Publications by authors named "Aron J Hall"

155 Publications

Animal Reservoirs and Hosts for Emerging Alphacoronaviruses and Betacoronaviruses.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 04;27(4):1015-1022

The ongoing global pandemic caused by coronavirus disease has once again demonstrated the role of the family Coronaviridae in causing human disease outbreaks. Because severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was first detected in December 2019, information on its tropism, host range, and clinical manifestations in animals is limited. Given the limited information, data from other coronaviruses might be useful for informing scientific inquiry, risk assessment, and decision-making. We reviewed endemic and emerging infections of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in wildlife, livestock, and companion animals and provide information on the receptor use, known hosts, and clinical signs associated with each host for 15 coronaviruses detected in humans and animals. This information can be used to guide implementation of a One Health approach that involves human health, animal health, environmental, and other relevant partners in developing strategies for preparedness, response, and control to current and future coronavirus disease threats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2704.203945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007319PMC
April 2021

Cost-effectiveness of pediatric norovirus vaccination in daycare settings.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 23;39(15):2133-2145. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Health Management and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, United States.

Objective: Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in the United States and outbreaks frequently occur in daycare settings. Results of norovirus vaccine trials have been promising, however there are open questions as to whether vaccination of daycare children would be cost-effective. We investigated the incremental cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical norovirus vaccination for children in daycare settings compared to no vaccination.

Methods: We conducted a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis using a disease transmission model of children attending daycare. Vaccination with a 90% coverage rate in addition to the observed standard of care (exclusion of symptomatic children from daycare) was compared to the observed standard of care. The main outcomes measures were infections and deaths averted, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Cost-effectiveness was analyzed from a societal perspective, including medical costs to children as well as productivity losses of parents, over a two-year time horizon. Data sources included outbreak surveillance data and published literature.

Results: A 50% efficacious norovirus vaccine averts 571.83 norovirus cases and 0.003 norovirus-related deaths per 10,000 children compared to the observed standard of care. A $200 norovirus vaccine that is 50% efficacious has a net cost increase of $178.10 per child and 0.025 more QALYs, resulting in an ICER of $7,028/QALY. Based on the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, we estimated that a $200 vaccination with 50% efficacy was 94.0% likely to be cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay of $100,000/QALY threshold and 95.3% likely at a $150,000/QALY threshold.

Conclusion: Due to the large disease burden associated with norovirus, it is likely that vaccinating children in daycares could be cost-effective, even with modest vaccine efficacy and a high per-child cost of vaccination. Norovirus vaccination of children in daycare has a cost-effectiveness ratio similar to other commonly recommended childhood vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.02.066DOI Listing
April 2021

Shedding of culturable virus, seroconversion, and 6-month follow-up antibody responses in the first 14 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the United States.

J Infect Dis 2021 Mar 7. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

CDC COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

We aimed to characterize presence of culturable virus in clinical specimens during acute illness, and antibody kinetics up to six months post-onset, among 14 early US COVID-19 patients. We isolated viable SARS-CoV-2 from rRT-PCR-positive respiratory specimens collected during days 0-8 post-onset, but not after. All 13 patients with two or more serum specimens developed anti-spike antibodies; 12 developed detectable neutralizing antibodies. We did not isolate virus after detection of neutralizing antibodies. Eight participants provided serum at six months post-onset; all retained detectable anti-spike IgG, and half had detectable neutralizing antibodies. Two participants reported not feeling fully recovered at six months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiab125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7989348PMC
March 2021

Immunologic and Epidemiologic Drivers of Norovirus Transmission in Daycare and School Outbreaks.

Epidemiology 2021 May;32(3):351-359

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Background: Norovirus outbreaks are notoriously explosive, with dramatic symptomology and rapid disease spread. Children are particularly vulnerable to infection and drive norovirus transmission due to their high contact rates with each other and the environment. Despite the explosive nature of norovirus outbreaks, attack rates in schools and daycares remain low with the majority of students not reporting symptoms.

Methods: We explore immunologic and epidemiologic mechanisms that may underlie epidemic norovirus transmission dynamics using a disease transmission model. Towards this end, we compared different model scenarios, including innate resistance and acquired immunity (collectively denoted 'immunity'), stochastic extinction, and an individual exclusion intervention. We calibrated our model to daycare and school outbreaks from national surveillance data.

Results: Including immunity in the model led to attack rates that were consistent with the data. However, immunity alone resulted in the majority of outbreak durations being relatively short. The addition of individual exclusion (to the immunity model) extended outbreak durations by reducing the amount of time that symptomatic people contribute to transmission. Including both immunity and individual exclusion mechanisms resulted in simulations where both attack rates and outbreak durations were consistent with surveillance data.

Conclusions: The epidemiology of norovirus outbreaks in daycare and school settings cannot be well described by a simple transmission model in which all individuals start as fully susceptible. More studies on how best to design interventions which leverage population immunity and encourage more rigorous individual exclusion may improve venue-level control measures. See video abstract at http://links.lww.com/EDE/B795.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001322DOI Listing
May 2021

Persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA Shedding without Evidence of Infectiousness: A Cohort Study of Individuals with COVID-19.

J Infect Dis 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

COVID-19 Response Team, CDC, Atlanta, USA.

Background: To better understand SARS-CoV-2 shedding duration and infectivity, we estimated SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding duration, described characteristics associated with viral RNA shedding resolution1, and determined if replication-competent viruses could be recovered ≥10 days after symptom onset among individuals with mild to moderate COVID-19.

Methods: We collected serial nasopharyngeal specimens at various time points from 109 individuals with rRT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 in Utah and Wisconsin. We calculated probability of viral RNA shedding resolution using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and evaluated characteristics associated with shedding resolution using Cox proportional hazards regression. We attempted viral culture for 35 rRT-PCR-positive nasopharyngeal specimens collected ≥10 days after symptom onset.

Results: The likelihood of viral RNA shedding resolution at 10 days after symptom onset was approximately 3%. Time to shedding resolution was shorter among participants aged <18 years (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR]: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.6-5.6) and longer among those aged ≥50 years (aHR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9) compared to participants aged 18-49 years. No replication-competent viruses were recovered.

Conclusions: Although most patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 for ≥10 days after symptom onset, our findings suggest that individuals with mild to moderate COVID-19 are unlikely to be infectious ≥10 days after symptom onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiab107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7989388PMC
February 2021

Changes in SARS CoV-2 Seroprevalence Over Time in Ten Sites in the United States, March - August, 2020.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Response Team, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

Background: Monitoring of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody prevalence can complement case reporting to inform more accurate estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection burden, but few studies have undertaken repeated sampling over time on a broad geographic scale.

Methods: We performed serologic testing on a convenience sample of residual sera obtained from persons of all ages, at ten sites in the United States from March 23 through August 14, 2020, from routine clinical testing at commercial laboratories. We age-sex-standardized our seroprevalence rates using census population projections and adjusted for laboratory assay performance. Confidence intervals were generated with a two-stage bootstrap. We used Bayesian modeling to test whether seroprevalence changes over time were statistically significant.

Results: Seroprevalence remained below 10% at all sites except New York and Florida, where it reached 23.2% and 13.3%, respectively. Statistically significant increases in seroprevalence followed peaks in reported cases in New York, South Florida, Utah, Missouri and Louisiana. In the absence of such peaks, some significant decreases were observed over time in New York, Missouri, Utah, and Western Washington. The estimated cumulative number of infections with detectable antibody response continued to exceed reported cases in all sites.

Conclusions: Estimated seroprevalence was low in most sites, indicating that most people in the U.S. have not been infected with SARS-CoV-2 as of July 2020. The majority of infections are likely not reported. Decreases in seroprevalence may be related to changes in healthcare-seeking behavior, or evidence of waning of detectable anti-SARS CoV-2 antibody levels at the population level. Thus, seroprevalence estimates may underestimate the cumulative incidence of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7989518PMC
February 2021

Pediatric Respiratory and Enteric Virus Acquisition and Immunogenesis in US Mothers and Children Aged 0-2: PREVAIL Cohort Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Feb 12;10(2):e22222. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Background: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and acute respiratory infections (ARIs) cause significant pediatric morbidity and mortality. Developing childhood vaccines against major enteric and respiratory pathogens should be guided by the natural history of infection and acquired immunity. The United States currently lacks contemporary birth cohort data to guide vaccine development.

Objective: The PREVAIL (Pediatric Respiratory and Enteric Virus Acquisition and Immunogenesis Longitudinal) Cohort study was undertaken to define the natural history of infection and immune response to major pathogens causing AGE and ARI in US children.

Methods: Mothers in Cincinnati, Ohio, were enrolled in their third trimester of pregnancy, with intensive child follow-up to 2 years. Blood samples were obtained from children at birth (cord), 6 weeks, and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Whole stool specimens and midturbinate nasal swabs were collected weekly and tested by multipathogen molecular assays. Saliva, meconium, maternal blood, and milk samples were also collected. AGE (≥3 loose or watery stools or ≥1 vomiting episode within 24 hours) and ARI (cough or fever) cases were documented by weekly cell phone surveys to mothers via automated SMS text messaging and review of medical records. Immunization records were obtained from registries and providers. follow-up ended in October 2020. Pathogen-specific infections are defined by a PCR-positive sample or rise in serum antibody.

Results: Of the 245 enrolled mother-child pairs, 51.8% (n=127) were White, 43.3% (n=106) Black, 55.9% (n=137) publicly insured, and 86.5% (n=212) initiated breastfeeding. Blood collection was 100.0% for mothers (n=245) and 85.7% for umbilical cord (n=210). A total of 194/245 (79.2%) mother-child pairs were compliant based on participation in at least 70% (≥71/102 study weeks) of child-weeks and providing 70% or more of weekly samples during that time, or blood samples at 18 or 24 months. Compliant participants (n=194) had 71.0% median nasal swab collection (IQR 30.0%-90.5%), with 98.5% (191/194) providing either an 18- or 24-month blood sample; median response to weekly SMS text message surveys was 95.1% (IQR 76.5%-100%). Compliant mothers reported 2.0 AGE and 4.5 ARI cases per child-year, of which 25.5% (160/627) and 38.06% (486/1277) of cases, respectively, were medically attended; 0.5% of AGE (3/627) and 0.55% of ARI (7/1277) cases were hospitalized.

Conclusions: The PREVAIL Cohort demonstrates intensive follow-up to document the natural history of enteric and respiratory infections and immunity in children 0-2 years of age in the United States and will contribute unique data to guide vaccine recommendations. Testing for pathogens and antibodies is ongoing.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): RR1-10.2196/22222.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/22222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910118PMC
February 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Dynamics in a Sleep-Away Camp.

Pediatrics 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 Response Team and.

Objectives: In late June 2020, a large outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred at a sleep-away youth camp in Georgia, affecting primarily persons ≤21 years. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among campers and staff (attendees) to determine the extent of the outbreak and assess factors contributing to transmission.

Methods: Attendees were interviewed to ascertain demographic characteristics, known exposures to COVID-19 and community exposures, and mitigation measures before, during, and after attending camp. COVID-19 case status was determined for all camp attendees on the basis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test results and reported symptoms. We calculated attack rates and instantaneous reproduction numbers and sequenced SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes from the outbreak.

Results: Among 627 attendees, the median age was 15 years (interquartile range: 12-16 years); 56% (351 of 627) of attendees were female. The attack rate was 56% (351 of 627) among all attendees. On the basis of date of illness onset or first positive test result on a specimen collected, 12 case patients were infected before arriving at camp and 339 case patients were camp associated. Among 288 case patients with available symptom information, 45 (16%) were asymptomatic. Despite cohorting, 50% of attendees reported direct contact with people outside their cabin cohort. On the first day of camp session, the instantaneous reproduction number was 10. Viral genomic diversity was low.

Conclusions: Few introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into a youth congregate setting resulted in a large outbreak. Testing strategies should be combined with prearrival quarantine, routine symptom monitoring with appropriate isolation and quarantine, cohorting, social distancing, mask wearing, and enhanced disinfection and hand hygiene. Promotion of mitigation measures among younger populations is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-046524DOI Listing
January 2021

Non-Norovirus Viral Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Reported to the National Outbreak Reporting System, USA, 2009-2018.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Feb;27(2):560-564

During 2009-2018, four adenovirus, 10 astrovirus, 123 rotavirus, and 107 sapovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported to the US National Outbreak Reporting System (annual median 30 outbreaks). Most were attributable to person-to-person transmission in long-term care facilities, daycares, and schools. Investigations of norovirus-negative gastroenteritis outbreaks should include testing for these viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2702.203943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853577PMC
February 2021

Norovirus and Other Viral Causes of Medically Attended Acute Gastroenteritis Across the Age Spectrum: Results from the MAAGE Study in the United States.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Viral Gastroenteritis Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) causes a substantial burden in the United States, but its etiology frequently remains undetermined. Active surveillance within an integrated healthcare delivery system was used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of medically attended norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus.

Methods: Active surveillance was conducted among all enrolled members of Kaiser Permanente Northwest during July 2014 - June 2016. An age-stratified, representative sample of AGE-associated medical encounters were recruited to provide a stool specimen to be tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus. Medically attended AGE (MAAGE) encounters for a patient occurring within 30 days were grouped into one episode, and all-cause MAAGE incidence was calculated. Pathogen- and healthcare setting-specific incidence estimates were calculated using age-stratified bootstrapping.

Results: The overall incidence of MAAGE was 40.6 episodes per 1000 person-years (PY), with most episodes requiring no more than outpatient care. Norovirus was the most frequently detected pathogen, with an incidence of 5.5 medically attended episodes per 1000 PY. Incidence of norovirus MAAGE was highest among children aged <5 years (20.4 episodes per 1000 PY), followed by adults aged ≥65 years (4.5 episodes per 1000 PY). Other study pathogens showed similar patterns by age, but lower overall incidence (sapovirus: 2.4 per 1000 PY, astrovirus: 1.3 per 1000 PY, rotavirus: 0.5 per 1000 PY).

Conclusions: Viral enteropathogens, particularly norovirus, are an important contributor to MAAGE, especially among children <5 years of age. The present findings underline the importance of judicious antibiotics use for pediatric AGE and suggest that an effective norovirus vaccine could substantially reduce MAAGE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab033DOI Listing
January 2021

Attribution of Illnesses Transmitted by Food and Water to Comprehensive Transmission Pathways Using Structured Expert Judgment, United States.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Jan;27(1):182-195

Illnesses transmitted by food and water cause a major disease burden in the United States despite advancements in food safety, water treatment, and sanitation. We report estimates from a structured expert judgment study using 48 experts who applied Cooke's classical model of the proportion of disease attributable to 5 major transmission pathways (foodborne, waterborne, person-to-person, animal contact, and environmental) and 6 subpathways (food handler-related, under foodborne; recreational, drinking, and nonrecreational/nondrinking, under waterborne; and presumed person-to-person-associated and presumed animal contact-associated, under environmental). Estimates for 33 pathogens were elicited, including bacteria such as Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Legionella spp., and Pseudomonas spp.; protozoa such as Acanthamoeba spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Naegleria fowleri; and viruses such as norovirus, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus. The results highlight the importance of multiple pathways in the transmission of the included pathogens and can be used to guide prioritization of public health interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2701.200316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774530PMC
January 2021

Estimate of Burden and Direct Healthcare Cost of Infectious Waterborne Disease in the United States.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Jan;27(1):140-149

Provision of safe drinking water in the United States is a great public health achievement. However, new waterborne disease challenges have emerged (e.g., aging infrastructure, chlorine-tolerant and biofilm-related pathogens, increased recreational water use). Comprehensive estimates of the health burden for all water exposure routes (ingestion, contact, inhalation) and sources (drinking, recreational, environmental) are needed. We estimated total illnesses, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, deaths, and direct healthcare costs for 17 waterborne infectious diseases. About 7.15 million waterborne illnesses occur annually (95% credible interval [CrI] 3.88 million-12.0 million), results in 601,000 ED visits (95% CrI 364,000-866,000), 118,000 hospitalizations (95% CrI 86,800-150,000), and 6,630 deaths (95% CrI 4,520-8,870) and incurring US $3.33 billion (95% CrI 1.37 billion-8.77 billion) in direct healthcare costs. Otitis externa and norovirus infection were the most common illnesses. Most hospitalizations and deaths were caused by biofilm-associated pathogens (nontuberculous mycobacteria, Pseudomonas, Legionella), costing US $2.39 billion annually.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2701.190676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774540PMC
January 2021

COVID-19-Related Hospitalization Rates and Severe Outcomes Among Veterans From 5 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers: Hospital-Based Surveillance Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 01 22;7(1):e24502. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Background: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected older adults and certain racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Data quantifying the disease burden, as well as describing clinical outcomes during hospitalization among these groups, are needed.

Objective: We aimed to describe interim COVID-19 hospitalization rates and severe clinical outcomes by age group and race and ethnicity among US veterans by using a multisite surveillance network.

Methods: We implemented a multisite COVID-19 surveillance platform in 5 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers located in Atlanta, Bronx, Houston, Palo Alto, and Los Angeles, collectively serving more than 396,000 patients annually. From February 27 to July 17, 2020, we actively identified inpatient cases with COVID-19 by screening admitted patients and reviewing their laboratory test results. We then manually abstracted the patients' medical charts for demographics, underlying medical conditions, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we calculated hospitalization incidence and incidence rate ratios, as well as relative risk for invasive mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and case fatality rate after adjusting for age, race and ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions.

Results: We identified 621 laboratory-confirmed, hospitalized COVID-19 cases. The median age of the patients was 70 years, with 65.7% (408/621) aged ≥65 years and 94% (584/621) male. Most COVID-19 diagnoses were among non-Hispanic Black (325/621, 52.3%) veterans, followed by non-Hispanic White (153/621, 24.6%) and Hispanic or Latino (112/621, 18%) veterans. Hospitalization rates were the highest among veterans who were ≥85 years old, Hispanic or Latino, and non-Hispanic Black (430, 317, and 298 per 100,000, respectively). Veterans aged ≥85 years had a 14-fold increased rate of hospitalization compared with those aged 18-29 years (95% CI: 5.7-34.6), whereas Hispanic or Latino and Black veterans had a 4.6- and 4.2-fold increased rate of hospitalization, respectively, compared with non-Hispanic White veterans (95% CI: 3.6-5.9). Overall, 11.6% (72/621) of the patients required invasive mechanical ventilation, 26.6% (165/621) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 16.9% (105/621) died in the hospital. The adjusted relative risk for invasive mechanical ventilation and admission to the intensive care unit did not differ by age group or race and ethnicity, but veterans aged ≥65 years had a 4.5-fold increased risk of death while hospitalized with COVID-19 compared with those aged <65 years (95% CI: 2.4-8.6).

Conclusions: COVID-19 surveillance at the 5 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers across the United States demonstrated higher hospitalization rates and severe outcomes among older veterans, as well as higher hospitalization rates among Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic Black veterans than among non-Hispanic White veterans. These findings highlight the need for targeted prevention and timely treatment for veterans, with special attention to older aged, Hispanic or Latino, and non-Hispanic Black veterans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/24502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836907PMC
January 2021

Summary of Guidance for Public Health Strategies to Address High Levels of Community Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and Related Deaths, December 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Dec 11;69(49):1860-1867. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

CDC COVID-19 Emergency Response.

In the 10 months since the first confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in the United States on January 20, 2020 (1), approximately 13.8 million cases and 272,525 deaths have been reported in the United States. On October 30, the number of new cases reported in the United States in a single day exceeded 100,000 for the first time, and by December 2 had reached a daily high of 196,227.* With colder weather, more time spent indoors, the ongoing U.S. holiday season, and silent spread of disease, with approximately 50% of transmission from asymptomatic persons (2), the United States has entered a phase of high-level transmission where a multipronged approach to implementing all evidence-based public health strategies at both the individual and community levels is essential. This summary guidance highlights critical evidence-based CDC recommendations and sustainable strategies to reduce COVID-19 transmission. These strategies include 1) universal face mask use, 2) maintaining physical distance from other persons and limiting in-person contacts, 3) avoiding nonessential indoor spaces and crowded outdoor spaces, 4) increasing testing to rapidly identify and isolate infected persons, 5) promptly identifying, quarantining, and testing close contacts of persons with known COVID-19, 6) safeguarding persons most at risk for severe illness or death from infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, 7) protecting essential workers with provision of adequate personal protective equipment and safe work practices, 8) postponing travel, 9) increasing room air ventilation and enhancing hand hygiene and environmental disinfection, and 10) achieving widespread availability and high community coverage with effective COVID-19 vaccines. In combination, these strategies can reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission, long-term sequelae or disability, and death, and mitigate the pandemic's economic impact. Consistent implementation of these strategies improves health equity, preserves health care capacity, maintains the function of essential businesses, and supports the availability of in-person instruction for kindergarten through grade 12 schools and preschool. Individual persons, households, and communities should take these actions now to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission from its current high level. These actions will provide a bridge to a future with wide availability and high community coverage of effective vaccines, when safe return to more everyday activities in a range of settings will be possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6949e2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737690PMC
December 2020

Comparison of Estimated SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence through Commercial Laboratory Residual Sera Testing and a Community Survey.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Dec 10. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

CDC COVID-19 Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

We compared severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 seroprevalence estimated from commercial laboratory residual sera and a community household survey in metropolitan Atlanta during April-May 2020 and found these two estimates to be similar (4.94% versus 3.18%). Compared with more representative surveys, commercial sera can provide an approximate measure of seroprevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799302PMC
December 2020

COVID-19 Investigational Treatments in Use Among Hospitalized Patients Identified Through the US Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network, March 1-June 30, 2020.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Nov 9;7(11):ofaa528. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

COVID-NET Surveillance Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Using a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hospitalization surveillance network, we found that 42.5% of hospitalized COVID-19 cases with available data from March 1-June 30, 2020, received ≥1 COVID-19 investigational treatment. Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir were used frequently; however, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use declined over time, while use of remdesivir increased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686662PMC
November 2020

Characteristics of Adults Aged 18-49 Years Without Underlying Conditions Hospitalized With Laboratory-Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 in the United States: COVID-NET-March-August 2020.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 03;72(5):e162-e166

CDC COVID-NET Team.

Among 513 adults aged 18-49 years without underlying medical conditions hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during March 2020-August 2020, 22% were admitted to an intensive care unit, 10% required mechanical ventilation, and 3 patients died (0.6%). These data demonstrate that healthy younger adults can develop severe COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799269PMC
March 2021

Hospital-based Surveillance for Pediatric Norovirus Gastroenteritis in Bangladesh, 2012-2016.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Mar;40(3):215-219

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Globally, noroviruses are recognized as an important cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), but data from low and middle-income countries are limited.

Aims: To examine the epidemiology and strain diversity of norovirus infections among children hospitalized for AGE in Bangladesh.

Methods: We implemented active surveillance of children <5 years of age hospitalized with AGE at 8 geographically dispersed tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh from July 2012 to June 2016. We tested random samples of AGE cases stratified by site and age group for norovirus by real-time RT-PCR. Noro-positive specimens were genotyped. Coinfection with rotavirus was assessed based on prior EIA testing.

Results: We enrolled 5622 total AGE cases, of which 1008 were tested for norovirus. Total of 137 (14%) AGE cases tested positive for norovirus (range, 11%-17% by site). Most (94%) norovirus-associated hospitalizations were among children less than 2 years of age. Norovirus was detected year-round, with higher detection from March to June (20%-38%) and November to January (9%-18%). Genogroup II (GII) noroviruses were detected in 96% of cases, and the most frequent genotypes were GII.4 Sydney [P4 New Orleans] (33%), GII.3 [P16] (20%), and GII.4 Sydney [P16] (11%). The proportion of norovirus-positive specimens was significantly greater among rotavirus-negative AGE patients compared with rotavirus-positive AGE patients (27% vs. 5%, P < 0.001). As measured by the Vesikari severity score, a similar proportion of norovirus and rotavirus positive AGE patients were considered severe (68% vs. 70%, P = 0.86).

Conclusions: Norovirus is an important cause of AGE hospitalization in Bangladeshi children with most infections caused by GII viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002989DOI Listing
March 2021

Estimated incidence of COVID-19 illness and hospitalization - United States, February-September, 2020.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

COVID-19 Emergency Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Background: In the United States, laboratory confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is nationally notifiable. However, reported case counts are recognized to be less than the true number of cases because detection and reporting are incomplete and can vary by disease severity, geography, and over time.

Methods: To estimate the cumulative incidence SARS-CoV-2 infections, symptomatic illnesses, and hospitalizations, we adapted a simple probabilistic multiplier model. Laboratory-confirmed case counts that were reported nationally were adjusted for sources of under-detection based on testing practices in inpatient and outpatient settings and assay sensitivity.

Results: We estimated that through the end of September, 1 of every 2.5 (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI): 2.0-3.1) hospitalized infections and 1 of every 7.1 (95% UI: 5.8-9.0) non-hospitalized illnesses may have been nationally reported. Applying these multipliers to reported SARS-CoV-2 cases along with data on the prevalence of asymptomatic infection from published systematic reviews, we estimate that 2.4 million hospitalizations, 44.8 million symptomatic illnesses, and 52.9 million total infections may have occurred in the U.S. population from February 27-September 30, 2020.

Conclusions: These preliminary estimates help demonstrate the societal and healthcare burdens of the COVID-19 pandemic and can help inform resource allocation and mitigation planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717219PMC
November 2020

Estimated SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in the US as of September 2020.

JAMA Intern Med 2021 04;181(4):450-460

COVID-19 Response, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: Case-based surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection likely underestimates the true prevalence of infections. Large-scale seroprevalence surveys can better estimate infection across many geographic regions.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of persons with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using residual sera from commercial laboratories across the US and assess changes over time.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This repeated, cross-sectional study conducted across all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico used a convenience sample of residual serum specimens provided by persons of all ages that were originally submitted for routine screening or clinical management from 2 private clinical commercial laboratories. Samples were obtained during 4 collection periods: July 27 to August 13, August 10 to August 27, August 24 to September 10, and September 7 to September 24, 2020.

Exposures: Infection with SARS-CoV-2.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The proportion of persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 as measured by the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 by 1 of 3 chemiluminescent immunoassays. Iterative poststratification was used to adjust seroprevalence estimates to the demographic profile and urbanicity of each jurisdiction. Seroprevalence was estimated by jurisdiction, sex, age group (0-17, 18-49, 50-64, and ≥65 years), and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan status.

Results: Of 177 919 serum samples tested, 103 771 (58.3%) were from women, 26 716 (15.0%) from persons 17 years or younger, 47 513 (26.7%) from persons 65 years or older, and 26 290 (14.8%) from individuals living in nonmetropolitan areas. Jurisdiction-level seroprevalence over 4 collection periods ranged from less than 1% to 23%. In 42 of 49 jurisdictions with sufficient samples to estimate seroprevalence across all periods, fewer than 10% of people had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Seroprevalence estimates varied between sexes, across age groups, and between metropolitan/nonmetropolitan areas. Changes from period 1 to 4 were less than 7 percentage points in all jurisdictions and varied across sites.

Conclusions And Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that as of September 2020, most persons in the US did not have serologic evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, although prevalence varied widely by jurisdiction. Biweekly nationwide testing of commercial clinical laboratory sera can play an important role in helping track the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the US.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.7976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686880PMC
April 2021

Household Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the United States.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Aug 16. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

COVID-19 Response Team, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Although many viral respiratory illnesses are transmitted within households, the evidence base for SARS-CoV-2 is nascent. We sought to characterize SARS-CoV-2 transmission within US households and estimate the household secondary infection rate (SIR) to inform strategies to reduce transmission.

Methods: We recruited laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients and their household contacts in Utah and Wisconsin during March 22-April 25, 2020. We interviewed patients and all household contacts to obtain demographics and medical histories. At the initial household visit, 14 days later, and when a household contact became newly symptomatic, we collected respiratory swabs from patients and household contacts for testing by SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR and sera for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We estimated SIR and odds ratios (OR) to assess risk factors for secondary infection, defined by a positive rRT-PCR or ELISA test.

Results: Thirty-two (55%) of 58 households had evidence of secondary infection among household contacts. The SIR was 29% (n = 55/188; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 23-36%) overall, 42% among children (<18 years) of the COVID-19 patient and 33% among spouses/partners. Household contacts to COVID-19 patients with immunocompromised conditions had increased odds of infection (OR: 15.9, 95% CI: 2.4-106.9). Household contacts who themselves had diabetes mellitus had increased odds of infection (OR: 7.1, 95% CI: 1.2-42.5).

Conclusions: We found substantial evidence of secondary infections among household contacts. People with COVID-19, particularly those with immunocompromising conditions or those with household contacts with diabetes, should take care to promptly self-isolate to prevent household transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7454394PMC
August 2020

Birth and Infant Outcomes Following Laboratory-Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnancy - SET-NET, 16 Jurisdictions, March 29-October 14, 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Nov 6;69(44):1635-1640. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness and might be at risk for preterm birth (1-3). The full impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in pregnancy is unknown. Public health jurisdictions report information, including pregnancy status, on confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.* Through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET), 16 jurisdictions collected supplementary information on pregnancy and infant outcomes among 5,252 women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported during March 29-October 14, 2020. Among 3,912 live births with known gestational age, 12.9% were preterm (<37 weeks), higher than the reported 10.2% among the general U.S. population in 2019 (4). Among 610 infants (21.3%) with reported SARS-CoV-2 test results, perinatal infection was infrequent (2.6%) and occurred primarily among infants whose mother had SARS-CoV-2 infection identified within 1 week of delivery. Because the majority of pregnant women with COVID-19 reported thus far experienced infection in the third trimester, ongoing surveillance is needed to assess effects of infections in early pregnancy, as well the longer-term outcomes of exposed infants. These findings can inform neonatal testing recommendations, clinical practice, and public health action and can be used by health care providers to counsel pregnant women on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including preterm births. Pregnant women and their household members should follow recommended infection prevention measures, including wearing a mask, social distancing, and frequent handwashing when going out or interacting with others or if there is a person within the household who has had exposure to COVID-19..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6944e2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643898PMC
November 2020

Identifying septic pollution exposure routes during a waterborne norovirus outbreak - A new application for human-associated microbial source tracking qPCR.

J Microbiol Methods 2021 01 31;180:106091. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Pennsylvania Department of Health, Division of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, USA.

In June 2017, the Pennsylvania Department of Health (PADOH) was notified of multiple norovirus outbreaks associated with 179 ill individuals who attended separate events held at an outdoor venue and campground over a month period. Epidemiologic investigations were unable to identify a single exposure route and therefore unable to determine whether there was a persistent contamination source to target for exposure mitigation. Norovirus was detected in a fresh recreational water designated swimming area and a drinking water well. A hydrogeological site evaluation suggested a nearby septic leach field as a potential contamination source via ground water infiltration. Geological characterization revealed a steep dip of the bedrock beneath the septic leach field toward the well, providing a viral transport pathway in a geologic medium not previously documented as high risk for viral ground water contamination. The human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) genetic marker, HF183, was used as a microbial tracer to demonstrate the hydrogeological connection between the malfunctioning septic system, drinking water well, and recreational water area. Based on environmental investigation findings, venue management and local public health officials implemented a series of outbreak prevention strategies including discontinuing the use of the contaminated well, issuing a permit for a new drinking water well, increasing portable toilet and handwashing station availability, and promoting proper hand hygiene. Despite the outbreaks at the venue and evidence of ground water contamination impacting nearby recreational water and the drinking water well, no new norovirus cases were reported during a large event one week after implementing prevention practices. This investigation highlights a new application for human-associated MST methods to trace hydrological connections between multiple fecal pollutant exposure routes in an outbreak scenario. In turn, pollutant source information can be used to develop effective intervention practices to mitigate exposure and prevent future outbreaks associated with human fecal contaminated waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2020.106091DOI Listing
January 2021

COVID-19-Associated Hospitalizations Among Health Care Personnel - COVID-NET, 13 States, March 1-May 31, 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Oct 30;69(43):1576-1583. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Health care personnel (HCP) can be exposed to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), both within and outside the workplace, increasing their risk for infection. Among 6,760 adults hospitalized during March 1-May 31, 2020, for whom HCP status was determined by the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), 5.9% were HCP. Nursing-related occupations (36.3%) represented the largest proportion of HCP hospitalized with COVID-19. Median age of hospitalized HCP was 49 years, and 89.8% had at least one underlying medical condition, of which obesity was most commonly reported (72.5%). A substantial proportion of HCP with COVID-19 had indicators of severe disease: 27.5% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), 15.8% required invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4.2% died during hospitalization. HCP can have severe COVID-19-associated illness, highlighting the need for continued infection prevention and control in health care settings as well as community mitigation efforts to reduce transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6943e3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7659917PMC
October 2020

Risk for In-Hospital Complications Associated with COVID-19 and Influenza - Veterans Health Administration, United States, October 1, 2018-May 31, 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Oct 23;69(42):1528-1534. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory illness, although increasing evidence indicates that infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can affect multiple organ systems (1). Data that examine all in-hospital complications of COVID-19 and that compare these complications with those associated with other viral respiratory pathogens, such as influenza, are lacking. To assess complications of COVID-19 and influenza, electronic health records (EHRs) from 3,948 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (March 1-May 31, 2020) and 5,453 hospitalized patients with influenza (October 1, 2018-February 1, 2020) from the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest integrated health care system in the United States,* were analyzed. Using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes, complications in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were compared with those in patients with influenza. Risk ratios were calculated and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions; proportions of complications were stratified among patients with COVID-19 by race/ethnicity. Patients with COVID-19 had almost 19 times the risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) than did patients with influenza, (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 18.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 12.40-28.00), and more than twice the risk for myocarditis (2.56; 1.17-5.59), deep vein thrombosis (2.81; 2.04-3.87), pulmonary embolism (2.10; 1.53-2.89), intracranial hemorrhage (2.85; 1.35-6.03), acute hepatitis/liver failure (3.13; 1.92-5.10), bacteremia (2.46; 1.91-3.18), and pressure ulcers (2.65; 2.14-3.27). The risks for exacerbations of asthma (0.27; 0.16-0.44) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (0.37; 0.32-0.42) were lower among patients with COVID-19 than among those with influenza. The percentage of COVID-19 patients who died while hospitalized (21.0%) was more than five times that of influenza patients (3.8%), and the duration of hospitalization was almost three times longer for COVID-19 patients. Among patients with COVID-19, the risk for respiratory, neurologic, and renal complications, and sepsis was higher among non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) patients, patients of other races, and Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) patients compared with those in non-Hispanic White (White) patients, even after adjusting for age and underlying medical conditions. These findings highlight the higher risk for most complications associated with COVID-19 compared with influenza and might aid clinicians and researchers in recognizing, monitoring, and managing the spectrum of COVID-19 manifestations. The higher risk for certain complications among racial and ethnic minority patients provides further evidence that certain racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionally affected by COVID-19 and that this disparity is not solely accounted for by age and underlying medical conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6942e3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583498PMC
October 2020

Symptoms and Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Among Children - Utah and Wisconsin, March-May 2020.

Pediatrics 2021 01 8;147(1). Epub 2020 Oct 8.

COVID-19 Response Team.

Background And Objectives: Limited data exist on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in children. We described infection rates and symptom profiles among pediatric household contacts of individuals with coronavirus disease 2019.

Methods: We enrolled individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 and their household contacts, assessed daily symptoms prospectively for 14 days, and obtained specimens for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and serology testing. Among pediatric contacts (<18 years), we described transmission, assessed the risk factors for infection, and calculated symptom positive and negative predictive values. We compared secondary infection rates and symptoms between pediatric and adult contacts using generalized estimating equations.

Results: Among 58 households, 188 contacts were enrolled (120 adults; 68 children). Secondary infection rates for adults (30%) and children (28%) were similar. Among households with potential for transmission from children, child-to-adult transmission may have occurred in 2 of 10 (20%), and child-to-child transmission may have occurred in 1 of 6 (17%). Pediatric case patients most commonly reported headache (79%), sore throat (68%), and rhinorrhea (68%); symptoms had low positive predictive values, except measured fever (100%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 44% to 100%). Compared with symptomatic adults, children were less likely to report cough (odds ratio [OR]: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.57), loss of taste (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.74), and loss of smell (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.96) and more likely to report sore throat (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.04 to 11.18).

Conclusions: Children and adults had similar secondary infection rates, but children generally had less frequent and severe symptoms. In two states early in the pandemic, we observed possible transmission from children in approximately one-fifth of households with potential to observe such transmission patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-027268DOI Listing
January 2021

Adolescent with COVID-19 as the Source of an Outbreak at a 3-Week Family Gathering - Four States, June-July 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Oct 9;69(40):1457-1459. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

There is increasing evidence that children and adolescents can efficiently transmit SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1-3). During July-August 2020, four state health departments and CDC investigated a COVID-19 outbreak that occurred during a 3-week family gathering of five households in which an adolescent aged 13 years was the index and suspected primary patient; 11 subsequent cases occurred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6940e2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561219PMC
October 2020

Epidemiological Correlates of PCR Cycle Threshold Values in the Detection of SARS-CoV-2.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Sep 28. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

COVID-19 Response Team, CDC, Atlanta, USA.

Background: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection has principally been performed through the use of real-time reverse-transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) testing. Results of such tests can be reported as cycle threshold (Ct) values, which may provide semi-quantitative or indirect measurements of viral load. Previous reports have examined temporal trends in Ct values over the course of a SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods: Using testing data collected during a prospective household transmission investigation of outpatient and mild COVID-19 cases, we examined the relationship between Ct values of the viral RNA N1 target and demographic, clinical, and epidemiological characteristics collected through participant interviews and daily symptom diaries.

Results: We found Ct values are lowest (corresponding to higher viral RNA concentration) soon after symptom onset and are significantly correlated with time elapsed since onset (p<0.001); within 7 days after symptom onset, the median Ct value was 26.5 compared with a median Ct value of 35.0 occurring 21 days after onset. Ct values were significantly lower among participants under 18 years of age (p=0.01) and those reporting upper respiratory symptoms at the time of sample collection (p=0.001) and were higher among participants reporting no symptoms (p=0.05).

Conclusions: These results emphasize the importance of early testing for SARS-CoV-2 among individuals with symptoms of respiratory illness and allows cases to be identified and isolated when their viral shedding may be highest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7543310PMC
September 2020

Characteristics and Maternal and Birth Outcomes of Hospitalized Pregnant Women with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 - COVID-NET, 13 States, March 1-August 22, 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Sep 25;69(38):1347-1354. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1,2). The COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) (3) collects data on hospitalized pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19; to date, such data have been limited. During March 1-August 22, 2020, approximately one in four hospitalized women aged 15-49 years with COVID-19 was pregnant. Among 598 hospitalized pregnant women with COVID-19, 54.5% were asymptomatic at admission. Among 272 pregnant women with COVID-19 who were symptomatic at hospital admission, 16.2% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), and 8.5% required invasive mechanical ventilation. During COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, 448 of 458 (97.8%) completed pregnancies resulted in a live birth and 10 (2.2%) resulted in a pregnancy loss. Testing policies based on the presence of symptoms might miss COVID-19 infections during pregnancy. Surveillance of pregnant women with COVID-19, including those with asymptomatic infections, is important to understand the short- and long-term consequences of COVID-19 for mothers and newborns. Identifying COVID-19 in women during birth hospitalizations is important to guide preventive measures to protect pregnant women, parents, newborns, other patients, and hospital personnel. Pregnant women and health care providers should be made aware of the potential risks for severe COVID-19 illness, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and ways to prevent infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6938e1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727497PMC
September 2020

Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization: COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Sep 18. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

CDC COVID-NET Team, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Data on risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization are needed to guide prevention efforts and clinical care. We sought to identify factors independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations.

Methods: U.S. community-dwelling adults (≥18 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during March 1-June 23, 2020 were identified from the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), a multi-state surveillance system. To calculate hospitalization rates by age, sex, and race/ethnicity strata, COVID-NET data served as the numerator and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System estimates served as the population denominator for characteristics of interest. Underlying medical conditions examined included hypertension, coronary artery disease, history of stroke, diabetes, obesity [BMI ≥30 kg/m 2], severe obesity [BMI≥40 kg/m 2], chronic kidney disease, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Generalized Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted rate ratios (aRR) for hospitalization.

Results: Among 5,416 adults, hospitalization rates were higher among those with ≥3 underlying conditions (versus without)(aRR: 5.0; 95%CI: 3.9, 6.3), severe obesity (aRR:4.4; 95%CI: 3.4, 5.7), chronic kidney disease (aRR:4.0; 95%CI: 3.0, 5.2), diabetes (aRR:3.2; 95%CI: 2.5, 4.1), obesity (aRR:2.9; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.5), hypertension (aRR:2.8; 95%CI: 2.3, 3.4), and asthma (aRR:1.4; 95%CI: 1.1, 1.7), after adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults aged ≥65, 45-64 (versus 18-44 years), males (versus females), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (versus non-Hispanic whites).

Conclusion: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7543371PMC
September 2020