Publications by authors named "Arum Yoo"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Verapamil as an Adjunct Therapy to Reduce tPA Toxicity in Hyperglycemic Stroke: Implication of TXNIP/NLRP3 Inflammasome.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 875 Monroe Avenue, Wittenborg Bldg, Room-231, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA.

Thrombolytic therapy has remained quite challenging in hyperglycemic patients for its association with poor prognosis and increased hemorrhagic conversions. We recently showed that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced cerebrovascular damage is associated with thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) upregulation, which has an established role in the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia. In the present work, we investigated whether verapamil, an established TXNIP inhibitor, may provide protection against hyperglycemic stroke and tPA-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Acute hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal administration of 20% glucose, 15 min prior to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Verapamil (0.15 mg/kg) or saline was intravenously infused with tPA at hyperglycemic reperfusion, 1 h post tMCAO. After 24 h of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), mice were assessed for neurobehavioral deficits followed by sacrifice and evaluation of brain infarct volume, edema, and microbleeding. Alterations in TXNIP, inflammatory mediators, and BBB markers were further analyzed using immunoblotting or immunostaining techniques. As adjunctive therapy, verapamil significantly reduced tPA-induced BBB leakage, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) upregulation, and tight junction protein deregulation, which resulted in lesser hemorrhagic conversions. Importantly, verapamil strongly reversed tPA-induced TXNIP/NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3) inflammasome activation and reduced infarct volume. This concurred with a remarkable decrease in high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) stimulation, leading to less priming of NLRP3 inflammasome. This preclinical study supports verapamil as a safe adjuvant that may complement thrombolytic therapy by inhibiting TXNIP's detrimental role in hyperglycemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02384-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Tissue Plasminogen Activator Promotes TXNIP-NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation after Hyperglycemic Stroke in Mice.

Mol Neurobiol 2020 Jun 14;57(6):2495-2508. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 875 Monroe Avenue, Wittenborg Bldg, Room-231, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA.

Hyperglycemia has been shown to counterbalance the beneficial effects of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in ischemic stroke. Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) mediates hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in the brain and reduces cerebral glucose uptake/utilization. We have recently reported that TXNIP-induced NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3) inflammasome activation contributes to neuronal damage after ischemic stroke. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tPA induces TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome activation after ischemic stroke, in hyperglycemic mice. Acute hyperglycemia was induced in mice by intraperitoneal (IP) administration of a 20% glucose solution. This was followed by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (t-MCAO), with or without intravenous (IV) tPA administered at reperfusion. The IV-tPA exacerbated hyperglycemia-induced neurological deficits, ipsilateral edema and hemorrhagic transformation, and accentuated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) upregulation and TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation after ischemic stroke. Higher expression of TXNIP in hyperglycemic t-MCAO animals augmented glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) downregulation and increased vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression/matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) signaling, all of which result in blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption and increased permeability to endogenous immunoglobulin G (IgG). It was also associated with a discernible buildup of nitrotyrosine and accumulation of dysfunctional tight junction proteins: zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin and claudin-5. Moreover, tPA administration triggered activation of high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB-1), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in the ischemic penumbra of hyperglycemic animals. All of these observations suggest a powerful role for TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the tPA-induced toxicity seen with hyperglycemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-01893-7DOI Listing
June 2020

Early Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase after Ischemic Stroke Reduces Infarct Volume and Improves Long-Term Behavior.

Mol Neurobiol 2017 09 2;54(7):5375-5384. Epub 2016 Sep 2.

Department of Neurology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) have recently been implicated in apoptosis and ischemic cell death. We tested the efficacy of early intervention with a peptide PI3K activator in focal cerebral ischemia. After determining the most effective dose (24 μg/kg) and time window (2 h after MCAO) of treatment, a total of 48 rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) was performed 1 h after MCAO and rats with lesion sizes within a predetermined range were randomized to either PI3K activator or vehicle treatment arms. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI, neurological function, western blots, and immunohistochemistry were blindly assessed. Initial DWI lesion volumes were nearly identical between two groups prior to treatment. However, FLAIR showed significantly smaller infarct volumes in the PI3K activator group compared with vehicle (146 ± 81 mm and 211 ± 96 mm, p = 0.045) at 48 h. The PI3K activator group also had better neurological function for up to 2 weeks. In addition, PI3K activator decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the peri-infarct region compared with the control group. Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of phosphorylated Akt (Ser473) and GSK-3β (Ser9) and decreased expression of cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. Our results suggest a neuroprotective role of early activation of PI3K in ischemic stroke. The use of DWI in the randomization of experimental groups may reduce bias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-016-0063-4DOI Listing
September 2017

Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway plays important roles in reduction of cerebral infarction by cilnidipine.

J Neurochem 2015 Oct 31;135(1):186-93. Epub 2015 Aug 31.

Department of Translational Medicine, Hanyang University Graduate School of Biomedical Science & Engineering, Seoul, Korea.

Cerebral infarction causes permanent neuronal loss inducing severe morbidity and mortality. Because hypertension is the main risk factor for cerebral infarction and most patients with hypertension take antihypertensive drugs daily, the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of anti-hypertensive drugs need to be investigated. Cilnidipine, a long-acting, new generation 1,4-dihydropyridine inhibitor of both L- and N-type calcium channels, was reported to reduce oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether cilnidipine has therapeutic effects in an animal model of cerebral infarction. After determination of the most effective dose of cilnidipine, a total of 128 rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neurobehavioral function test and brain MRI were performed, and rats with similar sized infarcts were randomized to either the cilnidipine group or the control group. Cilnidipine treatment was performed with reperfusion after 2-h occlusion. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were also performed after 24-h occlusion. Initial infarct volume on diffusion-weighted MRI was not different between the cilnidipine group and the control group; however, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI at 24 h showed significantly reduced infarct volume in the cilnidipine group compared with the control group. Cilnidipine treatment significantly decreased the number of triphosphate nick end labeling-positive cells compared to the control group. Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of phosphorylated Akt (Ser473), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and Bcl-2 and decreased expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. These results suggest that cilnidipine, which is used for the treatment of hypertension, has neuroprotective effects in the ischemic brain through activation of the PI3K pathway. We investigated whether cilnidipine has neuroprotective effects on ischemic stroke in an animal model. We have demonstrated that the neuroprotective effect of cilnidipine is associated with the activation of the PI3K pathway. Considering the daily use of antihypertensive drugs for patients with hypertension, cilnidipine could be beneficial for patients with ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.13254DOI Listing
October 2015

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor attenuates delayed tPA-induced hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke rats by enhancing angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2015 Feb 26;35(2):338-46. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida, USA.

Treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) beyond the therapeutic time window (>4.5 hours post stroke) may produce hemorrhagic transformation (HT). Strategies that could extend the narrow time window of tPA will benefit a significant number of stroke patients. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and given vehicle, tPA (10 mg/kg), or tPA and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, 300 μg/kg), at 6 hours after MCAo. Twenty-four hours post treatment, G-CSF+tPA-treated stroke rats displayed 25% improvement in neurological functions and 38.9% reduction of hemorrhage, with Western blots showing 1.9- and 1.2-fold increments in Ang-2 expression in the ischemic cortex and striatum, respectively, and 3-fold increase in phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the ipsilateral cortex relative to tPA-treated rats. Immunohistochemistry also showed 2- and 2.8-fold increase in von-Willebrand expression, 3.2- and 2.2-fold increased CD34+ expression, and 4- and 13-fold upregulation of VEGFR-2 expression in the ischemic cortex and striatum, respectively, in G-CSF+tPA-treated stroke rats relative to tPA-treated subjects. Altogether, these findings indicate that G-CSF attenuated delayed tPA-induced HT likely via the enhancement of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The use of G-CSF to protect the vasculature may improve the clinical outcome of tPA even outside the currently indicated therapeutic window for ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2014.208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4426753PMC
February 2015