Brain is a central and pivotal organ of human body containing the highest lipids content next to adipose tissue. It works as a monitor for the whole body and needs an adequate supply of energy to maintain its physiological activities. This high demand of energy in the brain is chiefly maintained by the lipids along with its reservoirs. Thus, the lipid metabolism is also an important for the proper development and function of the brain. Being a prominent part of the brain, lipids play a vast number of physiological activities within the brain starting from the structural development, impulse conduction, insulation, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, myelin sheath formation and finally to act as the signaling molecules. Interestingly, lipids bilayer also maintains the structural integrity for the physiological functions of protein. Thus, in light to all of these activities, lipids and its metabolism can be attributed pivotal for brain health and its activities. Decisively, the impaired/altered metabolism of lipids and its intermediates puts forward a key step in the progression of different brain ailments including neurodegenerative, neurological and neuropsychiatry disorders. Depending on their associated underlying pathways, they serve as the potential biomarkers of these disorders and are considered as necessary diagnostic tools. The present review discusses the role and level of altered lipids metabolism in brain diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, neurological diseases, and neuropsychiatric diseases. Moreover, the possible mechanisms of altered level of lipids and their metabolites have also been discussed in detail.
AbstractBrain is a vital organ of the human body which performs very important functions such as analysis, processing, coordination, and execution of electrical signals. For this purpose, it depends on a complex network of nerves which are ensheathed in lipids tailored myelin; an abundant source of lipids in the body. The nervous system is enriched with important classes of lipids; sphingolipids and cholesterol which compose the major portion of the brain particularly in the form of myelin. Both cholesterol and sphingolipids are embedded in the microdomains of membrane rafts and are functional units of the neuronal cell membrane. These molecules serve as the signaling molecules; hold important roles in the neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, and many others. Thus, their adequate provision and active metabolism are of crucial importance in the maintenance of physiological functions of brain and body of an individual. In the present review, we have highlighted the physiological roles of cholesterol and sphingolipids in the development of the nervous system as well as the association of their altered metabolism to neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.
Int J Biol Sci. 2018 Mar 9;14(3):341-357. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.23247. eCollection 2018.
International Journal of Biological Sciences
Neurodegenerative diseases are conventionally demarcated as disorders with selective loss of neurons. Conventional as well as newer molecules have been tested but they offer just symptomatic advantages along with abundant side effects. The discovery of more compelling molecules that can halt the pathology of these diseases will be considered as a miracle of present time. Several synthetic compounds are available but they may cause several other health issues. Therefore, natural molecules from the plants and other sources are being discovered to replace available medicines. In conventional medicational therapies, several plants have been reported to bestow remedial effects. Phytochemicals from medicinal plants can provide a better and safer alternative to synthetic molecules. Many phytochemicals have been identified that cure the human body from a number of diseases. The present article reviews the potential efficacy of plant-derived alkaloids, which possess potential therapeutic effects against several NDDs including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Epilepsy, Schizophrenia, and stroke. Alkaloids include isoquinoline, indole, pyrroloindole, oxindole, piperidine, pyridine, aporphine, vinca, β-carboline, methylxanthene, lycopodium, and erythrine byproducts. Alkaloids constitute positive roles in ameliorating pathophysiology of these illnesses by functioning as muscarinic and adenosine receptors agonists, anti-oxidant, anti-amyloid and MAO inhibitors, acetylcholinestrase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor, inhibitor of α-synuclein aggregation, dopaminergic and nicotine agonist, and NMDA antagonist.
Neurodegenerative diseases; Phytochemicals; Plant derived alkaloids; acetylcholinestrase; butyrylcholinesterase; monoamine oxidase.