Publications by authors named "Artur Bauhofer"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

IgM-enriched immunoglobulin in COVID-19: Case series of 15 severely ill SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Oct 23;99:107998. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The healthcare system in Iran, like most around the world, is managing thousands of patients hospitalised with COVID-19. In Iran, in-hospital mortality is in the region of 25%, rising to 50-60% in patients admitted to intensive care. Hyperinflammation, characterised by cytokine storm, appears to be a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and to date only the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone has been shown to reduce mortality in those hospitalised with the disease. There is a sound scientific rationale behind the use of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin in the management of patients with severe COVID-19. It has been used successfully in the management of hyperinflammation in patients with sepsis and has led to improved radiographic scores in patients with severe cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Recently the successful treatment of a patient with COVID-19 with IgM-enriched immunoglobulin was reported. Here we report the outcome of a further 15 patients hospitalised with COVID-19 treated with IgM-enriched immunoglobulin. Improvements in computed tomography (CT) score were observed in nine patients, indicating that further clinical studies into the use of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin in the treatment of severe COVID-19 are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299233PMC
October 2021

Benefits of immunoglobulin substitution in primary and secondary immunodeficiencies: Interim analysis of a prospective, long-term non-interventional study.

Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun;59(6):417-427

Objective: To assess the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of the intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) Intratect 100 g/L in a prospective, large-scale non-interventional study (NIS) of patients with a wide range of antibody deficiencies as well as other indications for IVIG, risk factors, and frequency of pre-treatments.

Materials And Methods: Patients were enrolled at 53 practices and clinics in Germany. After recording of baseline information, each patient was treated according to need, as judged by the physician and guided by the SmPC. Relevant data were acquired from medical records, and the patients completed questionnaires to assess treatment satisfaction and quality of life (QoL).

Results: At cut-off for this interim analysis, 488 patients were enrolled (planned: 1,000). 47% were male, age 16 - 91 (median 61) years, with treatment durations up to 2,225 (median 282) days. Indications were primary (32%) and secondary (61%) immunodeficiencies, immune thrombocytopenia (4%), and others (3%). More than 92% of physicians recorded very good effectiveness and satisfaction. Patient satisfaction and QoL increased with time from baseline. Initially, 31% of the SID patients had inadequate IgG trough levels (< 4 g/L), including patients with (37%) and without (63%) previous IVIG treatment. Despite a relatively low IVIG dose (median 0.2 g/kg), trough levels improved: after 3 infusions, only 22% of patients had trough levels < 4 g/L, with a plateau below 17% after 6 infusions. Adverse reactions were observed at a rate of 3% per infusion, whereas 0.08% accounted for serious reactions.

Conclusion: Effectiveness, safety, patient satisfaction, and QoL were good, confirming the positive benefit-risk profile of the IVIG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CP203952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111403PMC
June 2021

Long-term analysis of the benefit of prophylaxis for adult patients with severe or moderate haemophilia A.

Haemophilia 2020 May 15;26(3):467-477. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Biotest AG, Dreieich, Germany.

Introduction: Prophylaxis with factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates in children with haemophilia A (HA) is current standard of care. The benefit of prophylactic treatment for adult HA patients is not commonly accepted.

Aim: To investigate the benefit of prophylaxis over on-demand treatment in adult and elderly patients with severe or non-severe HA in a real-life setting.

Methods: Data from 163 patients comprising 1202 patient-years were evaluated for 7.5 (±5.3) years. The effects on the annual bleeding rate (ABR, including spontaneous and traumatic bleeds) of treatment with a plasma-derived FVIII concentrate, the patient's age and disease severity were investigated. The effect of changing the treatment from on demand to continuous prophylaxis on the patients' ABRs was further analysed.

Results: Prophylaxis had the greatest effect on the ABRs of patients of any age with severe or non-severe HA. The difference in ABR of all patients treated on demand (median 31.4; interquartile range (IQR) 27.6; N = 83) compared with those treated prophylactically (median 1.3; IQR 3.6; N = 122) was statistically significant (P < .05), even for patients with non-severe HA (median 8.4; IQR 15.5; N = 11) vs median 1.5; IQR 4.2 (N = 17), P < .05). Patients, aged up to 88 years, switching from on demand to continuous prophylaxis showed the lowest median ABR (1.1; N = 51) after their regimen change.

Conclusion: Any (even low-frequency) prophylaxis results in lower ABR than on-demand treatment. Patients switching to prophylaxis benefitted the most, irrespective of age or HA severity. Prophylactic treatment-even tertiary-is the regimen of choice for patients of any age, including elderly patients, with severe or non-severe HA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hae.13988DOI Listing
May 2020

Long-Term Safety and Efficacy Data of a Plasma-Derived Factor VIII Concentrate with von Willebrand Factor for Treatment of Patients with Hemophilia A Covering 18 Years.

Hamostaseologie 2019 Nov 24;39(4):360-367. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Hemophilia Center, Goethe University, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

We describe the results of the (to our knowledge) longest long-term noninterventional study so far performed to obtain real-life data on the treatment of hemophilia A patients with a single plasma-derived FVIII concentrate containing von Willebrand factor (pdFVIII; Haemoctin/Faktor VIII SDH Intersero). A total of 198 patients (146 in Germany and 52 in Hungary), of whom 160 had severe and 38 nonsevere hemophilia A, representing all age groups (0-88 years; mean ∼25 years at inclusion) were analyzed during prophylactic or on-demand treatment over 18 years (overall 1,418 patient-years; mean >7 years). pdFVIII was very effective and well tolerated. The mean annual bleeding rate, including spontaneous and traumatic bleeds, was considerably lower for patients treated prophylactically (mean 5.4; median 3.1) than for patients treated on demand (mean 26.1; median 21.9). Inhibitors were found in 13% (3/23) and high-titer inhibitors in 4% (1/23) of previously untreated patients with severe hemophilia A. Four previously treated patients with severe hemophilia A developed inhibitors, thereof three high-titer inhibitors (3.3 and 2.5 high-titer inhibitors in 1,000 patient-years). No unexpected adverse effect on the health of the patients, no pdFVIII-related thrombosis, thromboembolic event, or hypersensitivity reaction, and no suspected viral transmission related to pdFVIII were documented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1698810DOI Listing
November 2019

Personalized medicine with IgGAM compared with standard of care for treatment of peritonitis after infectious source control (the PEPPER trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2019 Mar 4;20(1):156. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Intensive Care and Intermediate Care, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr.30, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

Background: Peritonitis is responsible for thousands of deaths annually in Germany alone. Even source control (SC) and antibiotic treatment often fail to prevent severe sepsis or septic shock, and this situation has hardly improved in the past two decades. Most experimental immunomodulatory therapeutics for sepsis have been aimed at blocking or dampening a specific pro-inflammatory immunological mediator. However, the patient collective is large and heterogeneous. There are therefore grounds for investigating the possibility of developing personalized therapies by classifying patients into groups according to biomarkers. This study aims to combine an assessment of the efficacy of treatment with a preparation of human immunoglobulins G, A, and M (IgGAM) with individual status of various biomarkers (immunoglobulin level, procalcitonin, interleukin 6, antigen D-related human leucocyte antigen (HLA-DR), transcription factor NF-κB1, adrenomedullin, and pathogen spectrum).

Methods/design: A total of 200 patients with sepsis or septic shock will receive standard-of-care treatment (SoC). Of these, 133 patients (selected by 1:2 randomization) will in addition receive infusions of IgGAM for 5 days. All patients will be followed for approximately 90 days and assessed by the multiple-organ failure (MOF) score, by the EQ QLQ 5D quality-of-life scale, and by measurement of vital signs, biomarkers (as above), and survival.

Discussion: This study is intended to provide further information on the efficacy and safety of treatment with IgGAM and to offer the possibility of correlating these with the biomarkers to be studied. Specifically, it will test (at a descriptive level) the hypothesis that patients receiving IgGAM who have higher inflammation status (IL-6) and poorer immune status (low HLA-DR, low immunoglobulin levels) have a better outcome than patients who do not receive IgGAM. It is expected to provide information that will help to close the knowledge gap concerning the association between the effect of IgGAM and the presence of various biomarkers, thus possibly opening the way to a personalized medicine.

Trial Registration: EudraCT, 2016-001788-34; ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03334006 . Registered on 17 Nov 2017. Trial sponsor: RWTH Aachen University, represented by the Center for Translational & Clinical Research Aachen (contact Dr. S. Isfort).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3244-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399861PMC
March 2019

Recurrence of Hepatitis B Infection in Liver Transplant Patients Receiving Long-Term Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Prophylaxis.

Ann Transplant 2018 Nov 13;23:789-801. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Transplant Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

BACKGROUND Long-term real-world data are relatively sparse regarding recurrence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after liver transplantation using hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) and nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) prophylaxis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from 371 adults transplanted for HBV-related disease at 20 European centers and given HBIg for ³12 months ± NUC therapy were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS HBIg comprised Hepatect® (iv HBIgB; n=299), subcutaneous Zutectra® (sc HBIg, n=236), and other HBIg preparations (n=130); 93.5% received NUC therapy. Mean follow-up was 6.8±3.5 years. The primary efficacy variable, freedom from HBV recurrence, occurred in 95.7% of patients (95% CI [93.1%, 97.5%]). The observed incidence of recurrence was 16/371 (4.3%) (annual rate 0.65%); 5/16 patients with recurrence had discontinued HBIg and 7/16 had anti-HBs <100 IU/l. Excluding these 7 patients, the HBV recurrence rate was 2.4%. The recurrence rate while on HBIg therapy was 1 per 2069 months. In patients who discontinued HBIg, risk of HBV recurrence versus sc HBIg users was increased by 5.2-fold (1 per 1 603 versus 1 per 8379 treatment months). The annual rate of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence was 1.7%. CONCLUSIONS These results support the long-term use of HBIg with NUC therapy as an effective management strategy to minimize risk of HBV recurrence and virus-related complications after liver transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AOT.910176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249983PMC
November 2018

Safety monitoring of the intravenous immunoglobulin preparation Intratect® in primary and secondary immunodeficiencies: a prospective non-interventional study.

Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2015 Jan;53(1):21-31

Objectives: To better characterize the risk profile of the intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) Intratect®, a non-interventional study was undertaken to systematically collect large-scale safety information under real-life conditions in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency. Secondary objectives were data on treatment modalities.

Methods: A prospective, non-interventional study was performed at 95 centers. RESULTS of an interim analysis are reported here. Intratect® (50 g/L) was administered at the physician's discretion. Data were captured from patients with different causes of immunodeficiency (61.5% with malignancy) at routine clinic visits, with a particular focus on the frequency and causality of adverse events.

Results: 1,313 patients were followed for a median of 294 days. At study entry, 836 patients (63.7%) were receiving therapy, most frequently IVIG treatment (37.2%). In total, 21,995 Intratect® infusions were documented (median 11 infusions per patient, median dose 200 mL). Median serum IgG level increased from 5.78 (interquartile range 3.70, 8.87) g/L at month 1 to 6.58 (4.82, 9.48) g/mL at month 12. Altogether, 689 adverse events were collected, irrespective of causality. From these, 225 (32.7%) were assessed as related to Intratect® and thus considered suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Thus, the ADR rate was 1.0% per infusion. Seven ADRs (7/225, 3.1%) were graded serious. In all cases, the patients had recovered or were recovering at the time of reporting.

Conclusions: Use of Intratect® for immunoglobulin substitution in primary and secondary immunodeficiency under real-life conditions is associated with a low rate of suspected ADRs. Serious ADRs are rare and manageable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CP202204DOI Listing
January 2015

Efficacy and safety of Privigen(®) in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: results of a prospective, single-arm, open-label Phase III study (the PRIMA study).

J Peripher Nerv Syst 2013 Jun;18(2):130-40

Reference Center for Rare Neuromuscular Diseases, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière and University Paris VI, Paris, France.

This prospective, multicenter, single-arm, open-label Phase III study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Privigen(®) (10% liquid human intravenous immunoglobulin [IVIG], stabilized with L-proline) in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Patients received one induction dose of Privigen (2 g/kg body weight [bw]) and up to seven maintenance doses (1 g/kg bw) at 3-week intervals. The primary efficacy endpoint was the responder rate at completion, defined as improvement of ≥1 point on the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability scale. The preset success criterion was the responder rate being ≥35%. Of the 31 screened patients, 28 patients were enrolled including 13 (46.4%) IVIG-pretreated patients. The overall responder rate at completion was 60.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 42.41%-76.43%). IVIG-pretreated patients demonstrated a higher responder rate than IVIG-naïve patients (76.9% vs. 46.7%). The median (25%-75% quantile) INCAT score improved from 3.5 (3.0-4.5) points at baseline to 2.5 (1.0-3.0) points at completion, as did the mean (standard deviation [SD]) maximum grip strength (66.7 [37.24] kPa vs. 80.9 [31.06] kPa) and the median Medical Research Council sum score (67.0 [61.5-72.0] points vs. 75.5 [71.5-79.5] points). Of 108 adverse events (AEs; 0.417 AEs per infusion), 95 AEs (88.0%) were mild or moderate in intensity and resolved by the end of study. Two serious AEs of hemolysis were reported that resolved after discontinuation of treatment. Thus, Privigen provided efficacious and well-tolerated induction and maintenance treatment in patients with CIDP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jns5.12017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3910165PMC
June 2013

Head and neck cancer surgery in the elderly: outcome evaluation with the McPeek score.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2011 Feb;120(2):110-5

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Marburg, Germany.

Objectives: There is international consensus that elderly patients with head and neck cancer should be treated curatively, like younger patients. Because of common comorbidities in elderly patients, perioperative complications are likely. The McPeek postoperative outcome score was used to evaluate the success of surgical interventions in patients with head and neck cancer.

Methods: We included 168 patients in the study (56 in the study group, 75 years of age or more; and 112 in the control group, less than 60 years of age). All patients underwent major surgery for head and neck cancer.

Results: The median McPeek scores were 8 in the study group and 9 in the control group (p = 0.04). Regression analysis revealed that neither age (p = 0.085) nor the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score (p = 0.342) were independent predictors of the McPeek score. Synchronous surgical interventions (p = 0.00051) and duration of surgery (p = 0.0015) had a significant impact on McPeek score performance.

Conclusions: The McPeek score seems to be an appropriate tool for comparing major surgeries for head and neck cancer in different age groups. It is possible to assess the influence of anesthetic and surgical interventions and complications that affect the length of hospitalization. The results confirm that the overall complication rate after surgery in elderly patients does not differ significantly from that in their younger counterparts. Therefore, extended surgical treatment should be offered to both age groups when no serious comorbidities are present. The postoperative outcome seems to depend on the duration and extent of the surgical intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000348941112000207DOI Listing
February 2011

Differential effects of antibiotics in combination with G-CSF on survival and polymorphonuclear granulocyte cell functions in septic rats.

BMC Infect Dis 2008 Apr 30;8:55. Epub 2008 Apr 30.

Institute of Theoretical Surgery, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35033 Marburg, Germany.

Background: In addition to their antimicrobial activity, antibiotics modulate cellular host defence. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is also a well known immunomodulator; however little is known about the interactions of G-CSF with antibiotics. We investigated in septic rats the effects of two antibiotic combinations with G-CSF.

Methods: In two clinic modelling randomised trials (CMRTs), male Wistar rats were anesthetized, given antibiotic prophylaxis, had a laparotomy with peritoneal contamination and infection (PCI), and were randomly assigned (n = 18 rats/group) to: 1) PCI only; 2) PCI+antibiotic; and, 3) PCI+antibiotic+G-CSF prophylaxis (20 mug/kg, three times). This sequence was conducted first with 10 mg/kg coamoxiclav, and then with ceftriaxone/metronidazole (Cef/met, 10/3 mg/kg). In additional animals, the blood cell count, migration and superoxide production of PMNs, systemic TNF-alpha and liver cytokine mRNA expression levels were determined.

Results: Only the combination coamoxiclav plus G-CSF improved the survival rate (82 vs. 44%, p < 0.001). Improved survival with this combination was accompanied by normalised antimicrobial PMN migratory activity and superoxide production, along with normalised systemic TNF-alpha levels and a reduced expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1 in the liver.

Conclusion: There are substantial differences in the interaction of antibiotics with G-CSF. Therefore, the selection of the antibiotic for combination with G-CSF in sepsis treatment should be guided not only by the bacteria to be eliminated, but also by the effects on antimicrobial functions of PMNs and the cytokine response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-8-55DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2386131PMC
April 2008

Effects of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and hyperthermic preconditioning in septic rats.

Anesthesiology 2007 Sep;107(3):437-41

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Background: The authors tested the effects of LL-37 prophylaxis or therapy on the outcome after intraabdominal sepsis and examined whether hyperthermic preconditioning plus LL-37 therapy augments host immune response and improves survival.

Methods: A rat model of peritoneal contamination and infection (PCI) with human stool was used to simulate clinical conditions. In trial 1, the authors compared (1) PCI, (2) LL-37 prophylaxis (0.5 mg/kg, 12 h before PCI), and (3) LL-37 therapy (0.5 mg/kg, 1 h after PCI). In trial 2, the authors compared (1) PCI, (2) LL-37 therapy, (3) hyperthermic preconditioning (41 degrees C for 1 h, 24 h before PCI), and (4) LL-37 therapy and hyperthermic preconditioning. The primary endpoint was mortality at 120 h. In trial 2, secondary endpoints were systemic levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, and heat shock protein 70; leukocyte counts; and neutrophil granulocyte phagocytosis.

Results: In trial 1, 30% of the control group compared with 70% of the LL-37 therapy group survived, but 55% after LL-37 prophylaxis survived (P = 0.038). In trial 2, 38% of the controls, 67% of the LL-37 therapy, 59% of the hyperthermic preconditioned, and 90% of the hyperthermic preconditioned plus LL-37 therapy group survived (P = 0.01). LL-37 therapy plus hyperthermic preconditioning reduced proinflammatory cytokine concentrations after sepsis; specifically compared with controls, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and interleukin-6 levels were 1.5 +/- 1.5 versus 11 +/- 6 pg/ml (P = 0.028) and 13 +/- 8 versus 86 +/- 31 pg/ml, (P = 0.015), respectively.

Conclusions: In this model of intraabdominal sepsis, LL-37 therapy improved outcome. Hyperthermic preconditioning per se was not successful, but in combination with LL-37 therapy, the survival rate after sepsis was increased and the proinflammatory cytokine response was downgraded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000278906.86815.ebDOI Listing
September 2007

Perioperative prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in high-risk colorectal cancer patients for an improved recovery: A randomized, controlled trial.

Surgery 2007 Apr 4;141(4):501-10. Epub 2007 Jan 4.

Institute of Theoretical Surgery, Philipps-University Marburg, Germany.

Background: We aimed to improve the postoperative outcome of high-risk patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 and 4) recovering from colorectal cancer surgery by using recombinant human G-CSF (filgrastim) as perioperative prophylaxis.

Methods: In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 80 patients undergoing left-sided colorectal resection were randomized to filgrastim or placebo. Filgrastim (5 mug/kg) or placebo was administered in the afternoon on day -1, 0, and +1 relative to the operation. Primary endpoints were in a hierarchic order: quality of life (QoL) over time (determined at discharge, 2 and 6 months after operation with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaire) and the McPeek recovery score, which measures death and duration of stays in the intensive care unit and hospital. Predefined secondary endpoints were global QoL, subdomains of QoL, postoperative recovery, duration of stay, 6-month overall survival, complication rates, and cellular and immunologic parameters.

Results: There were no significant differences in both primary endpoints between the treatment groups. A significant improvement (P < .05) was obtained by filgrastim prophylaxis in the QoL subdomain family life /- social functioning,; thus, more patients recovered to their preoperative state (14 vs 4 with placebo) as determined by structured interviews. Duration of hospital stay (14 vs 12 days) and noninfectious complications were decreased from 8% to 3%.

Conclusions: High-risk patients undergoing major operation for colorectal cancer profited from filgrastim prophylaxis with regard to duration of hospital stay, noninfectious complications, social QoL, and subjective recovery from operation. These endpoints, however, were secondary, and the primary endpoints (overall QoL and the McPeek index) did not show comparable benefits. A new confirmatory trial with the successful endpoints of this trial, as well as a cost analysis, will be needed to confirm the results before a general recommendation for the prophylactic use of G-CSF in high-risk cancer patients can be given.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2006.09.004DOI Listing
April 2007

Added value of gastrin receptor scintigraphy in comparison to somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in patients with carcinoids and other neuroendocrine tumours.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2006 Dec;13(4):1203-11

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Gastrin receptor scintigraphy (GRS) is a new imaging method primarily developed for the detection of metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). As gastrin-binding CCK(2) receptors are also expressed on a variety of other neuroendocrine tumours (NET), we compared GRS to somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in patients with NET. SRS and GRS were performed within 21 days in a series of 60 consecutive patients with NET. GRS was directly compared with SRS. If lesions were visible on GRS but not detectable by SRS, other imaging modalities (MRI, CT) and follow-up were used for verification. Of the 60 evaluable patients, 51 had carcinoid tumours, 3 gastrinomas, 2 glucagonomas, 1 insulinoma and 3 paragangliomas. The overall tumour-detection rate was 73.7% for GRS and 82.1% for SRS. In the 11 patients with negative SRS, GRS was positive in 6 (54.5%). Based on the number of tumour sites detected and the degree of uptake, GRS performed better than SRS in 13 patients (21.7%), equivalent images were obtained in 18 cases (30.0%) and SRS performed better in 24 (40.0%) cases. In six of the SRS positive patients, 18 additional sites of tumour involvement could be detected. Overall, GRS detected additional tumour sites in 20% of the patients. Localisation of the primary tumours or their functional status had no influence on the outcome of imaging. GRS should be performed in selected patients as it may provide additional information in patients with NET with equivocal or absent somatostatin uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/erc.1.01245DOI Listing
December 2006

Synergistic effects of the anti-cholinergic R,R-glycopyrrolate with anti-inflammatory drugs.

Biochem Pharmacol 2006 Dec 25;72(12):1690-6. Epub 2006 Sep 25.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Fahrstr. 17, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.

Currently, much effort is geared towards developing therapies that impact on the inflammation in respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD, assuming that this will improve disease pathology. R,R-Glycopyrrolate, a quaternary ammonium compound, is a muscarinic receptor antagonist with the potential to be used as a long-acting bronchodilator in patients with asthma and COPD. In this study we evaluated whether the combination of R,R-glycopyrrolate with known anti-inflammatory drugs results in synergistic effects. Human primary monocytes were used as an in vitro model system. M3, M4, M1 and M2 receptors were expressed in these cells in descending order. The combinatory effects of the drugs on the release of TNF-alpha after lipopolysaccharide stimulation were analyzed. R,R-Glycopyrrolate alone did not affect LPS induced TNF-alpha release. The PDE4 inhibitor rolipram dose dependently inhibited the TNF-alpha release. Maximum inhibition was around 70%. The IC(35) for rolipram was 68.9+/-15.2 nM. The simultaneous administration of 10 microM R,R-glycopyrrolate reduced the IC(35) to 1.70+/-1.18 nM. The anti-histamine azelastine inhibited TNF-alpha release dose dependently. The simultaneous administration of R,R-glycopyrrolate did not influence the action of azelastine. The corticosteroid budesonide inhibited the TNF-alpha release dose dependently with an IC(50) of 0.55+/-0.13 nM. The simultaneous administration of 10 microM R,R-glycopyrrolate reduced the IC(50) to 0.13+/-0.03 nM. Finally, R,R-glycopyrrolate was most effective in the triple combination with budesonide and rolipram in the reduction of TNF-alpha release. In conclusion, R,R-glycopyrrolate acts synergistically with the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram and the steroid budesonide in inhibiting inflammatory mediators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2006.07.025DOI Listing
December 2006

Improved tumour detection by gastrin receptor scintigraphy in patients with metastasised medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2006 Nov 11;33(11):1273-9. Epub 2006 Jul 11.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Radiopeptide imaging is a valuable imaging method in the management of patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NET). To determine the clinical performance of gastrin receptor scintigraphy (GRS), it was compared with somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS), computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with metastasised/recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).

Methods: Twenty-seven consecutive patients underwent imaging with GRS, SRS (19 patients), CT and PET (26 patients). GRS and SRS were compared with respect to tumour detection and uptake. CT, PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound (US) and follow-up were used for verification of findings. In addition, GRS, CT and PET were directly compared with each other to determine which method performs best.

Results: Nineteen patients underwent both GRS and SRS. Among these, GRS showed a tumour detection rate of 94.2% as compared to 40.7% for SRS [mean number of tumour sites (+/-SD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI): GRS 4.3+/-3.1/2.8-5.7, SRS 1.8+/-1.6/1.1-2.6]. In 26 patients, GRS, CT and PET were compared. Here, GRS showed a tumour detection rate of 87.3% (CT 76.1%, PET 67.2%; mean number of tumour sites and 95% CI: GRS 4.5+/-4.0/2.9-6.1, CT 3.9+/-3.5/2.5-5.3, PET 3.5+/-3.3/2.1-4.8). If GRS and CT were combined, they were able to detect 96.7% of areas of tumour involvement.

Conclusion: GRS had a higher tumour detection rate than SRS and PET in our study. GRS in combination with CT was most effective in the detection of metastatic MTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-006-0157-8DOI Listing
November 2006

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor prophylaxis improves survival and inflammation in a two-hit model of hemorrhage and sepsis.

Crit Care Med 2006 Mar;34(3):778-84

Institute of Theoretical Surgery, Philipps-University Marburg, Germany.

Objective: We evaluated the effects of a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis in two clinically relevant situations, hemorrhage on the day before infection (e.g., trauma) and acute hemorrhage followed subsequently by infection (e.g., operative complication). A two-hit model of hemorrhage and polymicrobial peritoneal contamination and infection (PCI) was used to assess the influence of G-CSF on the outcome, bacterial clearance, and cytokine pattern.

Design: Clinic modeling randomized laboratory trial.

Setting: University laboratory.

Subjects: One hundred thirty-two male rats.

Interventions: In trial 1 we compared a) preoperative PCI only; b) preoperative hemorrhage plus PCI; and c) hemorrhage plus PCI plus G-CSF prophylaxis (n=18 rats/group). In trial 2, intraoperative hemorrhage was assessed with the same trial design. Primary end point was survival at 120 hrs. In trial 2 additionally, six rats per group and six naive control rats were used for secondary end point analysis.

Measurements And Main Results: Primary end point was mortality at 120 hrs. Secondary end points were granulocyte counts, bacterial clearance, and local cytokine levels. In trial 1 survival rate was 56% after PCI only, 17% after hemorrhage plus PCI, and 61% after hemorrhage plus PCI plus G-CSF (p<.01). In trial 2 survival rate was 33% after PCI only, 17% after hemorrhage plus PCI, and 50% after hemorrhage plus PCI plus G-CSF (p<.05). In trial 2, neutrophil counts were doubled to 66% 1 hr after hemorrhage (p<.05), colony-forming units of microbes in the lung and liver were halved to 166+/-56 and 134+/-28 colony-forming units (p<.05 for liver), and the macrophage inflammatory protein-2 expression in the lung was halved to 0.88+/-0.06 pg of complementary DNA (p<.05) by G-CSF prophylaxis compared with hemorrhage and PCI.

Conclusions: Hemorrhage (first hit) sensitized the host for a second hit of polymicrobial PCI independent of the timing. G-CSF prophylaxis improved survival and clearance of microbes and reduced the proinflammatory chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in the lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ccm.0000201900.01000.6bDOI Listing
March 2006

Evaluation of the McPeek postoperative outcome score in three trials.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2006 Aug 7;391(4):418-27. Epub 2006 Feb 7.

Institute of Theoretical Surgery, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043, Marburg, Germany.

Background: Postoperative outcome of patients is determined by recovery characteristics and self-reported quality of life. The first can be assessed with the McPeek score which values three aspects of recovery: mortality, postoperative critical care and duration of hospitalization.

Materials And Methods: We calculated the McPeek score of 669 patients in three trials: (1) colorectal cancer surgery, (2) antihistamine/volume loading in various operations, and (3) cholecystectomy. Beforehand, the average of intensive care unit treatment and duration of hospitalization were determined for the different operations to define McPeek score points. The score was tested on reliability, validity, and sensitivity. In addition, clinical applicability was assessed in a survey.

Results: The score was reliable with similarly distributed score points in the three trials at different institutions. Inter-rater reliability was high (97% overlap). Validity was proven by moderate high correlation to convergent criteria such as complications (trial I to III r=0.43, r=0.38, r=0.60), preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists class (ASA) (r=0.24, r=0.28, r=0.57), and age (r=0.23, r=0.32, r=0.31). The score was different between patients with and without neoplasms (P<0.001, trial II) and between elective or emergency patients (P<0.001, trial III). In a survey, investigators reported that the score was easy to assess and more comprehensive than four other scores.

Conclusions: The McPeek score values the postoperative outcome on a nonlinear scale. A priori, the average duration of hospitalization and critical care for a specific operation has to be defined. Our validation suggests that it is a reliable, valid, sensitive, and practical instrument for outcome analysis after anesthesia and surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-005-0020-6DOI Listing
August 2006

Cytokine mRNA levels in brain and peripheral tissues of the rat: relationships with plus-maze behavior.

Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005 Jun 12;137(1-2):159-65. Epub 2005 Apr 12.

Experimental and Physiological Psychology, Philipps-University of Marburg, Gutenbergstr. 18, 35032 Marburg, Germany.

There is evidence that interleukin (IL)-2 may be related to anxiety as measured in the elevated plus-maze. Recently, we showed that normal adult male Wistar rats can differ systematically in this test of avoidance behavior, that is, time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus-maze. Rats with low open arm time had higher striatal levels of IL-2 mRNA than those with high open arm time, but did not differ significantly in expression of other striatal cytokine mRNA. Here, we investigated whether these expression effects are anatomically specific to the striatum. Therefore, we asked in this double-blind study whether elevated plus-maze behavior may also be related to endogenous levels of cytokine mRNA in other brain regions, which play a role for anxiety, namely the amygdala, hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex. Additionally, and as peripheral controls, immuno-neuro-endocrine relevant tissues (adrenal glands, spleen) were analyzed. Based on open arm time in the elevated plus-maze, male Wistar rats were divided into sub-groups with either low or high open arm time behavior. Then, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha cDNA levels were measured post-mortem using semi-quantitative, competitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. First, we found that cytokine expressions differed considerably between and within these central and peripheral tissues. Secondly, rats with high compared to low open arm time behavior showed higher IL-2 mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, which is an inverse pattern to what we recently found in the striatum. These results provide new evidence indicating that cytokine mRNA in the brain can be related to elevated plus-maze behavior and that this relationship is site (prefrontal cortex, striatum)- and cytokine mRNA-specific (IL-2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbrainres.2005.03.002DOI Listing
June 2005

Dependence of positive effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on the antibiotic regimen: evaluation in rats with polymicrobial peritonitis.

World J Surg 2004 Aug 3;28(8):834-44. Epub 2004 Aug 3.

Institute of Theoretical Surgery, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043, Marburg, Germany.

We tested the hypothesis that the ability of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to prevent death from fecal peritonitis is influenced by the composition of the antibiotic regimen with which it is administered. We used a rodent model of polymicrobial peritoneal contamination and infection and the concept of clinical modeling randomized trials (CMRTs), which includes the conditions of randomized, clinical trials and complex clinical interventions (e.g., anesthesia, volume substitution, antibiotics, surgery, postoperative analgesia). With the peritonitis model we obtained a mortality dose-response curve that was sensitive to antibiotic prophylaxis. G-CSF was most efficacious when it was administered both prophylactically and after the onset of peritonitis. Cefuroxime/metronidazole, ofloxacin/metronidazole, and amoxicillin/clavulanate improved survival in combination with G-CSF best, whereas cefotaxime or ceftriaxone with and without metronidazole did not. G-CSF administration was associated with improved polymorphonuclear neutrophil phagocytosis and enhanced bacterial clearance. Pro-inflammatory cytokine release (tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2) was decreased in plasma and in the peritoneal fluid. Their expression was lowered in various organs on the protein and mRNA level. The results were used to design a clinical trial to test the ability of G-CSF to prevent serious infections in patients with colorectal cancer surgery. In this trial G-CSF application and antibiotic prophylaxis were performed with the most effective scheduling and combinations (cefuroxime/metronidazole and ofloxacin/metronidazole) as defined here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-004-7210-1DOI Listing
August 2004

Mild preseptic hypothermia is detrimental in rats.

Crit Care Med 2004 Sep;32(9):1899-903

Clinic of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University Hospital Marburg, Germany.

Objective: We evaluated the effects of mild hypothermia (32 degrees C), established before experimental intra-abdominal sepsis, on outcome, cytokine pattern, and muscle tissue oxygenation.

Design: Clinic modeling randomized laboratory trial.

Setting: University laboratory.

Subjects: Ninety-six male rats.

Interventions: In a group-sequential design, using 42 rats per group, we compared mild hypothermia with normothermia before peritonitis. Peritoneal inoculation with human stool bacteria was performed to simulate clinical trial conditions. Additionally, 12 rats underwent preoperative mild hypothermia without infection.

Measurements And Main Results: Primary end point was mortality at 120 hrs. Secondary end points were systemic cytokine concentrations, granulocyte counts, and muscle oxygen partial pressure. Survival rate was 40% (16 of 42) after preseptic hypothermia and 62% (26 of 42) after preseptic normothermia (p =.048). All hypothermic rats without infection survived. Interleukin-10 concentrations were 1843 +/- 96 pg/mL after preseptic hypothermia, 945 +/- 225 pg/mL with preseptic normothermia, and 520 +/- 121 pg/mL after hypothermia without infection (p<.001). Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 was comparable in the treatment groups. Interleukin-6 concentrations were 106 +/- 24 pg/mL after preseptic hypothermia and 276 +/- 76 pg/mL with preseptic normothermia (p<.05). Postinfection granulocyte count was 1.7 x 10(9)/L after hypothermia and 2.4 x 10(9)/L after normothermia (p =.2). After infection, muscle oxygen partial pressure was 47 +/- 10 mm Hg with preseptic hypothermia, 85 +/- 12 mm Hg in preseptic normothermia, and 49 +/- 9 mm Hg after hypothermia without infection (p =.7).

Conclusions: In this rat model of intra-abdominal sepsis, mild preseptic hypothermia (32 degrees C) reduced survival, impaired granulocyte recruitment, and changed cytokine balance, suggesting immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ccm.0000139608.34486.fdDOI Listing
September 2004

18F-FDG PET, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and CT in metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma: a clinical study and an analysis of the literature.

Nucl Med Commun 2004 May;25(5):439-43

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Philipps-University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg, Germany.

Aim: To determine the clinical potential of 2-[F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F-FDG PET) in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), we compared it to computed tomography (CT), and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS).

Patients And Methods: Blinded evaluation of PET, CT and SRS images obtained from 26 patients with histologically proven metastatic MTC was done by nuclear medicine and radiology specialists. Sites of tumour involvement were classified as "sure" or "suspicious". The data were analysed in comparison to two different standards. Either those sites classified as "sure" by at least one of the methods were defined as the standard or those sites of involvement which were classified as "sure" by at least two methods.

Results: Dependent on the type of data analysis performed, PET was able to demonstrate 56.8%/80.6% of the tumour sites, CT showed 64.5%/79.6%, and SRS showed 47.5%/69.9% of the tumour sites.

Conclusion: Overall, CT is similar or better than PET in our patients (dependent on the standard) while SRS is inferior to both other techniques. Our data are in agreement with publications that consider CT superior to PET in the diagnosis of metastatic MTC while other studies show superiority of PET. However, a combination of CT and PET seems to be the most appropriate non-invasive diagnostic approach in patients with MTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006231-200405000-00003DOI Listing
May 2004

Clinical value of parathyroid scintigraphy with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: discrepancies in clinical data and a systematic metaanalysis of the literature.

World J Surg 2004 Jan 26;28(1):100-7. Epub 2003 Nov 26.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Philipps-University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg, Germany.

There is a considerable discrepancy in the literature concerning the sensitivity of parathyroid scintigraphy (PS) with 99mTc-MIBI. We therefore analyzed our own data and compared them to the literature in a metaanalysis. All patients who received 99mTc -MIBI scintigraphy and subsequent surgery in our department for the detection of enlarged parathyroid glands in primary (pHPT) or secondary (sHPT) hyperparathyroidism between 1991 and 1999 were included in our retrospective analysis. The results of surgery served as the gold standard. For a true positive result, the scintigraphy had to predict the exact location of parathyroid adenoma (PA) or parathyroid hyperplasia (PH). We then compared these data to the results of a nonstatistical systematic metaanalysis of the literature. Patients (178) underwent PS between 1991 and 1999; 139 were operated on and included in this study. Of these, 109 had pHPT and 30 had sHPT. The sensitivity and specificity of the PS were found to be 45%/94% for pHPT and 39%/40% for sHPT. Fifty-two studies concerning PS were included in the metaanalysis. Sensitivities reported varied from 39% to >90%. Consideration of the different possible techniques used for PS could not explain these discrepancies. Our data show that the sensitivity of PS in clinical routine may be lower than expected from the literature. Our data are consistent with other studies and with partially unpublished clinical observations from other university hospitals. We believe that a well-designed and properly conducted prospective study is necessary to evaluate the reasons for the differences observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-003-6991-yDOI Listing
January 2004

Deleterious effects of mild hypothermia in septic rats are ameliorated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

Anesthesiology 2003 Nov;99(5):1087-92

Clinic of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Marburg, Germany.

Background: The authors studied the effects of mild hypothermia on the outcome in a rat model of intraabdominal sepsis and tested whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) augments the host response and improves outcome during mild hypothermia.

Methods: A rat model of peritoneal contamination and infection with human stool bacteria was used to simulate clinical trials that included increasing complexity. In trial 1, postoperative hypothermia (32 degrees C) was compared with normothermia (38 degrees C), without supportive treatment (10 rats per group). In trial 2, with a more severe infection, rats were given antibiotic prophylaxis. Using 20 rats per group, the authors compared postoperative hypothermia (32 degrees C), normothermia, and postoperative hypothermia (32 degrees C) with 20 mug/kg G-CSF prophylaxis given 12 h before surgery and 12 h and 36 h after surgery. The primary endpoint was death at 120 h. Secondary endpoints were systemic cytokine concentrations, leukocyte counts, and the phagocytic activity of granulocytes and monocytes.

Results: In trial 1, 50% of the normothermia group and 10% of the postoperative hypothermia group survived. In trial 2, 50% of the normothermia group, 20% of the hypothermia group, and 60% of the hypothermia plus G-CSF group survived. Postoperative hypothermia plus G-CSF reduced plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (hypothermia group, 511 +/- 104 pg/ml; hypothermia plus G-CSF group, 247 +/- 51 pg/ml) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (hypothermia group, 239 +/- 43 pg/ml; hypothermia plus G-CSF group, 178 +/- 21 pg/ml).

Conclusions: In this rat model of intraabdominal sepsis, postoperative hypothermia was deleterious. However, G-CSF treatment, initiated before contamination, reduced the mortality rate, increased the neutrophil count, and downgraded the systemic cytokine response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000542-200311000-00014DOI Listing
November 2003

The genetic background of hypertensive, septic rats determines outcome improvement with antibiotic and G-CSF prophylaxis.

Shock 2003 Oct;20(4):326-31

Institute of Theoretical Surgery, Philipps-University Marburg, 35033 Marburg, Germany.

Hypertension is proposed as a risk factor among others (high age, diabetes mellitus, and pre- and intraoperative bleeding) for adverse outcomes, such as severe infections, leading to sepsis and to multiple organ failure as the most deleterious complication. Hypertension was modeled with spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats and the infective complication by polymicrobial, peritoneal contamination, and infection (PCI). The concept of clinic modeling randomized trials was used to simulate clinical complexity, including a relevant antibiotic prophylaxis in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and clinical trial conditions. Outcome parameters were: survival, systemic cytokines (protein), and organ-specific cytokine levels (mRNA). With low complexity (no prophylaxis), 28% of the animals in the Wistar and 50% in the SHR group survived (P=0.17). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were lower in the liver of SHR vs. Wistar rats with PCI (P<0.01). The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 was expressed on a higher level in SHR with PCI compared with Wistar rats (P<0.01). With increased complexity (antibiotic and G-CSF prophylaxis) the survival rate was increased from 50% in Wistar rats to 89% in SHR (P<0.01) and the mRNA expression of IL-6 was decreased in the kidney of SHR (P<0.05). Survival rate was 44% in the DS rats vs. 67% of the Wistar rats (P=0.18). The mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-10 was reduced (P<0.01) by pretreatment in the liver of DS rats with PCI. The hypertensive, genetically distinct SHR and DS rats express different patterns of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels after PCI. G-CSF and antibiotic prophylaxis increases only in SHR survival and decreases IL-6 mRNA expression in the kidney significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.shk.0000084342.58020.1eDOI Listing
October 2003

Relationship between striatal levels of interleukin-2 mRNA and plus-maze behaviour in the rat.

Neurosci Lett 2003 May;341(3):205-8

Experimental and Physiological Psychology, Philipps-University of Marburg, Gutenbergstrasse 18, Germany.

Our previous experiments have shown that adult male Wistar rats can differ systematically in elevated plus-maze (EPM) behaviour, which was related to the neurotransmitter serotonin in the ventral striatum. The EPM serves as a model of anxiety-like behaviour, and there is evidence that interleukin (IL)-2 in the brain may be related to anxiety-like behaviour, and that IL-2 interacts with the striatal serotonergic system. We asked whether EPM behaviour may also be related to constitutive levels of cytokines in the striatum. Based on open arm time in the EPM, male Wistar rats were divided into sub-groups with either low or high anxiety-like behaviour. Then, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha cDNA levels were measured post mortem in striatal tissues using semi-quantitative, competitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Rats with high anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM showed significantly higher levels of IL-2 mRNA compared to those with low anxiety-like behaviour, but did not differ significantly in expression of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha mRNA. These results provide new evidence indicating that specific cytokine patterns in the striatum may be associated with EPM behaviour in adult male Wistar rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0304-3940(03)00184-8DOI Listing
May 2003

Quality of life in animals as a new outcome for surgical research: G-CSF as a quality of life improving factor.

Eur Surg Res 2002 Jan-Apr;34(1-2):22-9

Institute of Theoretical Surgery, Philipps-University Marburg, Germany.

Sepsis is still a major problem in human medicine with a high mortality rate. Nearly all attempts to improve the outcome of septic patients with immune modulators failed. In most of these trials only mechanistic endpoints such as mortality rate, complication rate, cytokine levels and physiological parameters were assessed. Only in a very few trials quality of life had been chosen as primary endpoint. In basic research and especially in animal experiments in the field of sepsis and oncology, only molecular investigations which explain drug and treatment interactions were in the focus of the scientific community. Animal models simulating clinical complexity and investigating outcomes like quality of life were very rare. The aim of this study was to demonstrate alterations in sickness behaviour -- the animal equivalent to quality of life in man -- in rats as a response to sepsis after prophylaxis with G-CSF and antibiotics. Sickness behaviour was assessed by measurement of core body temperature, food and water intake, locomotor activity and circadian rhythm of these parameters. Complex animal experiments in rats were performed including anaesthesia, antibiotic and cytokine (G-CSF) prophylaxis, volume substitution, laparotomy, contamination and infection with human faecal suspension and postoperative analgesia. In group A (sham) and D (antibiotic + G-CSF) the mortality rate was 0%, but in group B (no prophylaxis) 33% (3/9) and in group C (antibiotic prophylaxis) 11% (1/9) of the animals died. Before infection all rats showed clear circadian patterns of locomotor activity and body temperature with physiologically higher values during the night-time. Immediately after operation and infection temperature increased, water and food intake, locomotor activity decreased and circadian rhythms were lost. Body temperature and water consumption were already normalised at day 2 after infection in all groups. Normal food intake was re-established in group C and D at day 3 while one more day was needed for recovery in Group C. Restoration of locomotor activity occurred in group D at day 5, in group C at day 7. In group B locomotor activity remained suppressed during the whole observation period of 8 days postoperatively. In conclusion, in septic rats sickness behaviour, an equivalent to quality of life in humans, is improved rapidly by a prophylaxis with G-CSF in combination with antibiotics and can be used as a new outcome in preclinical surgical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000048883DOI Listing
August 2002
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