in 456 (26.1%) cases and numerous fractures hit 72 (4.1%) cases. Fractures of the body of the mandible with condylar process fractures on both sides (b-c-c) have occurred in 8 (0.5%) cases, while fractures of both side of the body of mandible with the condylar process (b-b-c) occurred in 5 (0.3%) cases. Conclusion : Easy-to-use classification of mandibular fractures have been proposed on the basis of finding of this study.
Pakistan Oral & Dental Journal
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between educational attainment and dentition status. A cross sectional survey was conducted. The total number of participants in this study was 408. The subjects of age 15 years to 65 years were included in this survey. To record subjects own educational attainment, education level was divided into levels which are Primary school (1-5 grade), Middle (6-8 Grade), Secondary or High school (9-10 Grade), Higher Secondary and highly educated which include Tertiary School (Bachelors). To record dentition status, DMFT index was used. The DMFT score of 0 indicates minimum risk of caries, DMFT score between 1-4 indicates moderate risk of decay and DMFT score greater than 4 indicates high risk of dental decay. The data was collected through intra oral examination of subjects. The test indicates that association exists between level of education and DMFT scores. However, the strength of association is not very strong. The correlation value for spearman’s rho was (.116) and (P= .01). The impact of poor oral health in low educated people can be reduced by the developing policies related to building healthy public policy, strengthening community actions, and developing personal skills. To improve the knowledge, attitudes and oral health of people with low educational status, it is necessary to increase the oral health promotion activities.
International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research
Presence of long standing unhealing ulcer in an oral cavity, not only makes eating and chewing difficult but puts the patient under tremendous mental stress leading to cancer phobia. This case report describes management of unusual occurrence of bilateral unhealing ulcers on the tongue of a young lady. The ulcers developed after insertion of fixed partial dentures four year ago. Despite visiting many physicians, dentists and an ENT specialist, she didn’t find the relief. Due to long illness, she has become very irritable, anxious and uncooperative. It was therefore, necessary to treat her in a logical order that her confidence in us is not lost. First of all, to reduce her anxiety, she was put on 0.25 mg Alprazolam tablets which also helped her in sleeping at night. Repair or replacement of her previously deteriorated intracoronal restorations was performed next. Finding no relief with this, a bridge present on right side was removed first. It reduced redness in the ulcer on right side of tongue. The other bridges present on left side were also removed. The ulcers had become less painful and stopped progressing but not found healing. Biopsy of the lesion was done which reported as “Pseudoepithliomatous Hyperplasia”. An oral surgeon was requested to excise the lesion. After excision, both the ulcers healed within two weeks.
International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research,
Radio-opacity is a fundamental requirement for fissure sealants in order to be clearly visible radiographicallyand may be well differentiated from caries. Many attempts have been made to make resin based fissure sealants radio-opaque. Researchers achieved radio-opacity of the sealants by blending heavy metals as fillers into the polymeric matrix. Keeping the demerits of using heavy metals in view, a novel fissure sealant was developed by chemically incorporating Tin (Sn) in monomer of methacrylate. This study has been done to assess under scanning micro-radiography (SMR), the radiopacity of the indigenously prepared fissure sealants containing increasing amount of SnM until the consistency of the mix remains workable and clinically useful. Design: Experimental study. Place of study: Biophysical Lab Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom. Methodology: An organo-tin compound – Methacryloxytri-n-butyltin (SnM) and Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in varying quantities were mixed to prepare fissure sealant indigenously. Camphorquinone (CQ) and N, N-Dimethyl-P-Toluidine (DMPT) were added to above mixture. The prepared sealants were polymerized in cuvettes and mounted on Scanning microradiography machine. The machine was run for 100 seconds repeatedly for 60 runs. Obtained results were processed and calculated in Microsoft Excel software. Results: It was observed that increasing the weight of Tin (Sn) content in a sealant increases the radio-opacity of the sealant but SnM more than 9.5 gm renders the material unworkable. Conclusion: This study will not only help in enhancing the radio-opacity of fissure sealants but also the radio-opacity of other clinical composite materials maybe enhanced by this method.
Pak J Pharm Sci 2013 Sep;26(5):1033-6
Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Almajma University, Saudi Arabia.
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J Pak Dent Assoc
OBJECTIVE: Fissure sealants are generally radiolucent and are not clearly visible radiographically. Many attempts have been made to make them radiopaque in accordance with ISO standard – 4049. The inclusion of heavy metals and glasses make the sealants radiopaque but these heavy metals are used for radiopacity to some weight percent. This study was performed to develop fissure sealants with higher fractions up to 9.5gm of tin-methacrylat in which tin was chemically incorporated into methacrylate polymer and measuring their Linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) with the help of X-ray micro-tomography. METHODOLOGY: The control material was made by mixing 10.0 gm Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate (EGDMA), 0.05 gm Camphorquinone (CQ) and 0.05 ml N, N-Dimethyl-P-Toluidine (DMPT) into an amber-colored bottle. Four types of experimental sealants were produced by increasing the weight of Tin-Methacrylate (SnM) and reducing the weight of EDGMA. Mixtures of the same ingredients were prepared in the same manner with increasing weight % of SnM as 5.0, 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5 gm and decreasing quantity of EGDMA as 5.0, 2.5, 1.5 and 0.5 gm respectively. RESULTS: Results show that the increasing weight of SnM increased radiopacity up to 8.5gm. The experimental sealant containing 9.5 gm of SnM caused unworkable consistency of the mix. CONCLUSION: Under the conditions of this study, best combination of workable mix and radiopacity was obtained when the weight of SnM was increased to 8.5 gm.
J Pak Dent Assoc
This case report describes a simple but an effective method of rehabilitating partially edentulous arches with a cast removable partial denture. Conventionally, acrylic teeth are attached to the cast frame with acrylic resin. In case of reduced vertical space between the opposing teeth and the edentulous area, this approach may not work as desired. Because of reduced thickness, the acrylic may not be able to sustain the impact of the cyclic loading and thus suffers fractures. In this case, the acrylization has been avoided by using a single- piece cast partial denture with inbuilt cast pontics. The high strength of the metal even in thin sections, ensure longer lasting performance. By designing the framework of the removable partial denture with inbuilt cast pontics, avoided the need for bonding teeth with acrylic resin. Buccal surfaces of the pontics were veneered with porcelain to mask the metal and hence an esthetic-look to the prosthesis. This function of prosthesis has been followed for more than a year without any problem and with full satisfaction of the patient. Thus the approach can be recommended for cases of the kind.
Distal surface of mandibular 2nd molar is one of the most common sites for occurrence of dental caries. The distal surface of this tooth is almost inaccesable for brushing and removing food debris. Mesioangular impaction of the adjacent 3rd molar further complicates the problem. For many years it remains partially erupted and in some cases it remains partially erupted for whole life. It not only plays no role in chewing but also interferes with the function of 2nd molar. A hypofuntional tooth always encourages palque accumulation around its all surfaces especially inaccessable distal surfaces. A partially erupted 3rd molar offers more favorable conditions for plaque accumulation. Occlusal surfaces of impacted tooth form plaque accumulative crevices against the distal surfaces of adjacent second molars causing distal cervical caries. Such teeth pose great problems for their restoration due to lack of access to the carious lesion. Very often, dentists prefer to remove distally carious 2nd molars and leave the impacted tooth. Removing a tooth which after successful treatment can become a useful component of masticatory apparatus and leaving the one that does not participate in mastication is by no means a genuine practice of dentistry. CONCLUSION: Strategic value of a tooth should be kept in mind before making a decision to extract or to restore it. KEY WORDS: Distal cervical caries, mesioangular impaction
Pak J Med Sci
The consequences of injudicious use of orthodontic braces may vary from mild periodontal problems to severe loss of the attached periodontal tissues. In this case the patient had undergone orthodontic treatment. Though her appearance improved after the orthodontic treatment, but tooth # 16 which was banded and used for anchorage showed complete crestal and apical bone dehiscence in the buccal region. The patient came with the complaint of discomfort and inability to chew on the right side of maxilla. On intraoral examination, unusual calculus was seen deposited on the gums. X-ray showed resorption of buccal roots of tooth # 16. The patient was treated endodontically for the same tooth as it was grossly carious with exposed pulp chamber but incomplete root canal treatment. The buccal canals showing resorption were disinfected and overfilled to an extent that GP points became visible in the buccal sulcus. Raising the flap, the affected roots were cleaned and planed and the extruded GP cut and the roots resected and sealed with glass ionomer cement to encourage reattachment of periodontal apparatus. After 9-month of recall, patient is performing well with improved periodontal attachment and firmly standing tooth in the socket.
J Pak Dent Assoc
This is a case report of a ladywhowas worried about the presence of a small tooth like structure in the area adjacent to root treated leftmandibular firstmolar. Intra-oralX-ray showed that itwas an apically fractured part of themesial root of themolar lodged in the buccal sulcus. The toothwas hemisected andmesial rootwas removed alongwith the dislodged part.Athree unit bridge combining the hemisected root and adjacent second premolarwas insertedwhich is successfully in service formore than a year.
Pak J Med Sci
This case report presents the management and follow-up of a 12-year old boy who had sustained trauma to his upper anterior teeth. The tooth 21 had an oblique fracture just above the cemento-enamel junction running from buccal to the palatal aspect of the root extending upto mid radicular area. Such fractures pose difficulty to treat them because of loosening of fractured coronal fragment. Clinicians have used various techniques to repair such fractures. In this case the coronal fracture was temporarily stabilized using orthodontic wire. Wires are used for immobilizing mandibular fractures and splinting loosened teeth. Their use for repair of fractured teeth has been described here as it is a simple procedure and wires are quite freely available in the dental clinics. This reporting will add to the already available options for saving and restoring teeth sustaining traumatic injuries. The wire was tightened circumferentially around the tooth at the cervical region. After thorough debridement and copious irrigation canal was filled. A prefabricated gold plated post was loaded with glass ionomer cement and inserted into the canal approximating the fragments close together. Subsequent to successful endodontic therapy, metal-ceramic crowns were provided as final restorations to the teeth. Clinical and radiographic examinations after 12 months revealed a perfect repair of the broken fragments with healthy peridontium.
INt J Health Sciences, Qasim University
Background This in vitro study was conducted to compare the accuracy of two digital image receptors in identifying the location of tip of a fine endodontic file and radiographic apex in mandibular posterior teeth. Methods Fourteen human cadaver mandibles with retained molars were selected. These molars were prepared for access to the canals and an endodontic file #10 was introduced into the canal at one of the three random distances from the apex of the tooth. At each distance from the apex and at the apex of the tooth, images were made with two different image receptors; DenOptix storage phosphor plates and Gendex CCD sensor. Six raters viewed all the images for identification of the radiographic apex of the tooth and the tip of the endodontic file. Images were displayed randomly under standardized conditions. To assess intra-rater reliability, all the examiners viewed a subset of randomly selected images again after a time period of one week, inter rater reliability was also assessed. At the end of the study, teeth were extracted and the length of the canals measured to obtain a gold standard. Results T-test revealed a significant main effect for the type of image, indicating that raters’ error in identifying structures of interest was significantly higher for Denoptix storage phosphor plates. Conclusion The results of the study clearly reveal that Gnedex CCD produce most reliable images for Root Canal working length estimation when compared with Denoptix SPP.
IJHS 2010,4, ( 2) :149-155
qassim University, International Journal of Health Sciences,
Objective: To assess the difference of surface hardness of glass ionomer cement (GIC) set by conventional setting method and under ultrasonically energized method. Method: 20 cylindrical samples measuring 2.5mm (diameter) and 5mm (length) were prepared with type IX GIC. Ten of these samples were allowed to set by conventional setting method and other ten were set under ultrasonic excitation energy. After finishing and polishing of the samples, three indentations were made on each sample using Vicker`s hardness machine with a load of 300 gm for 15 seconds. The surface microhardness of the indents was calculated by Vicker`s hardness formula. Results: Surface microhardness of samples set by ultrasound setting method was significantly higher than samples set by conventional method. Conclusion: This can be beneficial for the dental patients as when used as a restorative material, it will have a long lasting effect and can also be used in posterior load bearing areas.
J Pak Dent Assoc
j Pak Dent Assoc 2009, 18 (3): 167-173
J Pakistan Dental Association
A study to longitudinally compare the simplified dental examination involving the use of wooden spatula and tooth pick with dental mirror and probe examination
JPak Dent Assoc 2009, 18(2): 54-58
J pakistan Dental Association
A study to assess efficacy of spherical particle amalgam as amalgam repair material
JCPSP 2009, 19 (7): 410-412
J college of physician and surgeons of Pakistan
Objective: To determine the frequency of flare-ups in single-visit endodontic treatment and the associated factors. Study Design: Observational. Place and Duration of Study: Baqai Dental College Hospital, Karachi, from November 2005 to May 2006. Methodology: One hundred patients were assigned for single-visit root canal treatment. Patients that defaulted after the first appointment (incomplete treatment) were excluded from the study. For each tooth treated, the clinical factors and conditions existing before and after the completion of treatment were recorded. This data included patient’s age, gender, type of tooth, pre-operative status of pulp and periapical tissues and recording pain and swelling (flare-ups) postoperatively after 1 day, 7 days and 1 month. The significance of results was obtained by applying paired-sample t-test and Pearson X2 test. Results: Three of one hundred cases showed flare-ups after treated in single appointment. On the other hand, a marked number (n=97) of cases did not show flare-ups during the study period. None of the studied variables showed any statistically significant bearing on rate of flare-ups in single appointment root canal treatment. Conclusion: The single-visit root canal treatment was safe in terms of endodontic flare-ups as far as results of this study are concerned. It was safer in both vital and non-vital teeth, and even in teeth with periapical pathosis.
South East Asian J Med Edu 2010, 3( 2): 20-26
South East Asian Journal of Medical Education
Interns at the end of their clinical year and medical students at the end of their final year were asked to evaluate the anatomy curriculum they had experienced in their undergraduate preclinical years. Most of the respondents found that the gross anatomy taught to them was adequate but the vast majority expressed that clinical anatomy, imaging anatomy and surface and living anatomy were inadequate. Both interns and medical students ranked anatomy courses and integrated clinical topics as the keystone for their clinical training and felt the need of a clinically oriented anatomy curriculum, case studies and participation of clinical faculty members in teaching during the pre-clinical years. Retrospective evaluations at the end of internships and the undergraduate years are helpful “evidence” to be considered when reforming the anatomy curriculum, and in particular when developing a clinical core course in anatomy. The results of such surveys should be taken into consideration when discussing modifications to the anatomy curriculum
Annals abbasi shaheed & KMDC 2007, 12(1):12-16
Annals of Abbasi Shaheed and KMDC
A study to determine the success and failure rate of dentine adhesives as direct pulp capping agent
Annals abbasi & KMDC 2007, 12 (1): 36 -39
Annals of Abbasi Shahedd Hospital and KMDC
a study to assess the efficacy of filled adhesive versus unfilled adhesives as amalgam repair material
J BMU 2007; jan -jun, 10 (1): 35-36
J Baqai Medical University
Radisection - a clinical case report
vol. 2, no. 4 (2014): 99-102. doi: 10.12691/ijdsr-2-4-7
Int J of Dental Sciences and Research,
This is a case report of a young boy who had a physical trauma to his right maxillary central Incisor. As it remained untreated for many years, it underwent severe inflammatory external root resorption causing perforation. The root of the tooth was damaged to an extent that extraction of the tooth was indicated. But keeping the site of the tooth, age of the patient and his interest in saving the tooth in view, we decided to take a chance to save the tooth in an innovative manner. Firmness of the tooth in its socket also motivated us to opt for a restorative treatment instead of referring him to surgery for extraction. A hopelessly damaged tooth which was very much indicated for extraction has been saved which satisfies patient’s cosmetic demands on lower cost. He otherwise, would have to bear the cost of either 3-unit Bridge or Implant supported crown. Quarterly radiographic examination shows progressive apical and periodontal healing after the treatment since last six months