Publications by authors named "Art A Ambrosio"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Telementorship in Underway Naval Operations: Leveraging Operational Virtual Health for Tactical Combat Casualty Care.

J Spec Oper Med 2021 ;21(3):93-95

Background: Virtual health (VH) may enhance mentorship to remote first responders. We evaluated the feasibility of synchronous bidirectional VH to mentor life-saving procedures performed by deployed novice providers.

Methods: Video teleconferencing (VTC) was established between the USNS Mercy (T-AH 19) underway in the Pacific Ocean to Naval Medical Center San Diego using surgeon teleconsultation. The adult simulated clinical vignette included injuries following a shipboard explosion with subsequent fire. The pediatric simulated vignette included injuries that resulted from an improvised explosive device (IED) blast. Using VTC, augmented reality (AR) goggles, and airway simulation equipment, corpsmen (HMs) received visual cues to perform advanced life-saving procedures.

Results: In adult scenarios, 100% of novice hospital HMs performed tasks on first attempt (n = 12). Mean time for tourniquet placement was 46 seconds (standard deviation [SD], 19 seconds); needle thoracostomy, 70 seconds (SD, 67 seconds); tube thoracostomy, 313 seconds (SD, 152 seconds); and cricothyroidotomy, 274 seconds (SD, 82 seconds). In pediatric scenarios, 100% of novice HMs performed tasks on first attempt (n = 5). Mean time for tube thoracostomy completion was 532 seconds (SD, 109 seconds).

Conclusion: VH can enhance the training and delivery of trauma care during prolonged field care in resource-limited settings.
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September 2021

Carcinoma Ex-Pleomorphic Adenoma Diagnosis During Global Health Engagement Operations.

Mil Med 2021 01;186(Suppl 1):828-832

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

Introduction: In global health engagement settings, performance of oncologic surgery is evaluated by understanding the host nation healthcare capacity to include inpatient care support and the available postoperative adjunctive therapy to include chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Materials And Methods: We present a case during Pacific Partnership 2018 of a patientwith a malignant facial mass diagnosed postoperatively. A literature review was conducted, searching specifically for cases related to pleomorphic adenoma (PA), carcinoma ex-PA, cases of misdiagnosis, and global health engagement operations.

Results: The patient presented without constitutional symptoms, clinical lymphadenopathy, or cranial nerve VII weakness with a preoperative host nation diagnosis of a benign salivary neoplasm (PA). Postoperatively, a gross total resection of the mass was diagnosed as high-grade adenocarcinoma-a carcinoma ex-PA of the parotid gland. Oncologic staging was noted to be advanced at T3N0, and the patient was referred back to the host nation surgeons for radiation oncology consultation and clinical surveillance to follow.

Discussion: Diagnosis of carcinoma ex-PA-a rare form of salivary gland malignancy-is not always straightforward because of its high degree of cellular heterogeneity, leading to inconsistencies in preoperative sampling results. This case addresses the preoperative diagnostic challenges associated with this type of malignancy, different types of possible treatment modalities aimed at reducing postoperative morbidity, and the preoperative and postoperative challenges that are critical to address during health engagement operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usaa448DOI Listing
January 2021

The role of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for preoperative pediatric cochlear implantation work-up in academic institutions.

Cochlear Implants Int 2021 03 11;22(2):96-102. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Objective: The goal of the study is to investigate the association of pertinent preoperative temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results and intraoperative surgical findings and complications of pediatric cochlear implantation reported in academic settings.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of cochlear implant patients who received a pre-operative temporal bone CT and MRI of the brain between 2005 and 2012 at academic pediatric otolaryngology practices within children's hospitals in the United States and France. Scans were reviewed in a double-blind fashion and compared to intraoperative findings.

Results: 91 children were analyzed (mean age 5.54 +/- 0.58 years). A small facial recess identified on CT was associated with difficult insertion of electrodes (= 0.0003). A prominent sigmoid sinus noted on CT was associated of difficult insertion of electrodes (= 0.01), iatrogenic tegmen dehiscence (= 0.005), as well as difficult round window access (= 0.025). No specific CT finding was found to be associated with external auditory canal injury, perilymphatic gusher, or iatrogenic facial nerve injury. MRI brain and internal auditory canal findings were not predictive of surgical outcomes.

Conclusions: Preoperative CT and MRI remain an important planning tool for pediatric cochlear implantation, particularly in academic institutions. The findings of our study demonstrate that a detailed assessment of both preoperative CT and MRI are valuable for teaching and surgical planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14670100.2020.1830239DOI Listing
March 2021

Serious Inhalation Injuries From Military Operations in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria.

J Intensive Care Med 2021 Sep 11;36(9):1061-1065. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, 19938Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA.

Objective: To characterize serious inhalation injuries seen during recent military operations, and assess whether bronchoscopic severity findings were associated with clinical presentation and outcomes.

Methods: Service members who suffered inhalation injuries while deployed to Iraq, Afghanistan, or Syria from 2001-2018 were identified using ICD-9 and 10 codes from the Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database (EMED), which is abstracted from patient records in forward-deployed medical facilities. Further information including demographics, mechanism of injury, mortality, total burn surface area (TBSA), degree of facial burn, total Injury Severity Score (ISS), and first post-injury bronchoscopy notes were collected. Patients were excluded with ISS less than 16 or without sufficient details regarding bronchoscopy. Injuries were grouped based on bronchoscopic Abbreviated Injury Scores (AIS) into low-grade (AIS of 1), moderate-grade (AIS of 2), or high-grade (AIS of 3 or 4).

Results: 91 patients met inclusion criteria, with no significant differences in age, gender, paygrade, or service branch between degrees of injury. There were no statistical correlations between grade of injury and battle versus non-battle injury, blast versus non-blast mechanism, TBSA, or degree of facial burn. High-grade injuries had significantly higher ISS than low or moderate-grade injuries. After adjusting for ISS, the odds ratio of death was 10.4 (95% CI 1.47 to 74.53) for those with high-grade and 3.7 (95% CI 0.45 to 32.30) for those with moderate-grade compared to low-grade injuries.

Conclusion: In this cohort of deployed military members with inhalation injuries, initial bronchoscopic severity findings are strongly associated with mortality even after adjusting for ISS. The AIS may be an important prognostic tool in all of those with serious inhalation injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885066620956618DOI Listing
September 2021

Telemedicine Proof of Concept and Cost Savings During Underway Naval Operations.

Telemed J E Health 2021 05 28;27(5):503-507. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Indo-Pacific Command, Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

With military service members stationed around the world aboard ships and remote fixed facilities, subspecialty care frequently occurs outside of the TRICARE network, the health care program of the United States Department of Defense Military Health System, including foreign hospitals. Furthermore, usage aboard U.S. Navy ships has been limited in scope. This has direct costs associated with the medical care rendered and indirect costs such as difficulty navigating medical systems, access to records, and appropriate follow-up. Telemedicine has expanded access to otolaryngologic care where coverage has been deficient, with overall costs that are not well defined. This study aims to demonstrate the ability of consult management aboard a deployed U.S. Navy ship and to determine the direct costs associated with the use of an HIPAA-compliant, store-and-forward telemedicine system available to overseas medical providers to obtain specialty consultation at a tertiary care military treatment facility. Retrospective case series. We reviewed consults submitted through the system from February 2018 to May 2018. Consult management was performed remotely by a deployed otolaryngologist in various locations underway and in port in the Pacific Rim. The direct cost associated with each consult was compared with the cost had the patient been treated in the host nation. During the deployment, there were eight consults submitted and directed to a neurotologist/skull base surgeon for an opinion. The estimated cost for treating these patients overseas was $124,037, while the estimated cost of retaining the patients in the Military Health System was $27,330. Extrapolated to a 12-month period, the cost savings of this program could be over $400,000. Telemedicine consultation has the ability to be initiated and managed remotely-expanding access to subspecialty physicians by service members stationed around the world. Furthermore, it has the potential for substantial cost savings within the military health care system along with intangible benefits that sustain the military health care system downstream.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2020.0181DOI Listing
May 2021

Effectiveness of an Advanced Airway Training "Boot Camp" for Family Medicine Physician Trainees.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2020 Aug 28;163(2):204-208. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

Objective: This course was designed to characterize the impact of a curriculum for training family medicine physicians in advanced airway techniques with respect to intubation performance and learner confidence.

Methods: A training course was introduced into the curriculum in a single-group pretest-posttest model at a community family medicine residency program. Training consisted of a didactic teaching session on airway management and hands-on skill session with direct laryngoscopy (DL) and video-assisted laryngoscopy (VAL) on normal and difficult airway simulators. Participants were scored with the Intubation Difficulty Scale and completed surveys before and after the training.

Results: Twenty-eight residents of all levels participated. The mean time to successful intubation was significantly decreased after training from 51.96 to 23.71 seconds for DL and from 27.89 to 17.07 seconds for VAL. Participant scores with the Intubation Difficulty Scale were also significantly improved for DL and VAL. All participants rated their comfort levels with both techniques as high following training.

Discussion: Advanced airway management is a critical skill for any physician involved in caring for critically ill patients, though few trainees receive formal training. Addition of an airway training course with simulation and hands-on experience can improve trainee proficiency and comfort with advanced airway techniques.

Implications For Practice: Training on airway management should be included in the curriculum for trainees who require the requisite skills and knowledge necessary for advanced airway interventions. This introductory project demonstrates the efficacy and feasibility of a relatively brief training as part of a family medicine residency curriculum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0194599820902065DOI Listing
August 2020

Head and neck surgical reconstruction in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom-Afghanistan: A systematic review.

Ear Nose Throat J 2017 Dec;96(12):E25-E30

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, 8901 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, MD 20889, USA.

Historically, head and neck injuries constituted 16 to 20% of all nonfatal combat injuries. However, advances in body and vehicle armor in the context of the use of ambushes and improvised explosive devices by enemy combatants have resulted in fewer fatalities from head and neck wounds, and thus the incidence of nonfatal head and neck injuries has risen to as high as 52%. Despite this increase, data regarding specific injury distributions, surgical cases, and approaches to repair are lacking in the current literature. We conducted a study to systematically review the current literature regarding head and neck injuries and reconstructions during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom-Afghanistan. We found 44 articles that met our inclusion criteria. These articles covered 17,461 head and neck wounds sustained by 12,105 patients. Superficial soft-tissue facial injuries were most common wounds (31.7% of cases), followed by wounds to the neck (25.2%) and midface (17.9%). The 44 articles listed 5,122 discrete surgical reports covering 5,758 procedures. Of these procedures, simple facial laceration repairs (25.2%) and ophthalmologic surgeries (12.1%) were the most common soft-tissue repairs, and mandibular reconstructions (11.3%) were the most common type of bony reconstruction. Major flap reconstructions for coverage were required in only 0.4% of procedures. This information will be valuable for educating those involved in otolaryngology training programs, as well as civilian otolaryngologists regarding the types of injury patterns they should expect to see and treat in the returning veteran population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014556131709601206DOI Listing
December 2017
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