Publications by authors named "Arvind K Singh"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Study of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Endosomal Toll-Like Receptors-3, 7, and 9 Genes in Patients With Dengue: A Case-Control Study.

Cureus 2021 May 7;13(5):e14883. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Microbiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, IND.

Introduction The endosomal toll-like receptors (TLR) TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 are localized in immune cells, recognize the viral pattern associated molecular pattern (PAMPs), and start signaling cascades for immune defense response and genetic factor is known to affect the dengue virus infection therefore in our study we study the association of endosomal Toll-like receptors 3 polymorphism rs3775291, rs3775290, and rs3775296 with rs179008 A/T and rs179009C/T polymorphisms of TLR7 and rs187084 (C/T), rs5743836 (C/T) of TLR9 gene with dengue and controls. Materials and methods Ninety-eight cases of dengue virus (DV) infection and 98 healthy controls were enrolled. Clinical details were recorded and cases were classified as severe or non-severe dengue, based on WHO 2009 classification. Genotypes were determined by Sanger sequencing using the genetic analyzer. Results An increased risk of DV infection was observed in cases as compared to controls, with TLR 3 rs3775291 CT genotype (OR = 4.34, P-value: 0.031, CI = 1.14-16.5), Likewise in TLR7 rs179008 AT (OR = 2.12, P-value: 0.034, CI = 1.06-4.26) and rs179009 CT (OR = 2.04, P-value: 0.040, CI = 1.03-4.05) same as in TLR9 rs187084 CT (OR = 1.97, P-value: 0.046, CI = 1.013-3.84) and rs5743836 (OR = 2.38, P-value: 0.009, CI = 1.24-5.57). In the above polymorphisms, mutant allele was observed in a significantly higher number in cases. The values are: for TLR3 rs3775291 T allele (OR 2.167, CI = 1.3-3.61, P-value: 0.003). TLR7 rs179008 T allele (OR 1.90, P-value: 0.021, CI = 1.07-3.35) and in TLR9 rs187084 (OR 1.91, P-value: 0.014, CI = 1.137-3.24) rs5743836 (OR 2.29, P-value: 0.0018, CI = 1.36-3.87). No significant association was observed in the genotypic frequency of severe versus non-severe dengue. Conclusion TLR3, 7, and 9 gene polymorphism might confer host genetic susceptibility to dengue in the North Indian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184108PMC
May 2021

Anti-Rabies Vaccine Compliance and Knowledge of Community Health Worker Regarding Animal Bite Management in Rural Area of Eastern India.

Cureus 2021 Mar 31;13(3):e14229. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Community Medicine and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Bhubaneswar, IND.

Background Rabies is a public health problem in developing countries like India accounting for the second-highest number of rabies-related deaths worldwide. Anti-rabies vaccine (ARV) is the only proven and effective way of preventing death in this 100% fatal disease. However, compliance is a real concern. This study aims to assess the compliance of ARV and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) among the ARV-clinic beneficiaries and also the knowledge of the health workers regarding animal bite management. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an ARV clinic of a community health centre in a rural Odisha (Eastern India) between February and April 2019. All the beneficiaries attending the ARV clinic were followed up for 28 days to assess their ARV and RIG compliance. Data were collected using a pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire and analysis was performed using SPSS v.22 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). Proportion was calculated for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables. Chi-square test was applied to test for significance of categorical variables. Results A total of 468 beneficiaries were followed up. More than half (59.8%) of the animal bite victims had a category-II bite, followed by 33.4% having category-III, and 6.8% having a category-I bite. Around three-fourth were exposed to dog bite. Only 52.3% of the patients were compliant with ARV, and 49.4% were compliant with RIG. Knowledge of the health workers regarding wound management was found to be sub-optimal. Conclusion Poor ARV compliance was seen among the beneficiaries. Awareness activities need to be strengthened further to improve health-seeking behaviour. The significant gap in knowledge of the health workers indicates the need for professional training at regular intervals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087540PMC
March 2021

Adherence of Doctors to Standard Diarrhoeal Management Guideline During Treatment of Under-Five Diarrhoeal Episodes: A Study From Eastern India.

Cureus 2021 Feb 18;13(2):e13433. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Community Medicine and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Bhubaneswar, IND.

Introduction Diarrhoea is one of the major preventable causes of childhood death in tribal areas of India. Most acute diarrhoea in childhood can be managed with oral rehydration salt (ORS) and zinc. This study aimed to assess the adherence of doctors to standard diarrheal management guidelines while treating under-five diarrhoeal episodes. Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 blocks of Kandhamal district in southern Odisha, India. The under-five childhood diarrhoea prescriptions from July to August 2018 were audited during September 2018. One health facility from each block and 15 prescriptions from each health facility were selected randomly. Data were collected and entered in Epicollect5 and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences Version 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Categorical variables were presented as proportions. Results A total of 150 under-five acute diarrhoea prescriptions were audited from 10 health facilities. One hundred ten prescriptions were from the out-patient department and 40 prescriptions were from the admitted diarrhoeal patients. The majority of them included ORS (77.3%) and zinc (75.3%) in the prescription, however, only half of the prescriptions (52.7%) had recommended dose and duration of zinc. All admitted patients received intravenous fluids. Most prescriptions (89.3%) did not document the hydration status of the patient. All prescriptions were silent about the severe acute malnutrition status of the children before administering fluid therapy. Antibiotics were prescribed in 80% of the prescriptions. Prebiotics, probiotics and anti-spasmodic were prescribed in 37.3% of the prescriptions. Conclusion Adherence of doctors to acute diarrheal management guidelines for the management of under-five diarrhoea was poor in our study. Further researches and training are required to improve childhood diarrhoea management in health facilities of tribal areas of India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7981585PMC
February 2021

Colonic obstruction: a rare complication of acute pancreatitis.

ANZ J Surg 2020 11 25;90(11):E141-E142. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Sahloul Hospital, The University of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.15935DOI Listing
November 2020

Metastatic Anorectal Melanoma.

J Gastrointest Surg 2020 11 20;24(11):2693-2695. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Histopathology, American Institute of Pathology and Laboratory Sciences, Hyderabad, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-020-04604-8DOI Listing
November 2020

Appendicular endometriosis: A case report and review of literature.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2019 22;64:94-96. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Sahloul Hospital, University of Medicine of Sousse, Tunisia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Patients with appendicular endometriosis (AE) constitute <1% cases of all pelvic endometriosis cases. AE presents with pain in right iliac fossa and symptomatically mimics appendicitis and definitive diagnosis is possible only after histopathological examination of excised appendix.

Presentation Of Case: In this case report, we present a rare case of appendicular endometriosis in a young woman suffering from pain in right iliac fossa and periumbilical region (on/off) for the past one year. She had a past history of infertility. Blood investigations were normal and CT scan of abdomen demonstrated findings suggestive of appendicitis. Laparoscopic appendicectomy was performed, which revealed 2 cm tumor-like mass (1.5 cm diameter) present at the tip of appendix involving the mesoappendix. There was no ascites, peritoneal or omental deposits or any signs of inflammation. Post-operative recovery was good. Dissected appendix specimen was sent for histopathological examination which confirmed endometriosis of appendix.

Discussion: Gastrointestinal endometriosis (GE) accounts for 3-37% of all endometriosis cases, whereas AE is present in only ∼3% of all GE cases and constitutes <1% of all the endometriosis cases. AE frequently involves tip and body of the appendix. The layers of appendix most commonly affected are muscular and seromuscular (∼2/3rd cases), followed by the serosa (∼1/3rd cases).

Conclusion: Thus, appendicular endometriosis is a rare entity and should be included in differential diagnosis in young women presenting with pain in right iliac fossa and having history of infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2019.07.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6796600PMC
July 2019

A Rare Triad of Crohn's Disease, Eosinophilic Enteritis, and Castleman's Disease.

J Gastrointest Surg 2020 05 4;24(5):1217-1219. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Histopathology, SRL Ltd., Fortis Escorts Hospital, Okhla, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-019-04386-8DOI Listing
May 2020

Effect of iron and folic acid tablet versus capsule formulation on treatment compliance and iron status among pregnant women: A randomized controlled trial.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Feb;8(2):378-384

Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background: Iron supplementation during pregnancy in programmatic settings has failed to produce desired results. Formulation of iron supplementation may have a role in compliance and hematological parameters.

Objective: We did this study to compare the compliance to iron supplementation, change in mean hemoglobin and serum ferritin level after iron supplementation in capsule form and tablet form during pregnancy.

Materials And Methods: In this single-blinded (investigator blinded), active comparator, randomized controlled trial we enrolled pregnant women (aged ≥18 years) from May to November 2014 during second trimester to receive iron supplementation either as capsule (ferrous fumarate) or tablet (ferrous sulphate) during entire pregnancy. The outcome was compliance (good compliance ≥ 90%) to iron supplementation assessed by pill count and change in mean hemoglobin and serum ferritin. Statistical significance was tested using Chi-square test and Student's t test.

Results: We enrolled and randomized 204 pregnant women for iron supplementation; capsule form ( = 100) and tablet form ( = 104). Out of which 52 (25.5%) women (23 in capsule arm and 29 in tablet arm) were lost to follow up. As compared to tablet arm, the capsule arm had higher good compliance (22% vs 16.8%), increase in mean hemoglobin (0.79 vs 0.44 gm/dL) and increase in mean serum ferritin (2.50 vs -2.14 ng/mL), but the difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Pregnant women who received either of the formulation reported a low compliance. Iron supplementation in capsule formulation resulted in more increase in blood hemoglobin level, though clinically insignificant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_339_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436276PMC
February 2019

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Duplication.

J Gastrointest Surg 2019 05 17;23(5):1075-1076. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Anaesthesia, Synergy Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-018-3922-7DOI Listing
May 2019

Can non-fasting and fasting lipid profile be mutually exclusive? An Indian perspective.

J Investig Med 2017 10 7;65(7):e3. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Ispat General Hospital, Rourkela, Odisha, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jim-2017-000521DOI Listing
October 2017

Delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in primary health care setting: eight year cohort analysis from district Faridabad, Haryana, North India.

Rural Remote Health 2017 Jul-Sep;17(3):4158. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Centre for Community Medicine. Old OT Block. AIIMS, New Delhi 110049.

Introduction: Delay in initiation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment may have a tremendous impact on disease transmission, development of drug resistance, poor outcome and overall survival of TB patients. The delay can occur at various levels. Delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis is mostly due to health system failure and has immense programmatic implications. It has not been studied extensively in the Indian setting.

Methods: The authors did a cohort analysis of all TB patients initiated on treatment from two primary health centres (PHCs) at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System between January 2007 and December 2014. Diagnosis and treatment of TB in the study area was done as per the protocol envisaged in the national program. Information related to demography, details of diagnosis and treatment of TB and outcome of treatment were extracted from the TB register. Delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis was considered if the gap between diagnosis and treatment was greater than 7 days. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to find the association of various factors with delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis.

Results: Out of 885 patients, 662 patients started treatment for pulmonary TB. Mean time interval between diagnosis and initiation of treatment was 8.95 days. Only 57.7% of pulmonary TB patients were started on treatment within 7 days of diagnosis, and an additional 24.5% were started on treatment 8-14 days after diagnosis. Patients on retreatment regimens and those residing in villages without a PHC were more likely to have delayed initiation of treatment (odds ratio (OR)=1.82 (1.3-2.7, p=0.001) and OR=1.62 (1.1-2.5, p=0.01) respectively). Delay in initiation of treatment was also associated with unfavourable treatment outcome such as default, failure or death.

Conclusions: There is a need to have healthcare changes related to TB care to enable initiation of treatment as early as possible. Pretreatment counselling especially for retreatment patients is of utmost importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22605/RRH4158DOI Listing
February 2018

Bioinformatic Approaches Including Predictive Metagenomic Profiling Reveal Characteristics of Bacterial Response to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in Diverse Environments.

Sci Rep 2017 04 24;7(1):1108. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Microbial remediation of oil polluted habitats remains one of the foremost methods for restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environments. The development of effective bioremediation strategies however, require an extensive understanding of the resident microbiome of these habitats. Recent developments such as high-throughput sequencing has greatly facilitated the advancement of microbial ecological studies in oil polluted habitats. However, effective interpretation of biological characteristics from these large datasets remain a considerable challenge. In this study, we have implemented recently developed bioinformatic tools for analyzing 65 16S rRNA datasets from 12 diverse hydrocarbon polluted habitats to decipher metagenomic characteristics of the resident bacterial communities. Using metagenomes predicted from 16S rRNA gene sequences through PICRUSt, we have comprehensively described phylogenetic and functional compositions of these habitats and additionally inferred a multitude of metagenomic features including 255 taxa and 414 functional modules which can be used as biomarkers for effective distinction between the 12 oil polluted sites. Additionally, we show that significantly over-represented taxa often contribute to either or both, hydrocarbon degradation and additional important functions. Our findings reveal significant differences between hydrocarbon contaminated sites and establishes the importance of endemic factors in addition to petroleum hydrocarbons as driving factors for sculpting hydrocarbon contaminated bacteriomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01126-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5430712PMC
April 2017

Kinetics of nutrient enhanced crude oil degradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa AKS1 and Bacillus sp. AKS2 isolated from Guwahati refinery, India.

Environ Pollut 2016 Sep 15;216:548-558. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Department of Biochemistry, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, 793022, India. Electronic address:

Bacterial degradation of crude oil in response to nutrient treatments has been vastly studied. But there is a paucity of information on kinetic parameters of crude oil degradation. Here we report the nutrient stimulated kinetic parameters of crude oil degradation assessed in terms of CO2 production and oil removal by Pseudomonas aeruginosa AKS1 and Bacillus sp. AKS2. The hydrocarbon degradation rate of P. aeruginosa AKS1 in oil only amended sediment was 10.75 ± 0.65 μg CO2-C g(-1) sediment day(-1) which was similar to degradation rate in sediments with no oil. In presence of both inorganic N & P, the degradation rate increased to 47.22 ± 1.32 μg CO2-C g(-1) sediment day(-1). The half-saturation constant (Ks) and maximum degradation rate (Vmax) for P. aeruginosa AKS1 under increasing N and saturating P concentration were 13.57 ± 0.53 μg N g(-1) sediment and 39.36 ± 1.42 μg CO2-C g(-1) sediment day(-1) respectively. The corresponding values at increasing P and a constant N concentration were 1.60 ± 0.13 μg P g(-1) sediment and 43.90 ± 1.03 μg CO2-C g(-1) sediment day(-1) respectively. Similarly the degradation rate of Bacillus sp. AKS2 in sediments amended with both inorganic nutrients N & P was seven fold higher than the rates in oil only or nutrient only treated sediments. The Ks and Vmax estimates of Bacillus sp. AKS2 under increasing N and saturating P concentration were 9.96 ± 1.25 μg N g(-1) sediment and 59.96 ± 7.56 μg CO2-C g(-1) sediment day(-1) respectively. The corresponding values for P at saturating N concentration were 0.46 ± 0.24 μg P g(-1) sediment and 63.63 ± 3.54 μg CO2-C g(-1) sediment day(-1) respectively. The rates of CO2 production by both isolates were further stimulated when oil concentration was increased above 12.5 mg g(-1) sediment. However, oil degradation activity declined at oil concentration above 40 mg g(-1) sediment when treated with constant nutrient: oil ratio. Both isolates exhibited alkane hydroxylase activity but aromatic degrading catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase and catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase activities were shown by P. aeruginosa AKS1 only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.06.008DOI Listing
September 2016

Profile of pregnant women using delivery hut services of the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural north India.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2016 Aug 29;134(2):173-6. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Objective: To describe women who attended two delivery huts in rural Haryana, India.

Methods: The present observational study assessed routinely collected service provision data from two delivery huts located at primary health centers in the district of Faridabad. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, prenatal care, use of free transport services, and maternal and neonatal indicators at delivery were assessed for all pregnant women who used the delivery hut services from January 2012 to June 2014.

Results: During the study period, 1796 deliveries occurred at the delivery huts. The mean age of the mothers was 23.3 ± 3.3 years (95% confidence interval 23.1-23.5). Of 1648 mothers for whom data were available, 1039 (63.0%) had travelled less than 5 km to the delivery hut. The proportion of mothers who belonged to a lower caste increased from 31.0% (193/622) in 2012 to 41.1% (162/394) in 2014. The proportion of mothers who were illiterate also increased, from 8.1% (53/651) in 2012 to 26.4% (104/394) in 2014.

Conclusion: Belonging to a disadvantaged social group (in terms of caste or education) was not an obstacle to use of delivery hut services. The delivery huts might have satisfied some unmet needs of community members in rural India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2016.01.012DOI Listing
August 2016

Draft Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Staphylococcus saprophyticus Strain CNV2, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from the Noonmati Oil Refinery, Guwahati, Assam, India.

Genome Announc 2016 May 12;4(3). Epub 2016 May 12.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Here, we report the 2.6 Mb draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain CNV2, isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Guwahati, India. CNV2 contains 2,545 coding sequences and has a G+C content of 33.2%. This is the first report of the genome sequence of an S. saprophyticus adapted to an oil-contaminated environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00370-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4866858PMC
May 2016

Draft Genome Sequence of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Enterobacter cloacae Strain S1:CND1, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from the Noonmati Oil Refinery, Guwahati, Assam, India.

Genome Announc 2016 May 12;4(3). Epub 2016 May 12.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

We report here the 4.57-Mb draft genome sequence of hydrocarbon-degrading Enterobacter cloacae strain S1:CND1 isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Guwahati, India. S1:CND1 contains 4,205 coding sequences and has a G+C content of 57.45%. This is the first report of the genome sequence of an E. cloacae adapted to an oil-contaminated environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00367-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4866856PMC
May 2016

Apoptosis in mammalian oocytes: a review.

Apoptosis 2015 Aug;20(8):1019-25

Cell Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-, 221005, U.P., India.

Apoptosis causes elimination of more than 99% of germ cells from cohort of ovary through follicular atresia. Less than 1% of germ cells, which are culminated in oocytes further undergo apoptosis during last phases of oogenesis and depletes ovarian reserve in most of the mammalian species including human. There are several players that induce apoptosis directly or indirectly in oocytes at various stages of meiotic cell cycle. Premature removal of encircling granulosa cells from immature oocytes, reduced levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, increased levels of calcium (Ca(2+)) and oxidants, sustained reduced level of maturation promoting factor, depletion of survival factors, nutrients and cell cycle proteins, reduced meiotic competency, increased levels of proapoptotic as well as apoptotic factors lead to oocyte apoptosis. The BH3-only proteins also act as key regulators of apoptosis in oocyte within the ovary. Both intrinsic (mitochondria-mediated) as well as extrinsic (cell surface death receptor-mediated) pathways are involved in oocyte apoptosis. BID, a BH3-only protein act as a bridge between both apoptotic pathways and its cleavage activates cell death machinery of both the pathways inside the follicular microenvironment. Oocyte apoptosis leads to the depletion of ovarian reserve that directly affects reproductive outcome of various mammals including human. In this review article, we highlight some of the important players and describe the pathways involved during oocyte apoptosis in mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-015-1136-yDOI Listing
August 2015

Complete genome sequences of two isolates of human parvovirus 4 from patients with acute encephalitis syndrome.

Genome Announc 2015 Jan 29;3(1). Epub 2015 Jan 29.

Virology Laboratory, Post Graduate Department of Microbiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Human parvovirus 4 (Parv4) is a relatively new virus. Association of this virus with any human disease is yet to be established. We detected human parvovirus 4 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of two patients presenting with acute encephalitis syndrome in northern India. This is the first report of the Parv4 genome sequence from northern India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01472-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319504PMC
January 2015

Quality of diagnostic and treatment practices of pulmonary tuberculosis management amongst health practitioners in Haryana, north India.

Rural Remote Health 2014 23;14(4):2784. Epub 2014 Nov 23.

Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: Early diagnosis and supervised treatment remains the mainstay for tuberculosis (TB) control in India.

Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess diagnostic and treatment practices of tuberculosis management as per the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme at a secondary level health facility in north India. This hospital mostly caters to rural and peri-urban populations in the Ballabgarh block of Faridabad district, Haryana. A sample size of 244 was calculated. Consecutive chest symptomatic patients were recruited in the study. Information about socio-demographic characteristics and treatment was obtained from a routine history-taking process in the outpatient clinic. Results were expressed as mean, standard deviation (SD) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: A total of 250 pulmonary TB suspects were recruited, out of which 55.4% were males and mean age of study participants was 35.4 years (SD 14.6). Almost half (47.1%) of the participants had sought treatment from government hospitals, followed by 46.7% from private hospitals. Those who had visited a private facility were significantly more likely not to receive sputum acid-fast bacillus (AFB) diagnostic testing (OR=7.26, 95% CI 4.04-13.08), likely to be taking a second-line anti-TB drug as an antibiotic trial (OR=3.65, 95% CI 1.17-11.30), be empirically taking anti-TB drugs (OR=5.28, 95% CI 1.50-118.64) and getting a serological test done (OR=9.58, 95% CI 1.20-76.0) than those who went to a government health facility. Those who made at least three visits to a private facility were significantly more likely to have taken a second-line anti-TB drug as an antibiotic trial (OR=3.56, 95% CI 1.36- 9.28) and be empirically taking anti-TB drugs (OR=5.75, 95% CI 2.18-15.20) than those that made fewer than three visits.

Conclusions: This study documented inappropriate diagnostic and treatment practices in TB management and highlights the need to generate awareness about it among health practitioners in north India.
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June 2015

Prevalence of household-level food insecurity and its determinants in an urban resettlement colony in north India.

J Health Popul Nutr 2014 Jun;32(2):227-36

An adequate food intake, in terms of quantity and quality, is a key to healthy life. Malnutrition is the most serious consequence of food insecurity and has a multitude of health and economic implications. India has the world's largest population living in slums, and these have largely been underserved areas. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (2012) estimates that India is home to more than 217 million undernourished people. Various studies have been conducted to assess food insecurity at the global level; however, the literature is limited as far as India is concerned. The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting the prevalence of food insecurity at the household level and the factors determining its existence in an urban slum population of northern India. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of South Delhi, India. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting socioeconomic details and information regarding dietary practices. Food insecurity was assessed using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with food insecurity. A total of 250 women were interviewed through house-to-house survey. Majority of the households were having a nuclear family (61.6%), with mean family-size being 5.5 (SD +/- 2.5) and the mean monthly household income being INR 9,784 (SD +/- 631). Nearly half (53.3%) of the mean monthly household income was spent on food. The study found that a total of 77.2% households were food-insecure, with 49.2% households being mildly food-insecure, 18.8% of the households being moderately food-insecure, and 9.2% of the households being severely food-insecure. Higher education of the women handling food (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.92; p < or = 0.03) and number of earning members in the household (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.98; p < or = 0.04) were associated with lesser chance/odds of being food-insecure. The study demonstrated a high prevalence of food insecurity in the marginalized section of the urban society. The Government of India needs to adopt urgent measures to combat this problem.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4216959PMC
June 2014

Kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation in intertidal marine sediments.

Front Microbiol 2014 11;5:160. Epub 2014 Apr 11.

School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Availability of inorganic nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorous, is often a primary control on crude oil hydrocarbon degradation in marine systems. Many studies have empirically determined optimum levels of inorganic N and P for stimulation of hydrocarbon degradation. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of information on fundamental kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation that can be used to model the fate of crude oil in bioremediation programmes that use inorganic nutrient addition to stimulate oil biodegradation. Here we report fundamental kinetic parameters (Ks and qmax) for nitrate- and phosphate-stimulated crude oil biodegradation under nutrient limited conditions and with respect to crude oil, under conditions where N and P are not limiting. In the marine sediments studied, crude oil degradation was limited by both N and P availability. In sediments treated with 12.5 mg/g of oil but with no addition of N and P, hydrocarbon degradation rates, assessed on the basis of CO2 production, were 1.10 ± 0.03 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day which were comparable to rates of CO2 production in sediments to which no oil was added (1.05 ± 0.27 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day). When inorganic nitrogen was added alone maximum rates of CO2 production measured were 4.25 ± 0.91 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. However, when the same levels of inorganic nitrogen were added in the presence of 0.5% P w/w of oil (1.6 μmol P/g wet sediment) maximum rates of measured CO2 production increased more than four-fold to 18.40 ± 1.04 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. Ks and qmax estimates for inorganic N (in the form of sodium nitrate) when P was not limiting were 1.99 ± 0.86 μmol/g wet sediment and 16.16 ± 1.28 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day respectively. The corresponding values for P were 63 ± 95 nmol/g wet sediment and 12.05 ± 1.31 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. The qmax values with respect to N and P were not significantly different (P < 0.05). When N and P were not limiting Ks and qmax for crude oil were 4.52 ± 1.51 mg oil/g wet sediment and 16.89 ± 1.25 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. At concentrations of inorganic N above 45 μmol/g wet sediment inhibition of CO2 production from hydrocarbon degradation was evident. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that Alcanivorax spp. were selected in these marine sediments with increasing inorganic nutrient concentration, whereas Cycloclasticus spp. were more prevalent at lower inorganic nutrient concentrations. These data suggest that simple empirical estimates of the proportion of nutrients added relative to crude oil concentrations may not be sufficient to guarantee successful crude oil bioremediation in oxic beach sediments. The data we present also help define the maximum rates and hence timescales required for bioremediation of beach sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3990054PMC
April 2014

Biofuel components change the ecology of bacterial volatile petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in aerobic sandy soil.

Environ Pollut 2013 Feb 29;173:125-32. Epub 2012 Nov 29.

School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England, United Kingdom.

We tested the hypothesis that the biodegradation of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) in aerobic sandy soil is affected by the blending with 10 percent ethanol (E10) or 20 percent biodiesel (B20). When inorganic nutrients were scarce, competition between biofuel and VPH degraders temporarily slowed monoaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Ethanol had a bigger impact than biodiesel, reflecting the relative ease of ethanol compared to methyl ester biodegradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that each fuel mixture selected for a distinct bacterial community, each dominated by Pseudomonas spp. Despite lasting impacts on soil bacterial ecology, the overall effects on VHP biodegradation were minor, and average biomass yields were comparable between fuel types, ranging from 0.40 ± 0.16 to 0.51 ± 0.22 g of biomass carbon per gram of fuel carbon degraded. Inorganic nutrient availability had a greater impact on petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation than fuel composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2012.10.010DOI Listing
February 2013

Spatio-temporal niche partitioning of closely related picocyanobacteria clades and phycocyanin pigment types in Lake Constance (Germany).

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2012 May 20;80(2):488-500. Epub 2012 Feb 20.

Biodiversity Institute of Ontario & Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

We found that the clade-specific abundance dynamics of Synechococcus type picocyanobacteria in the pelagic and littoral zone macro-habitats of Lake Constance (Germany) challenge the hypothesis of a regular annual succession of picocyanobacteria genotypes in temperate zone lakes. Methods used in this study were quantitative Taq nuclease assays (TNA), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), a 19-month time series analysis (with two isothermal and two stratified periods) and genotyping of a new littoral phycocyanin (PC)-rich Synechococcus strain collection. The recorded differences between the two macro-habitats and between seasons or years, and the observed effect of water column mixis in winter on the inversion of clade-specific dominance ratios in Lake Constance might explain the known inter-annual differences in abundance and dynamics of the autotrophic picoplankton (APP) in lakes. The APP in Lake Constance shows a high genetic diversity with a low overall abundance, similar to the APP in the Baltic Sea, but different from Lake Biwa in Japan or lakes in the UK. Our results indicate that APP bloom events in both macro-habitats of Lake Constance are driven by phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus genotypes of the Subalpine Cluster I. DGGE revealed the presence of a diverse periphyton (biofilm) community of the PC-rich Synechococcus pigment type in the littoral zone in early spring, when no such community was detectable in the pelagic habitat. A more sensitive and quantitative approach with TNA, however, revealed an intermittent presence of one PC-rich genotype in the plankton. We discuss the seasonal development of the pelagic and littoral PC-rich community, and while we cannot rule out a strain isolation bias, we found that isolated PC-rich strains from the pelagic habitat have different genotypes when compared to new littoral strains. We also observed littoral substrates colonized by specific PC-rich Synechococcus genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2012.01316.xDOI Listing
May 2012

Isolation and characterization of a Mastigocladus species capable of growth, N(2)-fixation and N-assimilation at elevated temperature.

Indian J Microbiol 2007 Dec 11;47(4):345-52. Epub 2008 Jan 11.

Department of Biochemistry, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, India ; Mizoram University, Aizawl, 796009 Mizoram India.

A Mastigocladus species was isolated from the hot spring of Jakrem (Meghalaya) India. Uptake and utilization of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and amino acids (glutamine, asparagine, arginine, alanine) were studied in this cyanobacterium grown at different temperatures (25°C, 45°C). There was 2-3 fold increase in the heterocyst formation and nitrogenase activity in N-free medium at higher temperature (45°C). Growth and uptake and assimilation of various nitrogen sources were also 2-3 fold higher at 45°C indicating that it is a thermophile. The extent of induction and repression of nitrate uptake by NO(3) (-) and NH(4) (+), respectively, differed from that of nitrite. It appeared that Mastigocladus had two independent nitrate/nitrite transport systems. Nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activitiy was not NO(3) (-)-inducible and ammonium or amino acids caused only partial repression. Presence of various amino acids in the media partially repressed glutamine synthetase activity. Ammonium (methylammonium) and amino acid uptake showed a biphasic pattern, was energy-dependent and the induction of uptake required de novo protein synthesis. Ammonium transport was substrate (NH(4) (+))-repressible, while the amino acid uptake was substrate inducible. When grown at 25°C, the cyanobacterium formed maximum akinetes that remained viable upto 5 years under dry conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12088-007-0062-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3450037PMC
December 2007

Foreign body episcleral granulomas complicating intravitreal silicone oil tamponade: a clinicopathological study.

Ophthalmology 2003 Sep;110(9):1837-40

Department of Ophthalmology, Ayr Hospital, Ayrshire, United Kingdom.

Purpose: To report two patients with lipid granulomas of the episclera complicating vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade.

Design: Two observational case reports.

Intervention: Patient 1, a 41-year-old woman, underwent vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Four weeks later, she sought treatment for inflamed episcleral nodules adjacent to one of the sclerostomy sites. The oil was removed and the episcleral nodules were excised. Patient 2, a 33-year-old man, underwent vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade for tractional retinal detachment. He experienced a painful blind eye with episcleral nodule that required enucleation.

Main Outcome Measures: On histopathological analysis, both specimens demonstrated episcleral granulomas caused by silicone oil.

Conclusions: Episcleral nodules adjacent to vitrectomy entry sites with silicone oil tamponade may represent lipid granulomas, probably caused by silicone oil leakage from scleral entry ports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(03)00571-2DOI Listing
September 2003