Publications by authors named "Arve Ulvik"

76 Publications

Investigating novel biomarkers of immune activation and modulation in the context of sedentary behaviour: a multicentre prospective ischemic stroke cohort study.

BMC Neurol 2021 Aug 16;21(1):318. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Sedentary behaviour is associated with disease, but the molecular mechanisms are not understood. Valid biomarkers with predictive and explanatory properties are required. Therefore, we have investigated traditional and novel biomarkers of inflammation and immune modulation and their association to objectively measured sedentary behaviour in an ischemic stroke population.

Methods: Patients admitted to hospital with acute ischemic stroke were included in the multicentre Norwegian Cognitive Impairment After Stroke (Nor-COAST) study (n = 815). For this sub-study (n = 257), sedentary behaviour was registered 3 months after stroke using position transition data from the body-worn sensor, ActivPal®. Blood samples were analysed for high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and 10 (IL-10), neopterin, tryptophan (Trp), kynurenine (kyn), kynurenic acid (KA), and three B6 vitamers, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL), and pyridoxic acid (PA). The kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) and the pyridoxic acid ratio index (PAr = PA: PL + PLP) were calculated.

Results: Of the 815 patients included in the main study, 700 attended the three-month follow-up, and 257 fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study. Sedentary time was significantly associated with levels of hsCRP, IL-6, neopterin, PAr-index, and KA adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, and creatinine. In a fully adjusted model including all the significant biomarkers except hsCRP (because of missing values), sedentary time was independently positively associated with the PAr-index and negatively with KA. We did not find an association between sedentary behaviour, IL-10, and KTR.

Conclusions: The PAr-index is known to capture several modes of inflammation and has previously shown predictive abilities for future stroke. This novel result indicates that the PAr-index could be a useful biomarker in future studies on sedentary behaviour and disease progression. KA is an important modulator of inflammation, and this finding opens new and exciting pathways to understand the hazards of sedentary behaviour.

Trial Registration: The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT02650531 ). First posted 08/01/2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02343-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365944PMC
August 2021

Inflammation-Related Marker Profiling of Dietary Patterns and All-cause Mortality in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

J Nutr 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Nutritional epidemiology research using self-reported dietary intake is prone to measurement error. Objective methods are being explored to overcome this limitation.

Objectives: We aimed to examine 1) the association between plasma markers related to inflammation and derive marker scores for dietary patterns [Mediterranean dietary score (MDS), energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DIITM), Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI)] and 2) the associations of these marker scores with mortality.

Methods: Weighted marker scores were derived from the cross-sectional association between 30 plasma markers and each dietary score (assessed using food-frequency questionnaires) using linear regression for 770 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (aged 50-82 y). Prospective associations between marker scores and mortality (n = 249 deaths) were assessed using Cox regression (median follow-up: 14.4 y).

Results: The MDS, E-DII, and AHEI were associated (P < 0.05) with 9, 14, and 11 plasma markers, respectively. Healthier diets (higher MDS and AHEI, and lower anti-inflammatory, E-DII) were associated with lower concentrations of kynurenines, neopterin, IFN-γ, cytokines, and C-reactive protein. Five of 6 markers common to the 3 dietary scores were components of the kynurenine pathway. The 3 dietary-based marker scores were highly correlated (Spearman ρ: -0.74, -0.82, and 0.93). Inverse associations (for 1-SD increment) were observed with all-cause mortality for the MDS marker score (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72-0.98) and the AHEI marker score (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66-0.89), whereas a positive association was observed with the E-DII marker score (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.39). The same magnitude of effect was not observed for the respective dietary patterns.

Conclusions: Markers involved in inflammation-related processes are associated with dietary quality, including a substantial overlap between markers associated with the MDS, the E-DII, and the AHEI, especially kynurenines. Unfavorable marker scores, reflecting poorer-quality diets, were associated with increased mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab231DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of markers of inflammation, the kynurenine pathway and B vitamins with age and mortality, and a signature of inflammaging.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Precision Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Background: Inflammation is a key feature of aging. We aimed to i) investigate the association of 34 blood markers potentially involved in inflammatory processes with age and mortality, ii) develop a signature of 'inflammaging'.

Methods: Thirty-four blood markers relating to inflammation, B vitamin status and the kynurenine pathway were measured in 976 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study at baseline (median age=59 years) and follow-up (median age=70 years). Associations with age and mortality were assessed using linear and Cox regression, respectively. A parsimonious signature of inflammaging was developed and its association with mortality was compared with two marker scores calculated across all markers associated with age and mortality, respectively.

Results: The majority of markers (30/34) were associated with age, with stronger associations observed for neopterin, cystatin C, IL-6, TNF-α, several markers of the kynurenine pathway and derived indices KTR (kynurenine/tryptophan ratio), PAr index (ratio of 4-pyridoxic acid and the sum of pyridoxal 5´-phosphate and pyridoxal), and HK:XA (3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio). Many markers (17/34) showed an association with mortality, in particular IL-6, neopterin, CRP, quinolinic acid, PAr index, and KTR. The inflammaging signature included ten markers and was strongly associated of mortality (HR per SD=1.40, 95%CI:1.24-1.57, P=2x10 -8), similar to scores based on all age-associated (HR=1.38, 95%CI:1.23-1.55, P=4x10 -8) and mortality-associated markers (HR=1.43, 95%CI:1.28-1.60, P=1x10 -10), respectively. Strong evidence of replication of the inflammaging signature association with mortality was found in the Hordaland Health Study.

Conclusion: Our study highlights the key role of the kynurenine pathway and vitamin B6 catabolism in aging, along with other well-established inflammation-related markers. A signature of inflammaging based on ten markers was strongly associated with mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab163DOI Listing
June 2021

Quantifying Precision Loss in Targeted Metabolomics Based on Mass Spectrometry and Nonmatching Internal Standards.

Anal Chem 2021 06 20;93(21):7616-7624. Epub 2021 May 20.

Bevital, Laboratoriebygget, 9 etg., Jonas Lies veg 87, 5021 Bergen, Norway.

In mass spectrometry, reliable quantification requires correction for variations in ionization efficiency between samples. The preferred method is the addition of a stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS). In targeted metabolomics, a dedicated SIL-IS for each metabolite of interest may not always be realized due to high cost or limited availability. We recently completed the analysis of more than 70 biomarkers, each with a matching SIL-IS, across four mass spectrometry-based platforms (one GC-MS/MS and three LC-MS/MS). Using data from calibrator and quality control samples added to 60 96-well trays (analytical runs), we calculated analytical precision (CV) retrospectively. The use of integrated peak areas for all metabolites and internal standards allowed us to calculate precision for all matching analyte (A)/SIL-IS (IS) pairs as well as for all nonmatching A/IS pairs within each platform (total = 1442). The median between-run precision for matching A/IS across the four platforms was 2.7-5.9%. The median CV for nonmatching A/IS (corresponding to pairing analytes with a non-SIL-IS) was 2.9-10.7 percentage points higher. Across all platforms, CVs for nonmatching A/IS increased with increasing difference in retention time (Spearman's rho of 0.17-0.93). The CV difference for nonmatching vs matching A/IS was often, but not always, smaller when analytes and internal standards were close structural analogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611570PMC
June 2021

A comparison of complementary measures of vitamin B6 status, function, and metabolism in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 07;114(1):338-347

Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Vitamin B6 insufficiency has been linked to increased risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. The circulating concentration of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a commonly used measure of vitamin B6 status. Ratios of substrates indicating PLP coenzymatic function and metabolism may be useful complementary measures to further explore the role of vitamin B6 in health.

Objectives: We explored the sensitivity of 5 outcomes, namely PLP concentration, homocysteine:cysteine (Hcy:Cys), cystathionine:cysteine (Cysta:Cys), the 3´-hydroxykynurenine ratio (HKr), and the 4-pyridoxic acid ratio (PAr) to vitamin B6 intake as well as personal and lifestyle characteristics.

Medthods: Dietary intake and biomarker data were collected from participants from 3 nested case-control studies within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Bayesian regression models assessed the associations of the 5 biomarker outcomes with vitamin B6 intake and personal and lifestyle covariates. Analogous models examined the relations of Hcy:Cys, Cysta:Cys, and HKr with PLP.

Results: In total, 4608 participants were included in the analyses. Vitamin B6 intake was most strongly associated with PLP, moderately associated with Hcy:Cys, Cysta:Cys, and HKr, and not associated with PAr (fold change in marker given a doubling of vitamin B6 intake: PLP 1.60 [95% credible interval (CrI): 1.50, 1.71]; Hcy:Cys 0.87 [95% CrI: 0.84, 0.90]; Cysta:Cys 0.89 [95% CrI: 0.84, 0.94]; HKr 0.88 [95% CrI: 0.85, 0.91]; PAr 1.00 [95% CrI: 0.95, 1.05]). PAr was most sensitive to age, and HKr was least sensitive to BMI and alcohol intake. Sex and menopause status were strongly associated with all 5 markers.

Conclusions: We found that 5 different markers, capturing different aspects of vitamin B6-related biological processes, varied in their associations with vitamin B6 intake and personal and lifestyle predictors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246608PMC
July 2021

The Pah-R261Q mouse reveals oxidative stress associated with amyloid-like hepatic aggregation of mutant phenylalanine hydroxylase.

Nat Commun 2021 04 6;12(1):2073. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by autosomal recessive variants in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), leading to systemic accumulation of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) that may reach neurotoxic levels. A homozygous Pah-R261Q mouse, with a highly prevalent misfolding variant in humans, reveals the expected hepatic PAH activity decrease, systemic L-Phe increase, L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan decrease, and tetrahydrobiopterin-responsive hyperphenylalaninemia. Pah-R261Q mice also present unexpected traits, including altered lipid metabolism, reduction of liver tetrahydrobiopterin content, and a metabolic profile indicative of oxidative stress. Pah-R261Q hepatic tissue exhibits large ubiquitin-positive, amyloid-like oligomeric aggregates of mutant PAH that colocalize with selective autophagy markers. Together, these findings reveal that PKU, customarily considered a loss-of-function disorder, can also have toxic gain-of-function contribution from protein misfolding and aggregation. The proteostasis defect and concomitant oxidative stress may explain the prevalence of comorbid conditions in adult PKU patients, placing this mouse model in an advantageous position for the discovery of mutation-specific biomarkers and therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22107-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024259PMC
April 2021

Targeted Plasma Metabolic Profiles and Risk of Recurrence in Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer Patients: Results from an International Cohort Consortium.

Metabolites 2021 Feb 24;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Huntsman Cancer Institute Salt Lake City, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

The identification of patients at high-risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence remains an unmet clinical need. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of metabolites with risk of recurrence in stage II/III CRC patients. A targeted metabolomics assay (128 metabolites measured) was performed on pre-surgery collected EDTA plasma samples from n = 440 newly diagnosed stage II/III CRC patients. Patients have been recruited from four prospective cohort studies as part of an international consortium: Metabolomic profiles throughout the continuum of CRC (MetaboCCC). Cox proportional hazard models were computed to investigate associations of metabolites with recurrence, adjusted for age, sex, tumor stage, tumor site, body mass index, and cohort; false discovery rate (FDR) was used to account for multiple testing. Sixty-nine patients (15%) had a recurrence after a median follow-up time of 20 months. We identified 13 metabolites that were nominally associated with a reduced risk of recurrence. None of the associations were statistically significant after controlling for multiple testing. Pathway topology analyses did not reveal statistically significant associations between recurrence and alterations in metabolic pathways (e.g., sphingolipid metabolism = 0.04; p = 1.00). To conclude, we did not observe statistically significant associations between metabolites and CRC recurrence using a well-established metabolomics assay. The observed results require follow-up in larger studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11030129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996362PMC
February 2021

Circulating B-vitamin biomarkers and B-vitamin supplement use in relation to quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer: results from the FOCUS consortium.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 06;113(6):1468-1481

Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: B vitamins have been associated with the risk and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), given their central roles in nucleotide synthesis and methylation, yet their association with quality of life in established CRC is unclear.

Objectives: To investigate whether quality of life 6 months postdiagnosis is associated with: 1) circulating concentrations of B vitamins and related biomarkers 6 months postdiagnosis; 2) changes in these concentrations between diagnosis and 6 months postdiagnosis; 3) B-vitamin supplement use 6 months postdiagnosis; and 4) changes in B-vitamin supplement use between diagnosis and 6 months postdiagnosis.

Methods: We included 1676 newly diagnosed stage I-III CRC patients from 3 prospective European cohorts. Circulating concentrations of 9 biomarkers related to the B vitamins folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and cobalamin were measured at diagnosis and 6 months postdiagnosis. Information on dietary supplement use was collected at both time points. Health-related quality of life (global quality of life, functioning scales, and fatigue) was assessed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 6 months postdiagnosis. Confounder-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed, adjusted for multiple testing.

Results: Higher pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) was cross-sectionally associated with better physical, role, and social functioning, as well as reduced fatigue, 6 months postdiagnosis. Associations were observed for a doubling in the hydroxykynurenine ratio [3-hydroxykynurenine: (kynurenic acid + xanthurenic acid + 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid + anthranilic acid); an inverse marker of vitamin B6] and both reduced global quality of life (β = -3.62; 95% CI: -5.88, -1.36) and worse physical functioning (β = -5.01; 95% CI: -7.09, -2.94). Dose-response relations were observed for PLP and quality of life. No associations were observed for changes in biomarker concentrations between diagnosis and 6 months. Participants who stopped using B-vitamin supplements after diagnosis reported higher fatigue than nonusers.

Conclusions: Higher vitamin B6 status was associated with better quality of life, yet limited associations were observed for the use of B-vitamin supplements. Vitamin B6 needs further study to clarify its role in relation to quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168355PMC
June 2021

Microheterogeneity and preanalytical stability of protein biomarkers of inflammation and renal function.

Talanta 2021 Feb 14;223(Pt 1):121774. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Bevital AS, Jonas Lies veg 87, Laboratory building, 5021, Bergen, Norway.

Protein biomarker microheterogeneity has attracted increasing attention in epidemiological and clinical research studies. Knowledge concerning the preanalytical stability of proteins is paramount to assess the biological significance of their proteoforms. We investigated the stability of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and calprotectin (S100A8/9), and the renal function marker, cystatin C (CnC). In total 16 proteoforms were quantified by immuno-MALDI-TOF MS in EDTA plasma and serum samples from 15 healthy volunteers. Prior to analysis blood samples were stored at either room temperature from 1 h up to 8 days, or underwent up to 9 consecutive freeze/thaw cycles. Pearson's correlation coefficient and t-test, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and Autoregressive Integrated Moving-Average (ARIMA) models were used to investigate the stability of proteoform concentrations and distributions in blood. Plasma and serum concentrations of CRP and SAA proteoforms were highly stable during room temperature exposure and repeated freeze/thaw cycles, demonstrating excellent reproducibility (ICC > 0.75), no serial dependency in ARIMA models, and stable distribution of proteoforms. Stability analyses for proteoforms of S100A8/9 and CnC identified only minor preanalytical changes in concentrations and distributions, and none of the proteoforms were produced during prolonged exposure to room temperature or repeated freezing/thawing. The four proteins and their proteoforms are stable during sub-optimal sample handling, and represent robust biomarker candidates for future biobank studies aimed at investigating the microheterogeneity of SAA, S100A8/9, and CnC in relation to inflammation, renal dysfunction and various clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121774DOI Listing
February 2021

Circulating Folate and Folic Acid Concentrations: Associations With Colorectal Cancer Recurrence and Survival.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Oct 7;4(5):pkaa051. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Surgery, Hospital Group Twente ZGT, Almelo, the Netherlands.

Background: Folates, including folic acid, may play a dual role in colorectal cancer development. Folate is suggested to be protective in early carcinogenesis but could accelerate growth of premalignant lesions or micrometastases. Whether circulating concentrations of folate and folic acid, measured around time of diagnosis, are associated with recurrence and survival in colorectal cancer patients is largely unknown.

Methods: Circulating concentrations of folate, folic acid, and folate catabolites p-aminobenzoylglutamate and p-acetamidobenzoylglutamate were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at diagnosis in 2024 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients from European and US patient cohort studies. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess associations between folate, folic acid, and folate catabolites concentrations with recurrence, overall survival, and disease-free survival.

Results: No statistically significant associations were observed between folate, p-aminobenzoylglutamate, and p-acetamidobenzoylglutamate concentrations and recurrence, overall survival, and disease-free survival, with hazard ratios ranging from 0.92 to 1.16. The detection of folic acid in the circulation (yes or no) was not associated with any outcome. However, among patients with detectable folic acid concentrations (n = 296), a higher risk of recurrence was observed for each twofold increase in folic acid (hazard ratio = 1.31, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.58). No statistically significant associations were found between folic acid concentrations and overall and disease-free survival.

Conclusions: Circulating folate and folate catabolite concentrations at colorectal cancer diagnosis were not associated with recurrence and survival. However, caution is warranted for high blood concentrations of folic acid because they may increase the risk of colorectal cancer recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkaa051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583160PMC
October 2020

Acinar adipose tissue infiltration in salivary gland biopsy is associated with kynurenines-Interferon-γ pathway inflammation biomarkers.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2020 Jul-Aug;38 Suppl 126(4):27-33. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil.

Objectives: Assess if kynurenines metabolites are biomarkers of damage at labial salivary gland biopsy (LSGB).

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study including 99 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (AECG 2002 or ACR/EULAR 2017). Kynurenines were measured in plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: 95.9% were females, 51±12 years. Most had focal lymphocytic sialadenitis with focus score ≥1 (73.7%, n=73/99). The majority had mild to severe acinar atrophy (70.4%, n=57/81) and adipose infiltration (51.2%, n=39/80). Individuals with adipose infiltration were older (53.49±12.33 vs. 47.51±11.29 years, p=0.016), showed higher frequency of glandular dysfunction and higher kynurenines levels. Schirmer's test ≤ 5 mm/5min was found in 69.2% of individuals with adipose infiltration compared to 41% without (p=0.012) and unstimulated whole salivary flow (UWSF) was found in 87.2% compared to 70% without adipose infiltration (p=0.063). Additionally, individuals with adipose infiltration showed higher kynurenines metabolites compared with those without: quinolinic acid (503.35±193.30 vs. 427.35±285.76 nmol/L, p=0.029), kynurenine (1.99±0.6, 54 vs. 1.61±0.46 μmol/L, p=0.006), kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) (0.030±0.09 vs. 0.025±0.01, p=0.031) and anthranilic acid (03±4.96 vs. 16.46±5.24 nmol/L, p=0.022).

Conclusions: Kynurenines are biomarkers of greater adipose infiltration in LSGB and glandular dysfunction suggesting that activation of interferon-γ pathway is involved in the salivary and lacrimal glands damage.
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October 2020

3-Hydroxyisobutyrate, A Strong Marker of Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity That Modulates White and Brown Adipocyte Metabolism.

Diabetes 2020 09 25;69(9):1903-1916. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Mohn Nutrition Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

Circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) associate with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate (3-HIB) is a catabolic intermediate of the BCAA valine. In this study, we show that in a cohort of 4,942 men and women, circulating 3-HIB is elevated according to levels of hyperglycemia and established type 2 diabetes. In complementary cohorts with measures of insulin resistance, we found positive correlates for circulating 3-HIB concentrations with HOMA2 of insulin resistance, as well as a transient increase in 3-HIB followed by a marked decrease after bariatric surgery and weight loss. During differentiation, both white and brown adipocytes upregulate BCAA utilization and release increasing amounts of 3-HIB. Knockdown of the 3-HIB-forming enzyme 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase decreases release of 3-HIB and lipid accumulation in both cell types. Conversely, addition of 3-HIB to white and brown adipocyte cultures increases fatty acid uptake and modulated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in a time-dependent manner. Finally, 3-HIB treatment decreases mitochondrial oxygen consumption and generation of reactive oxygen species in white adipocytes, while increasing these measures in brown adipocytes. Our data establish 3-HIB as a novel adipocyte-derived regulator of adipocyte subtype-specific functions strongly linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db19-1174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968520PMC
September 2020

A prospective evaluation of serum methionine-related metabolites in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in two prospective cohort studies.

Int J Cancer 2020 10 7;147(7):1917-1927. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Division of Cancer Control and Population Science, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Deficiencies in methyl donor status may render DNA methylation changes and DNA damage, leading to carcinogenesis. Epidemiological studies reported that higher dietary intake of choline is associated with lower risk of pancreatic cancer, but no study has examined the association of serum choline and its metabolites with risk of pancreatic cancer. Two parallel case-control studies, one nested within the Shanghai Cohort Study (129 cases and 258 controls) and the other within the Singapore Chinese Health Study (58 cases and 104 controls), were conducted to evaluate the associations of baseline serum concentrations of choline, betaine, methionine, total methyl donors (i.e., sum of choline, betaine and methionine), dimethylglycine and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) with pancreatic cancer risk. In the Shanghai cohort, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of pancreatic cancer for the highest quartile of choline, betaine, methionine, total methyl donors and TMAO were 0.27 (0.11-0.69), 0.57 (0.31-1.05), 0.50 (0.26-0.96), 0.37 (0.19-0.73) and 2.81 (1.37-5.76), respectively, compared to the lowest quartile. The corresponding figures in the Singapore cohort were 0.85 (0.23-3.17), 0.50 (0.17-1.45), 0.17 (0.04-0.68), 0.33 (0.10-1.16) and 1.42 (0.50-4.04). The inverse associations of methionine and total methyl donors including choline, betaine and methionine with pancreatic cancer risk in both cohorts support that DNA repair and methylation play an important role against the development of pancreatic cancer. In the Shanghai cohort, TMAO, a gut microbiota-derived metabolite of dietary phosphatidylcholine, may contribute to higher risk of pancreatic cancer, suggesting a modifying role of gut microbiota in the dietary choline-pancreatic cancer risk association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32994DOI Listing
October 2020

One-carbon metabolites, B vitamins and associations with systemic inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers among colorectal cancer patients: results from the ColoCare Study.

Br J Nutr 2020 05 5;123(10):1187-1200. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

B vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism have been implicated in the development of inflammation- and angiogenesis-related chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). Yet, the role of one-carbon metabolism in inflammation and angiogenesis among CRC patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of components of one-carbon metabolism with inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers among newly diagnosed CRC patients (n 238) in the prospective ColoCare Study, Heidelberg. We cross-sectionally analysed associations between twelve B vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and ten inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers from pre-surgery serum samples using multivariable linear regression models. We further explored associations among novel biomarkers in these pathways with Spearman partial correlation analyses. We hypothesised that pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) is inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers. We observed that PLP was inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r -0·33, Plinear < 0·0001), serum amyloid A (SAA) (r -0·23, Plinear = 0·003), IL-6 (r -0·39, Plinear < 0·0001), IL-8 (r -0·20, Plinear = 0·02) and TNFα (r -0·12, Plinear = 0·045). Similar findings were observed for 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and CRP (r -0·14), SAA (r -0·14) and TNFα (r -0·15) among CRC patients. Folate catabolite acetyl-para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid (pABG) was positively correlated with IL-6 (r 0·27, Plinear < 0·0001), and pABG was positively correlated with IL-8 (r 0·21, Plinear < 0·0001), indicating higher folate utilisation during inflammation. Our data support the hypothesis of inverse associations between PLP and inflammatory biomarkers among CRC patients. A better understanding of the role and inter-relation of PLP and other one-carbon metabolites with inflammatory processes among colorectal carcinogenesis and prognosis could identify targets for future dietary guidance for CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520000422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7425811PMC
May 2020

Plasma kynurenines and prognosis in patients with heart failure.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(1):e0227365. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Metabolites of the kynurenine pathway (mKP) relate to important aspects of heart failure pathophysiology, such as inflammation, energy-homeostasis, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate whether mKP predict mortality in patients with heart failure.

Methods: The study included 202 patients with heart failure (73.8% with coronary artery disease (CAD)), propensity score matched to 384 controls without heart disease, and 807 controls with CAD (71%). All underwent coronary angiography and ventriculography at baseline. Plasma mKP, pyridoxal 5'phosphate (PLP) and CRP were measured at baseline. Case-control differences were assessed by logistic regression and survival by Cox regression, adjusted for age, gender, smoking, diabetes, ejection fraction, PLP, eGFR and CRP. Effect measures are reported per standard deviation increments.

Results: Higher plasma levels of kynurenine, 3- hydroxykynurenine (HK), quinolinic acid (QA), the kynurenine-tryptophan-ratio (KTR) and the ratio of HK to xanthurenic acid (HK/XA) were detected in heart failure compared to both control groups. The mortality rate per 1000 person-years was 55.5 in patients with heart failure, 14.6 in controls without heart disease and 22.2 in CAD controls. QA [HR 1.80, p = 0.013], HK [HR 1.77, p = 0.005], HK/XA [HR 1.67, p < 0.001] and KTR [HR 1.55, p = 0.009] were associated with increased mortality in patients with heart failure, while XA [HR 0.68-0.80, p = 0.013-0.037] were associated with lower mortality in all groups. HK and HK/XA had weak associations with increased mortality in CAD-controls.

Conclusion: Elevated plasma levels of mKP and metabolite ratios are associated with increased mortality, independent of CAD, in patients with heart failure.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227365PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953806PMC
April 2020

Five salmon dinners per week were not sufficient to prevent the reduction in serum vitamin D in autumn at 60° north latitude: a randomised trial.

Br J Nutr 2020 02 25;123(4):419-427. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Dietary Protein Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, 5021 Bergen, Norway.

Low serum concentrations of several vitamins have been linked to increased risk of diseases including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fish is a good source of several vitamins, and the prevalence of T2D is low in populations with high fish intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of high fish intake on vitamins in serum from adults in autumn in South-Western Norway at 60° north latitude. In this randomised clinical trial, sixty-three healthy participants with overweight/obesity consumed 750 g/week of either cod (n 22) or salmon (n 22) as five weekly dinners or were instructed to continue their normal eating habits but avoid fish intake (Control group, n 19) for 8 weeks. The estimated vitamin D intake was significantly increased in the Salmon group when compared with the Cod group (P = 6·3 × 10-4) and with the Control group (P = 3·5 × 10-6), with no differences between groups for estimated intake of vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, C and E. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration was decreased in all groups after 8 weeks; however, the reduction in the Salmon group was significantly smaller compared with the Cod group (P = 0·013) and the Control group (P = 0·0060). Cod and salmon intake did not affect serum concentrations of the other measured vitamins. The findings suggest that 750 g/week of salmon was not sufficient to prevent a decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in autumn in South-Western Norway in adults with overweight/obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519002964DOI Listing
February 2020

Tryptophan catabolites as metabolic markers of vitamin B-6 status evaluated in cohorts of healthy adults and cardiovascular patients.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 01;111(1):178-186

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Vitamin B-6 status is routinely measured as pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) in plasma. Low concentrations of PLP are associated with rheumatic, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases. We have previously shown that vitamin B-6 status affects the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism.

Objective: This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the use of Kyns as potential markers of functional vitamin B-6 status across 2 large cohorts.

Methods: We measured circulating concentrations of the first 6 metabolites in the Trp catabolic pathway by LC-MS-MS in the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK; n = 7017) and cardiovascular patient-based Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort (WECAC; n = 4161). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of plasma PLP with Kyns were estimated using linear and nonlinear regression-based methods.

Results: 3'-Hydroxykynurenine (HK), a substrate, and all 4 products formed directly by the PLP-dependent enzymes kynurenine transaminase and kynureninase contributed to the explanation of circulating PLP in multivariable-adjusted regression models. The construct HK:(kynurenic acid + xanthurenic acid + 3'-hydroxyanthranilic acid + anthranilic acid), termed HK ratio (HKr), was related to plasma PLP with standardized regression coefficients (95% CIs) of -0.47 (-0.49, -0.45) and -0.46 (-0.49, -0.43) in HUSK and WECAC, respectively. Across strata of cohort and sex, HKr was 1.3- to 2.7-fold more sensitive, but also 1.7- to 2.9-fold more specific to changes in PLP than a previously proposed marker, HK:xanthurenic acid. Notably, the association was strongest at PLP concentrations < ∼20 nmol/L, a recognized threshold for vitamin B-6 deficiency. Finally, PLP and HKr demonstrated highly sex-specific and corroborating associations with age.

Conclusions: The results demonstrate that by combining 5 metabolites in the Kyn pathway into a simple index, HKr, a sensitive and specific indicator of intracellular vitamin B-6 status is obtained. The data also underscore the merit of evaluating alterations in Kyn metabolism when investigating vitamin B-6 and health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz228DOI Listing
January 2020

Plasma metabolites associated with colorectal cancer stage: Findings from an international consortium.

Int J Cancer 2020 06 10;146(12):3256-3266. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Division of Preventive Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death globally, with marked differences in prognosis by disease stage at diagnosis. We studied circulating metabolites in relation to disease stage to improve the understanding of metabolic pathways related to colorectal cancer progression. We investigated plasma concentrations of 130 metabolites among 744 Stages I-IV colorectal cancer patients from ongoing cohort studies. Plasma samples, collected at diagnosis, were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 kit. We assessed associations between metabolite concentrations and stage using multinomial and multivariable logistic regression models. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders as well as multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Patients presented with 23, 28, 39 and 10% of Stages I-IV disease, respectively. Concentrations of sphingomyelin C26:0 were lower in Stage III patients compared to Stage I patients (p  < 0.05). Concentrations of sphingomyelin C18:0 and phosphatidylcholine (diacyl) C32:0 were statistically significantly higher, while citrulline, histidine, phosphatidylcholine (diacyl) C34:4, phosphatidylcholine (acyl-alkyl) C40:1 and lysophosphatidylcholines (acyl) C16:0 and C17:0 concentrations were lower in Stage IV compared to Stage I patients (p  < 0.05). Our results suggest that metabolic pathways involving among others citrulline and histidine, implicated previously in colorectal cancer development, may also be linked to colorectal cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216900PMC
June 2020

The effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on serum tryptophan metabolites.

Brain Stimul 2019 Sep - Oct;12(5):1135-1142. Epub 2019 May 31.

Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: Prior studies suggest that activation of the tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway by proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for major depression (MD) with immunomodulation as one of the proposed modes of action.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of tryptophan and kynurenine pathway metabolites in MD patients and healthy controls, and to explore the effect of ECT on components of the kynurenine pathway.

Methods: The study included 27 moderately to severely depressed patients referred to ECT. Blood samples were collected prior to treatment and after the completed ECT-series. Baseline samples were also collected from 14 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Serum concentrations of tryptophan, kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine (HK), kynurenic acid (KA), xanthurenic acid (XA), anthranilic acid (AA), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (HAA), quinolinic acid (QA), picolinic acid (Pic), pyridoxal 5'-phosphat (PLP), riboflavin, neopterin and cotinine were measured.

Results: Patients with MD had lower levels of neuroprotective kynurenine-pathway metabolites (KA, XA and Pic) and lower metabolite ratios (KA/Kyn and KA/QA) reflecting reduced neuroprotection compared to controls. The concentration of the inflammatory marker neopterin was increased after ECT, along with Pic and the redox active and immunosuppressive metabolite HAA.

Conclusion: In this pilot study, we found increased concentrations of inflammatory marker neopterin and putative neuroprotective kynurenine metabolites HAA and Pic in MD patients after ECT. Further research in larger cohorts is required to conclude whether ECT exerts its therapeutic effects via changes in the kynurenine pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2019.05.018DOI Listing
January 2020

Vitamin B-6 Status Correlates with Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients During Treatment with TNFα Inhibitors.

J Nutr 2019 05;149(5):770-775

Department of Clinical Science.

Background: A frequent observation in inflammatory conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is low circulating amounts of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the metabolically active form of vitamin B-6. Recently, a functional marker of vitamin B-6 status, the ratio of 3-hydroxykynurenine (HK): xanthurenic acid (XA) in plasma (HK: XA), was proposed.

Objective: We investigated vitamin B-6 status in patients with RA before and after established treatment with TNFα inhibitors.

Methods: We performed a longitudinal study of RA patients (n = 106, 36% men, median age 54 y) starting first treatment with a TNFα inhibitor (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab, or certolizumab). Clinical assessment (Disease Activity Score for 28 standard joints, DAS28), joint ultrasonography, and blood draw were performed at baseline and after 3 mo treatment. Plasma concentrations of PLP, HK, and XA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of changes in vitamin B-6 markers with change in DAS28 were assessed by generalized additive models regression and with European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response categories by linear regression.

Results: At baseline PLP was inversely correlated with CRP (ρ = -0.27, P = 0.007), whereas HK: XA correlated with DAS28 (ρ = 0.46, P < 0.001), CRP (ρ = 0.36, P < 0.001), and ultrasonography scores (ρ = 0.29-0.35, P ≤ 0.003). After 3 mo treatment, the change (a 33% overall reduction) in DAS28 was related to changes in both PLP (ß = -0.28, P = 0.01) and HK: XA (ß = 0.33, P < 0.001). Good responders (45%) according to EULAR criteria experienced a 31% increase in PLP (P = 0.003) and an 11% decrease in HK: XA (P = 0.1), whereas nonresponders (24%) experienced a 25% increase in HK: XA (P = 0.02).

Conclusion: Two independent measures of vitamin B-6 status confirm an association with disease activity in RA patients. The association of HK: XA with disease activity may also imply perturbations in kynurenine metabolism in RA. This trial was registered at helseforskning.etikkom.no as 2011/490.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz001DOI Listing
May 2019

Plasma Amino Acids and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

Diabetes Care 2019 07 29;42(7):1225-1233. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objective: Altered plasma amino acid levels have been implicated as markers of risk for incident type 2 diabetes; however, amino acids are also related to established diabetes risk factors. Therefore, potential for confounding and the impact from competing risks require evaluation.

Research Design And Methods: We prospectively followed 2,519 individuals with coronary artery disease but without diabetes. Mixed Gaussian modeling identified potential for confounding. Confounding, defined as a change in effect estimate (≥10%), was investigated by comparing amino acid-incident diabetes risk in a Cox model containing age and sex with that in models adjusted for potential confounders (BMI, estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, C-reactive protein), which were further adjusted for plasma glucose, competing risks, and multiple comparisons (false discovery rate = 0.05, Benjamini-Hochberg method). Finally, component-wise likelihood-based boosting analysis including amino acids and confounders was performed and adjusted for competing risks in order to identify an optimal submodel for predicting incident diabetes.

Results: The mean age of the source population was 61.9 years; 72% were men. During a median follow-up of 10.3 years, 267 incident cases of diabetes were identified. In age- and sex-adjusted models, several amino acids, including the branched-chain amino acids, significantly predicted incident diabetes. Adjustment for confounders, however, attenuated associations. Further adjustment for glucose and multiple comparisons rendered only arginine significant (hazard ratio/1 SD 1.21 [95% CI 1.07-1.37]). The optimal submodel included arginine and asparagine.

Conclusions: Adjustment for relevant clinical factors attenuated the amino acid-incident diabetes risk. Although these findings do not preclude the potential pathogenic role of other amino acids, they suggest that plasma arginine is independently associated with incident diabetes. Both arginine and asparagine were identified in an optimal model for predicting new-onset type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc18-2217DOI Listing
July 2019

Plasma metabolites associated with colorectal cancer: A discovery-replication strategy.

Int J Cancer 2019 09 14;145(5):1221-1231. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT.

Colorectal cancer is known to arise from multiple tumorigenic pathways; however, the underlying mechanisms remain not completely understood. Metabolomics is becoming an increasingly popular tool in assessing biological processes. Previous metabolomics research focusing on colorectal cancer is limited by sample size and did not replicate findings in independent study populations to verify robustness of reported findings. Here, we performed a ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) screening on EDTA plasma from 268 colorectal cancer patients and 353 controls using independent discovery and replication sets from two European cohorts (ColoCare Study: n = 180 patients/n = 153 controls; the Colorectal Cancer Study of Austria (CORSA) n = 88 patients/n = 200 controls), aiming to identify circulating plasma metabolites associated with colorectal cancer and to improve knowledge regarding colorectal cancer etiology. Multiple logistic regression models were used to test the association between disease state and metabolic features. Statistically significant associated features in the discovery set were taken forward and tested in the replication set to assure robustness of our findings. All models were adjusted for sex, age, BMI and smoking status and corrected for multiple testing using False Discovery Rate. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from questionnaires and medical records.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6614008PMC
September 2019

Circulating concentrations of B group vitamins and urothelial cell carcinoma.

Int J Cancer 2019 04 3;144(8):1909-1917. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Cancer Epidemiology and Intelligence Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

B-group vitamins, as components of the one carbon metabolism pathway, are involved in DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. Our aim was to investigate associations between circulating plasma levels of B vitamins and urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). We conducted a nested case-control study of UCC within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. B vitamins were measured in pre-diagnostic plasma samples. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for UCC risk associated with circulating B vitamins in 363 matched cases and controls. In a case-only analysis (N = 390), hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival associated with plasma B vitamins were estimated using Cox regression. There were no strong associations between UCC risk and pre-diagnostic levels of plasma B vitamins. No heterogeneity in UCC risk was observed by subtype (invasive or superficial), sex, smoking status or alcohol intake. There was no heterogeneity by country of birth for most B vitamins, except for folate (p-homogeneity = 0.03). In UCC cases, there were no strong associations between plasma B vitamins and overall survival. We found no associations between pre-diagnostic plasma concentrations of B-group vitamins and UCC risk or survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31927DOI Listing
April 2019

Maternal and infant vitamin B12 status during infancy predict linear growth at 5 years.

Pediatr Res 2018 11 4;84(5):611-618. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Department of Child Health, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Many children worldwide have poor vitamin B12 status. The objective of this study was to estimate association between maternal and infant vitamin B12 status and long-term growth.

Methods: We randomly selected 500 Nepali mother-infant pairs and measured maternal intake and infant and maternal vitamin B12 status using plasma cobalamin, total plasma homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid concentrations. We revisited available children when they were 5 years old and measured growth. The associations between intake and maternal and infant markers of vitamin B12 and growth were estimated in multiple linear regression models adjusting for relevant confounders (n = 331).

Results: Maternal vitamin B12 intake and status and vitamin B12 status in infancy predicted linear growth at 5 years of age, but not during infancy. Each microgram increase in the vitamin B12 intake of the mother during infancy was associated with an increase in height of 0.4 (0.2, 0.6) height-for-age z-scores and 1.7 (0.7, 2.7) cm around the child's fifth birthday.

Conclusion: Vitamin B12 status and intake in early life is an important determinant for linear growth at school age. Our findings should be verified in randomized, placebo controlled trials before translated into public health recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-018-0072-2DOI Listing
November 2018

One-carbon metabolite ratios as functional B-vitamin markers and in relation to colorectal cancer risk.

Int J Cancer 2019 03 7;144(5):947-956. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

One-carbon metabolism biomarkers are easily measured in plasma, but analyzing them one at a time in relation to disease does not take into account the interdependence of the many factors involved. The relative dynamics of major one-carbon metabolism branches can be assessed by relating the functional B-vitamin marker total homocysteine (tHcy) to transsulfuration (total cysteine) and methylation (creatinine) outputs. We validated the ratios of tHcy to total cysteine (Hcy:Cys), tHcy to creatinine (Hcy:Cre) and tHcy to cysteine to creatinine (Hcy:Cys:Cre) as functional markers of B-vitamin status. We also calculated the associations of these ratios to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Furthermore, the relative contribution of potential confounders to the variance of the ratio-based B-vitamin markers was calculated by linear regression in a nested case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1,190 matched controls. Total B-vitamin status was represented by a summary score comprising Z-standardized plasma concentrations of folate, cobalamin, betaine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and riboflavin. Associations with CRC risk were estimated using conditional logistic regression. We found that the ratio-based B-vitamin markers all outperformed tHcy as markers of total B-vitamin status, in both CRC cases and controls. In addition, associations with CRC risk were similar for the ratio-based B-vitamin markers and total B-vitamin status (approximately 25% lower risk for high vs. low B-vitamin status). In conclusion, ratio-based B-vitamin markers were good predictors of total B-vitamin status and displayed similar associations as total B-vitamin status with CRC risk. Since tHcy and creatinine are routinely clinically analyzed, Hcy:Cre could be easily implemented in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587534PMC
March 2019

Cobalamin and Folate Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

Nutrients 2018 May 18;10(5). Epub 2018 May 18.

Centre for Intervention Science in Maternal and Child Health, Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, 5020 Bergen, Norway.

Cobalamin and folate are crucial micronutrients during infancy and they are required for growth and cognitive development. Due to the monotonous and predominantly vegetarian-based complementary feeding and poor maternal micronutrient status, infants from low- and middle-income countries are susceptible to cobalamin deficiency. However, data on plasma cobalamin and folate and the functional markers methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine from breastfed infants in Nepal are still needed. We collected plasma samples from 316 6⁻11-month-old breastfed infants with a length-for-age of less than minus one -score and analyzed blood for plasma folate, cobalamin, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine concentrations. Cobalamin deficiency (plasma cobalamin 10 µmol/L) and methylmalonic acid (>0.28 µmol/L) indicating functional cobalamin deficiency were found among 53% and 75% of the infants, respectively. Based on a combined indicator of cobalamin status, 58% were found to have low cobalamin status. However, folate deficiency (.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10050639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986518PMC
May 2018

Performance of plasma trigonelline as a marker of coffee consumption in an epidemiologic setting.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 06;107(6):941-947

Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Coffee is a widely consumed beverage, and studies suggest that drinking coffee has beneficial health effects. The phytohormone trigonelline is present in large amounts in coffee beans, and circulating concentrations of trigonelline have been shown to be positively related to dietary intake of coffee and to increase significantly after the consumption of a bolus dose of coffee.

Objective: We cross-sectionally investigated the utility of plasma trigonelline as a marker of coffee consumption in an epidemiologic setting. We secondarily investigated if coffee intake is related to plasma concentrations of vitamin B-3 (niacin) forms.

Design: In a Norwegian cohort of 3503 participants, we combined questionnaire data on the number of cups of coffee consumed per day with plasma trigonelline to evaluate trigonelline as a marker of coffee intake. The suitability of plasma trigonelline to discriminate those not consuming from those consuming coffee was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Plasma collected at 2 time points 1 y apart was used to determine the within-person reproducibility of trigonelline.

Results: We found that plasma trigonelline concentrations increased strongly with increasing amounts of coffee consumed. ROC analysis showed that trigonelline had an area under the curve of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90, 0.94) for distinguishing coffee abstainers from coffee drinkers. Plasma trigonelline had a good within-person reproducibility (0.66; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.68) for samples collected 1 y apart. The amount of coffee consumed was not associated with plasma concentrations of the niacin vitamers nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide.

Conclusions: Plasma trigonelline performs well as a marker of coffee intake. Data used in this study were derived from the clinical trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00354081.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy059DOI Listing
June 2018

A prospective evaluation of serum kynurenine metabolites and risk of pancreatic cancer.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(5):e0196465. Epub 2018 May 7.

Division of Cancer Control and Population Science, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Background: Serum pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, is associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Data on functional measures of vitamin B6 status and risk of pancreatic cancer is lacking.

Methods: A nested case-control study involving 187 incident cases of pancreatic cancer and 362 individually matched controls were conducted within two prospective cohorts to evaluate the associations between kynurenine metabolites in pre-diagnostic serum samples and risk of pancreatic cancer.

Results: Higher serum concentrations of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (HAA) and the HAA:3-hydroxykynurenine (HK) ratio (a measure for in vivo functional status of PLP) were significantly associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Compared with the lowest tertile, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of pancreatic cancer for the highest tertile was 0.62 (0.39, 1.01) for HAA, and 0.59 (0.35-0.98) for the HAA:HK ratio, after adjustment for potential confounders and serum PLP (both Ps for trend<0.05). The kynurenine:tryptophan ratio or neopterin was not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

Conclusions: The inverse association between HAA or the HAA:HK ratio and risk of pancreatic cancer supports the notion that functional status of PLP may be a more important measure than circulating PLP alone for the development of pancreatic cancer.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0196465PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5937773PMC
August 2018

Plasma cystathionine and risk of acute myocardial infarction among patients with coronary heart disease: Results from two independent cohorts.

Int J Cardiol 2018 Sep 21;266:24-30. Epub 2018 Apr 21.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; KG Jebsen Centre for Diabetes Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Cystathionine is a thio-ether and a metabolite formed from homocysteine during transsulfuration. Elevated plasma cystathionine levels are reported in patients with cardiovascular disease; however prospective relationships with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are unknown. We investigated associations between plasma cystathionine and AMI among patients with suspected and/or verified coronary heart disease (CHD).

Methods: Subjects from two independent cohort studies, the Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort (WECAC) (3033 patients with stable angina pectoris; 263 events within 4.8 years of median follow-up) and the Norwegian Vitamin Trial (NORVIT) (3670 patients with AMI; 683 events within 3.2 years of median follow-up) were included.

Results: In both cohorts, plasma cystathionine was associated with several traditional CHD risk factors (P < 0.001). Comparing the cystathionine quartile 4 to 1, age and gender adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for AMI were 2.08 (1.43-3.03) and 1.41 (1.12-1.76) in WECAC and NORVIT, respectively. Additional adjustment for traditional risk factors slightly attenuated the risk estimates, which were generally stronger in both cohorts among non-smokers, patients with higher age, and lower BMI or PLP status (P-interaction ≤ 0.04). Risk associations also tended to be stronger in patients not treated with B-vitamins. Additionally, in a subset of 80 WECAC patients, plasma cystathionine associated strongly negatively with glutathione, an important antioxidant and positively with lanthionine, a marker of HS production (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Plasma cystathionine is associated with increased risk of AMI among patients with either suspected or verified coronary heart disease, and is possibly related to altered redox homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.04.083DOI Listing
September 2018
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