Publications by authors named "Arnon Nagler"

656 Publications

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome using treosulfan based compared to other reduced-intensity or myeloablative conditioning regimens. A report of the chronic malignancies working party of the EBMT.

Br J Haematol 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

CHU de Lille, INSERM U1286, Univ Lille, Lille, France.

Allogeneic haematopoietic-cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) is usually associated with lower non-relapse mortality (NRM), higher relapse rate and similar overall-survival (OS) as myeloablative-conditioning (MAC). Fludarabine/treosulfan (FT) is a reduced-toxicity regimen with intense anti-leukaemia activity and a favourable toxicity profile. We investigated post-transplant outcomes in 1722 MDS patients following allo-HCT with FT (n = 367), RIC (n = 687) or MAC (n = 668). FT and RIC recipients were older than MAC recipients, median age 59, 59 and 51 years, respectively (P < 0·001) but other disease characteristics were similar. The median follow-up was 64 months (1-171). Five-year relapse rates were 25% (21-30), 38% (34-42) and 25% (22-29), after FT, RIC and MAC, respectively, (P < 0·001). NRM was 30% (25-35), 27% (23-30) and 34% (31-38, P = 0·008), respectively. Five-year OS was 50% (44-55), 43% (38-47), and 43% (39-47), respectively (P = 0·03). In multivariate analysis, FT was associated with a lower risk of relapse (HR 0·55, P < 0·001) and better OS (HR 0·72, P = 0·01). MAC was associated with higher NRM (HR 1·44, P = 0·001). In conclusion, FT is associated with similar low relapse rates as MAC and similar low NRM as RIC, resulting in improved OS. FT may be the preferred regimen for allo-HCT in MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17817DOI Listing
September 2021

The Simplified Comorbidity Index (SCI) - a new tool for prediction of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HCT.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States.

Individual comorbidities have distinct contributions to non-relapse mortality (NRM) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We studied the impact of comorbidities both individually and in combination in a single-center cohort of 573 adult patients who underwent CD34-selected allo-HCT following myeloablative conditioning. Pulmonary disease, moderate to severe hepatic comorbidity, cardiac disease of any type, and renal dysfunction were associated with increased NRM in multivariable Cox regression models. A Simplified Comorbidity Index (SCI) composed of the four comorbidities predictive of NRM, as well as age > 60 years, stratified patients into five groups with a stepwise increase in NRM. NRM rates ranged from 11.4% to 49.9% by stratum, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.84, 2.59, 3.57, and 5.38. The SCI was also applicable in an external cohort of 230 patients who underwent allo-HCT with unmanipulated grafts following intermediate-intensity conditioning. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the SCI for 1-year NRM was 70.3 and 72.0 over the development and external-validation cohorts, respectively; corresponding AUCs of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) were 61.7 and 65.7. In summary, a small set of comorbidities, aggregated into the Simplified Comorbidity Index, are highly predictive of NRM. The new index stratifies patients into distinct risk groups, was validated in an external cohort, and provides higher discrimination than the HCT-CI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004319DOI Listing
September 2021

Serial surveillance by circulating tumor DNA profiling after chimeric antigen receptor T therapy for the guidance of r/r diffuse large B cell lymphoma precise treatment.

J Cancer 2021 13;12(18):5423-5431. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine.

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) released from tumor cells carries the tumor-associated genetic and epigenetic characteristics of cancer patients. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) facilitates the application of ctDNA profiling for identification and monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) in cancer, and can serve as the guidance for precise treatment. In this study, we profiled genomic alterations in the baseline, relapsed, and progressive tumor samples of eight diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients (NCT03118180) after chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy. The median follow-up was 41 months. 4 (50%) patients achieved complete remission (CR), 1 (12.5%) patient achieved partial remission (PR), and the other 3 (37.5%) patients showed no response. 3 of 5 patients who achieved remission relapsed within 4 months after CAR-T therapy, while the rest 2 patients remained CR for more than 3 years. Based on the positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan, the current gold standard for evaluating response to therapy in lymphoma, the sensitivity and specificity of our ctDNA profiling in detecting tumor-related ctDNA mutations were 94.7% and 83.3%, respectively. The median numbers of baseline plasma ctDNA mutations in patients who remained long-term CR and patients who relapsed or became refractory to CAR-T therapy were 3 and 14.3, respectively. , , and mutations appeared to be associated with poor prognosis after CAR-T cell therapy. Our results also suggested that lenalidomide might relieve relapsed lymphoma with mutations in 202C>T (p.Q68*) and 433A>T (p.K145*) by targeting NF-Kappa B signaling. In addition, the inhibitor selinexor may be another choice for refractory or relapse (r/r) DLBCL patients after CAR-T cell treatment. Serial ctDNA monitoring is an emerging technology for the surveillance of disease status and prognosis prediction. In this work, we demonstrated the use of serial ctDNA monitoring in r/r DLBCL patients after CD19-targeted CAR-T cell therapy. Our longitudinal NGS profiling revealed the changes of ctDNA mutation in accordance with prognosis, and shed some light on exploring more targeted treatment options together with CAR-T cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.60390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364638PMC
July 2021

Predictive Factors for Outcome of First Allogeneic Transplant for Elderly Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Clinical Hematology and Cellular Therapy, Saint Antoine Hospital, INSERM UMR 938, Sorbonne University, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Introduction/background: The treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in patients older than 70 is extremely challenging with dismal outcome. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) has seen many advancements in the last decades showing benefits in younger ALL patients, but this treatment modality is decreasingly used with increasing age due to high treatment-related mortality.

Patients And Methods: We identified 84 ALL patients 70 to 84 years old allografted In 2002 to 2019 from a matched related (23%), unrelated (58%), haploidentical (17%), or cord blood (2%) donor at EBMT participating centers with a median follow-up of 23 months.

Results: The 2-year relapse incidence (RI) and non-relapse mortality were 37% and 28%, respectively, and 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 35%, 39% and 23%, respectively. The strongest predictor of outcome was disease status at transplant whereby patients in first complete remission (CR1) had >50% 2-year OS, reflected in multivariate analysis (MVA) with significant improvement in RI, LFS, and GRFS (HR 0.23, 0.49, and 0.54, respectively). Furthermore, karnofsky score ≥90 reflective of good functional status positively influenced non-relapse mortality in both univariate and MVA (HR 0.37), and interestingly, donor CMV positivity appeared to negatively affect RI, LFS and OS in univariate analysis and RI in MVA (HR 2.87).

Conclusion: Our data suggest that alloHCT is an option for elderly ALL patients, particularly those carefully selected and transplanted in CR1 especially if failed or without access to novel non-chemotherapy-based approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.07.010DOI Listing
July 2021

Standardizing Definitions of Hematopoietic Recovery, Graft Rejection, Graft Failure, Poor Graft Function, and Donor Chimerism in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Report on Behalf of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08;27(8):642-649

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is potentially curative for certain hematologic malignancies and nonmalignant diseases. The field of allo-HCT has witnessed significant advances, including broadening indications for transplantation, availability of alternative donor sources, less toxic preparative regimens, new cell manipulation techniques, and novel GVHD prevention methods, all of which have expanded the applicability of the procedure. These advances have led to clinical practice conundrums when applying traditional definitions of hematopoietic recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, because these may vary based on donor type, cell source, cell dose, primary disease, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and conditioning intensity, among other variables. To address these contemporary challenges, we surveyed a panel of allo-HCT experts in an attempt to standardize these definitions. We analyzed survey responses from adult and pediatric transplantation physicians separately. Consensus was achieved for definitions of neutrophil and platelet recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, but not for delayed engraftment. Here we highlight the complexities associated with the management of mixed donor chimerism in malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases, which remains an area for future research. We recognize that there are multiple other specific, and at times complex, clinical scenarios for which clinical management must be individualized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.007DOI Listing
August 2021

CD19/CD22 Dual-Targeted CAR T-cell Therapy for Relapsed/Refractory Aggressive B-cell Lymphoma: A Safety and Efficacy Study.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Sep 21;9(9):1061-1070. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies that target either CD19 or CD22 alone have potent antilymphoma effects. However, antigen escape-mediated relapse often occurs. CAR T cells targeting both CD19 and CD22 may overcome this limitation. In this study, we developed bispecific CAR T cells simultaneously recognizing CD19- and CD22-expressing targets and assessed their safety and efficacy profiles in patients with relapsed/refractory aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Twenty-four patients were screened, and 16 were found eligible for the study. CAR T-cell-associated toxicities were recorded. Responses, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed. Of the 16 eligible patients, 14 (87.5%) achieved objective response and 10 (62.5%) achieved complete response (CR). The 2-year OS and PFS rates were 77.3% and 40.2%, respectively. Achieving CR ( = 0.046) and the number of prior chemotherapy lines ( = 2; = 0.047) were independent prognostic factors associated with favorable PFS. The 2-year OS and PFS among patients who achieved CR were higher than among those who did not ( = 0.015 and < 0.001, respectively). The 2-year PFS among patients who received two prior lines of chemotherapy was higher than that among patients who received more than two lines of chemotherapy ( = 0.049); OS did not differ between the groups. Severe grade 4 cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) was observed in 1 patient; 4 and 11 patients had grades 1 and 2 CRS, respectively. No patients developed neurotoxicity. CD19/CD22 dual-targeted CAR T cells may be a safe, potent antilymphoma cell-based targeted immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-20-0675DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparison of long-term outcome for AML patients alive free of disease 2 years after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with umbilical cord blood versus unrelated donor: a study from the ALWP of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

EBMT Paris study office / CEREST-TC, Paris, France.

Since cord blood transplantation (CBT) has been associated with high graft-versus-leukemia effects and a low incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we hypothesized that long-term outcomes might be better in CBT patients than in those given grafts from unrelated donors (UD). Therefore, we performed a landmark study comparing long-term outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients alive and disease-free 2 years after transplantation who received grafts from either CBT or UD. A total of 364 CBT recipients, 2648 UD 10/10 patients and 681 patients given grafts from UD 9/10 were included. Median follow-up was 6.0 years. Five-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) from transplantation was 86% in CBT patients, 84% in UD 10/10 patients (P = 0.36) and 84% in UD 9/10 patients (P = 0.86). On multivariate analysis, donor type had no impact on LFS. Similarly, no impact of donor type was observed on relapse incidence or non-relapse mortality. Factors associated with poorer LFS on multivariate analysis included higher age at transplantation (P < 0.001), male gender (P < 0.001), second complete remission (CR2) versus CR1 (P = 0.05), secondary AML (P = 0.01), antecedent of chronic GVHD (P < 0.001) and poor-risk cytogenetics (P = 0.01). In conclusion, our study shows that long-term outcome for AML patients in CR two years after transplantation is not impacted by donor type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01387-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Long-acting granulocyte colony-stimulating factor pegfilgrastim (lipegfilgrastim) for stem cell mobilization in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation.

Int J Hematol 2021 Sep 2;114(3):363-372. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

The Division of Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard of care in newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Several studies before the introduction of novel therapies in MM, demonstrated a pegylated G-CSF to be successful in mobilizing peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). Lipegfilgrastim is a novel long-acting G-CSF that is produced by the conjugation of a single 20-kDa polyethelene glycol to the natural O-glycosylation site of G-CSF. Twenty-four MM patients were included for PBSCs mobilization with a single SC injection of 6 mg lipegfilgrastim. PBSC collection was started when the CD34 count was > 10 × 10 cells/L. The target progenitor cells were 6 × 10 cells/kg. The median day of apheresis was + 3 (range 2-5) following lipegfilgrastim. Median peripheral blood CD34 count pre-mobilization was of 22.65 (range 3.36-105) × 10 cells/L. The median number of leukaphaeresis procedures was 2 (range 1-4). The median mobilized CD34 cells/kg were 8.26 (range 0.77-12.42). One patient failed to mobilize and two patients mobilized < 6 × 10 cells/kg. Toxicity was mild and transient. Twenty-three patients underwent ASCT following high dose melphalan. All patients engrafted. As lipegfilgrastim is administered only once, it is conceivable that it improves both compliance and quality-of-life (NCT02488382).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03177-9DOI Listing
September 2021

High lactate dehydrogenase at time of admission for allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation associates to poor survival in acute myeloid leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Hematology Division and BMT, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer and Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel.

Risk stratification is important for balancing potential risks and benefits of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hematological malignancies. We retrospectively studied 1119 patients undergoing allogenic-HSCT in a single center for five hematological indications assessing the prognostic role of LDH at admission for survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), relapse incidence (RI), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). In non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), higher than median LDH had an adverse effect on survival. The prognostic significance was strongest in AML, with higher LDH levels having lower 1-and 3-year survival 69.2% vs. 50.8%, P < 0.001 and 51.9% vs. 39.2%, P < 0.001, respectively, reduced 1-and 3-year PFS 62.4% vs. 42.1%, P < 0.001 48% vs. 35.2%, P < 0.001, respectively, higher cumulative incidence of 1-and 3-year NRM 11% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.01 and 15.7% vs. 19.6%, P = 0.04, and higher 1-and 3-year relapse incidence (RI) 26.7% vs. 40.7%, p < .0001 36.2% vs. 40.7%, respectively, P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis LDH maintained significant prognostic capacity in OS, PFS and RI. These findings in AML, validated in an independent cohort, suggest that LDH is a readily available tool that could be integrated into transplant risk assessments to aid decision-making and identify high-risk patients who may benefit from post-transplant pharmacological or cellular strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01377-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Improved outcome of patients with graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies over time: an EBMT mega-file study.

Haematologica 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) remains a major threat to successful outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Advances in prophylaxis and supportive care have taken place over the years. The aim of this study is to test whether incidence and mortality of aGvHD have been reduced over time. 102 557 patients with a median age of 47.6 years with malignancies after first allogeneic sibling or unrelated donor (URD) transplant were studied in the following periods: 1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015. Findings: 100-day-incidences of aGvHD grades II-IV decreased from 40%, to 38%, 32%, 29% and 28% over calendar time (p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.265769DOI Listing
June 2021

Complete Remission with Incomplete Blood Count Recovery Is a Strong Predictor of Nonrelapse Mortality in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Acta Haematol 2021 Jun 8:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Introduction: Achievement of an initial complete remission (CR) following induction chemotherapy is tightly correlated with survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, yet patients in CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) still experience improved outcomes compared with nonresponding patients. Whether CRi predicts prognosis in patients referred to an allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is incompletely defined. In this analysis, we evaluated whether clinical outcomes of transplanted AML patients in CR and CRi were significantly different.

Methods: A retrospective single-center analysis of all de novo AML patients who underwent an allo-SCT between 2001 and 2015. The cohort included all adult patients with AML who underwent a first allo-SCT either in first or second CR or CRi at the time of transplantation.

Results: The study cohort included 186 CR patients and 44 CRi patients. In univariate analysis, CRi was associated with inferior 3-year survival and 3-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) compared to CR (41 vs. 62%; p = 0.022 and 27 vs. 10%; p = 0.006, respectively). In multivariate analysis, CRi was associated with decreased rates of survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.01; 95% CI, 1.24-3.25; p = 0.005) and NRM (HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.6-7.8; p = 0.002).

Conclusion: CRi in transplanted AML patients is potentially a potent predictor of increased NRM and survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515902DOI Listing
June 2021

Repetitively Administered Low-Dose Donor Lymphocyte Infusion for Prevention of Relapse after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with High-Risk Acute Leukemia.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 30;13(11). Epub 2021 May 30.

Chaim Cheba Medical Center, Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Department, Tel-Hashomer 52621, Israel.

Background: Patients with high-risk acute leukemia have a high risk of relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). In an effort to reduce the relapse rate, various therapeutic methods have been implemented into clinical practice. Among them, prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusion (pro-DLI) has shown significant efficacy. However, the widespread application of pro-DLI has been restricted mostly due to concerns regarding the development of graft versus host disease (GVHD). In the present study, we tested the safety and efficacy of a novel method of prophylactic-DLI based by repetitive administration of low lymphocyte doses.

Methods: DLI was administered to patients with high-risk acute leukemia at a dose of 2 × 10/kg CD3-positive cells. DLI at the same dose was repeated every two months for at least 36 months post-allo-SCT, or until relapse or any clinical or laboratory feature suggested GVHD, whichever occurred first. Forty-four patients with a median age of 53 years (range 20-67) who underwent allo-SCT between 2011 and 2020 were included in our study. Thirty-three patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 11 with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after allo-SCT from a matched sibling (MSD, no = 38 pts) or a matched-unrelated donor (MUD, no = 6 pts) received pro-DLI. Twenty-three patients were in CR1, all with unfavorable genetic features; 12 patients were in CR2 or beyond; and 9 patients had refractory disease at the time of transplant. Ten out of 23 patients in CR1 had detectable minimal residual disease (MRD) at the time of allo-SCT. Disease risk index (DRI) was high and intermediate in 21 and 23 patients, respectively. Conditioning was myeloablative (MAC) in 36 and reduced intensity (RIC) in 8 patients, while GVHD prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine-A in combination with low-dose alemtuzumab in 39 patients or with low-dose MTX in 5 patients, respectively.

Results: Thirty-five patients completed the scheduled treatment and received a median of 8 DLI doses (range 1-35). Fifteen out of 35 patients received all planned doses, while DLI was discontinued in 20 patients. Reasons for discontinuation included GVHD development in nine, donor unavailability in seven, disease relapse in three, and secondary malignancy in one patient, respectively. Nine patients were still on treatment with DLI, and they received a median of four (range 2-12) doses. Fourteen percent of patients developed transient grade-II acute GVHD while 12% developed chronic GVHD post-DLI administration. Acute GVHD was managed successfully with short course steroids, and four out of five patients with cGVHD were disease-free and off immunosuppression. With a median follow-up of 44 months (range 8-120), relapse-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were 74%, (95% CI, 54-87%) and 78%, (95% CI, 58-89%) respectively, while the cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 13% (95% CI, 4-28%). The cumulative incidence of relapse in patients with intermediate and high DRI is 7% and 15%, respectively.

Conclusion: Prolonged-up to three years-low-dose pro-DLI administered every two months is safe and effective in reducing relapse rate in patients with high-risk acute leukemia. The low-dose repetitive administration DLI strategy reduced the risk of DLI-mediated GVHD, while the prolonged repeated administration helped in preventing relapse, possibly by inducing a sustained and prolonged immunological pressure on residual leukemic cells. This novel strategy deserves testing in larger cohort of patients with high-risk acute leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198731PMC
May 2021

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for AML patients with RUNX1 mutation in first complete remission: a study on behalf of the acute leukemia working party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Acute myeloid leukemia with runt-related transcription factor 1 gene mutation (RUNX1+ AML) is associated with inferior response rates and outcome after conventional chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective, registry-based analysis to elucidate the prognostic value of RUNX1 mutation after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). All consecutive adults undergoing alloSCT for AML in first complete remission (CR1) between 2013 and 2019 with complete information on conventional cytogenetics and RUNX1 mutational status were included. Endpoints of interest were cumulative relapse incidence, non-relapse mortality, overall and leukemia-free survival (OS/LFS), and GvHD-free/relapse-free survival. A total of 674 patients (183 RUNX1+, 491 RUNX1-) were identified, with >85% presenting as de novo AML. Median follow-up was 16.4 (RUNX1+) and 21.9 (RUNX1-) months. Survival rates showed no difference between RUNX1+ and RUNX1- patients either in univariate or multivariate analysis (2-year OS: 67.7 vs. 66.1%, p = 0.7; 2-year LFS: 61.1 vs. 60.8%, p = 0.62). Multivariate analysis identified age, donor type and poor cytogenetics as risk factors for inferior outcome. Among patients with RUNX+ AML, older age, reduced intensity conditioning and minimal residual disease at alloSCT predicted inferior outcome. Our data provide evidence that the negative influence of RUNX1 mutations in patients with AML can be overcome by transplantation in CR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01322-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Post-transplant cyclophosphamide containing regimens after matched sibling, matched unrelated and haploidentical donor transplants in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission, a comparative study of the ALWP of the EBMT.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 05 28;14(1):84. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Hematology, and INSERM UMRs 938, Hopital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background: There is no information on the impact of donor type in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) using homogeneous graft-versus-host (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of adult patients with ALL in CR1 that had received HCT with PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis from HLA-matched sibling (MSD) (n = 78), matched unrelated (MUD) (n = 94) and haploidentical family (Haplo) (n = 297) donors registered in the EBMT database between 2010 and 2018. The median follow-up period of the entire cohort was 2.2 years.

Results: Median age of patients was 38 years (range 18-76). Compared to MSD and MUD, Haplo patients received peripheral blood less frequently. For Haplo, MUD, and MSD, the cumulative incidence of 100-day acute GVHD grade II-IV and III-IV, and 2-year chronic and extensive chronic GVHD were 32%, 41%, and 34% (p = 0.4); 13%, 15%, and 15% (p = 0.8); 35%, 50%, and 42% (p = 0.01); and 11%, 17%, and 21% (p = 0.2), respectively. At 2 years, the cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality was 20%, 20%, and 28% (p = 0.8); and 21%, 18%, and 21% (p = 0.8) for Haplo, MUD, and MSD, respectively. The leukemia-free survival, overall survival and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival for Haplo, MUD, and MSD was 59%, 62%, and 51% (p = 0.8); 66%, 69%, and 62% (p = 0.8); and 46%, 44%, and 35% (p = 0.9), respectively. On multivariable analysis, transplant outcomes did not differ significantly between donor types. TBI-based conditioning was associated with better LFS.

Conclusions: Donor type did not significantly affect transplant outcome in patient with ALL receiving SCT with PTCy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01094-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161915PMC
May 2021

Measurable residual disease status and outcome of transplant in acute myeloid leukemia in second complete remission: a study by the acute leukemia working party of the EBMT.

Blood Cancer J 2021 May 12;11(5):88. Epub 2021 May 12.

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Measurable residual disease (MRD) prior to hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete morphological remission (CR1) is an independent predictor of outcome, but few studies address CR2. This analysis by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry assessed HCT outcomes by declared MRD status in a cohort of 1042 adult patients with AML CR2 at HCT. Patients were transplanted 2006-2016 from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched siblings (n = 719) or HLA 10/10 matched unrelated donors (n = 293). Conditioning was myeloablative (n = 610) or reduced-intensity (n = 432) and 566 patients (54%) had in-vivo T cell depletion. At HCT, 749 patients (72%) were MRD negative (MRD NEG) and 293 (28%) were MRD positive (MRD POS). Time from diagnosis to HCT was longer in MRD NEG than MRD POS patients (18 vs. 16 months (P < 0.001). Two-year relapse rates were 24% (95% CI, 21-28) and 40% (95% CI, 34-46) in MRD NEG and MRD POS groups (P < 0.001), respectively. Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 57% (53-61) and 46% (40-52%), respectively (P = 0.001), but there was no difference in terms of overall survival. Prognostic factors for relapse and LFS were MRD NEG status, good risk cytogenetics, and longer time from diagnosis to HCT. In-vivo T cell depletion predicted relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00479-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116335PMC
May 2021

Feasibility and Outcomes of a Third Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Retrospective Analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 6;27(5):408.e1-408.e6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Hématologie Clinique et Thérapie Cellulaire, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris, France.

Few therapeutic options are available for patients with acute myeloid or lymphoblastic leukemia (AML/ALL) relapsing after a second allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT2). In selected patients a third allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT3) has been used, but no detailed analysis is available so far. The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry was screened for patients with acute leukemia (AL) receiving alloSCT3 from an identical or alternative donor to treat AL in either haematological relapse or disease persistence after alloSCT2 between 2001 and 2018. Feasibility, efficacy, outcome, and risk factors of this approach were analyzed retrospectively. Forty-five patients (median age, 37 years, range 12-71) with AML (n=34) or ALL (n=11) were identified. Eleven patients received alloSCT3 in complete remission (CR), 34 had active disease. Fifteen patients were transplanted from the same donor at all three transplants, 30 patients had at least 2 different donors. Between alloSCT2 and alloSCT3, the donor was changed in 25 patients. After alloSCT3, 38 patients engrafted, and 26 achieved CR or CR with incomplete hematological reconstitution (CRi). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) grade II-IV was observed in 19%, chronic GvHD occurred in 13%. After 1-year, cumulative incidences of leukemia relapse and non-relapse mortality were 47% and 42%, respectively. Median progression free and overall survival (PFS/OS) from alloSCT3 were 2.5 and 4 months, respectively, 1-year PFS and OS were 11% and 20%,. Outcome was improved in patients with at least one donor change (1-year PFS/OS: 17%/30%), further factors for better outcome included an unrelated donor for alloSCT3, Karnofsky performance score >80, and more recent year of alloSCT3. Only patients with AML achieved >1 year OS. In conclusion, results after a third alloSCT are poor, limiting this procedure to few, highly selected patients. Recurrent relapses of acute leukemia after alloSCT remain an unmet therapeutic need.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.01.025DOI Listing
May 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with cord blood versus mismatched unrelated donor with post-transplant cyclophosphamide in acute myeloid leukemia.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 05 3;14(1):76. Epub 2021 May 3.

EBMT ALWP Office, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris, France.

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using a mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) and cord blood transplantation (CBT) are valid alternatives for patients without a fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor. Here, we compared the allo-HCT outcomes of CBT versus single-allele-mismatched MMUD allo-HCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in acute myeloid leukemia.

Methods: Patients who underwent a first CBT without PTCy (N = 902) or allo-HCT from a (HLA 9/10) MMUD with PTCy (N = 280) were included in the study. A multivariate regression analysis was performed for the whole population. A matched-pair analysis was carried out by propensity score-based 1:1 matching of patients (177 pairs) with known cytogenetic risk.

Results: The incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at 6 months was 36% versus 32% (p = 0.07) and 15% versus 11% (p = 0.16) for CBT and MMUD cohorts, respectively. CBT was associated with a higher incidence of graft failure (11% vs. 4%, p < 0.01) and higher 2-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) (30% vs. 16%, p < 0.01) compared to MMUD. In the multivariate analysis, CBT was associated with a higher risk of, NRM (HR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.46-2.99, p < 0.0001), and relapse (HR = 1.35, 95% CI 1-1.83, p = 0.05), which resulted in worse leukemia-free survival (LFS) (HR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.34-2.12, p < 0.0001), overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.33-2.17, p < 0.0001), and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) (HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.21-1.83, p < 0.0001) compared to MMUD. The risk of grade II-IV acute GVHD (p = 0.052) and chronic GVHD (p = 0.69) did not differ significantly between the cohorts. These results were confirmed in a matched-pair analysis.

Conclusions: CBT was associated with lower LFS, OS, and GRFS due to higher NRM, compared to MMUD allo-HCT with PTCy. In the absence of a fully matched donor, 9/10 MMUD with PTCy may be preferred over CBT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01086-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8094558PMC
May 2021

Comparing outcomes of a second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant using HLA-matched unrelated versus T-cell replete haploidentical donors in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a study of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Sep 30;56(9):2194-2202. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Hematology, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne University and INSERM UMRs 938, Paris, France.

Optimal donor choice for a second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains undefined. We compared outcomes using HLA-matched unrelated donors (MUD) versus haploidentical donors in this population. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The MUD allo-HCT group comprised 104 patients (male = 56, 54%), median age 36 years, mostly (76%) with B-cell phenotype in complete remission (CR) (CR2/CR3 + = 76, 73%). The 61 patients (male = 38, 62%) in the haploidentical group were younger, median age 30 years (p = 0.002), had mostly (79%) a B-cell phenotype and the majority were also in CR at time of the second allo-HCT (CR2/CR3 + = 40, 66%). Peripheral blood stem cells was the most common cell source in both, but a significantly higher number in the haploidentical group received bone marrow cells (26% vs. 4%, p < 0.0001). A haploidentical donor second allo-HCT had a 1.5-fold higher 2-year OS (49% vs. 31%), albeit not statistically significant (p = 0.13). A longer time from first allo-HCT to relapse was associated with improved OS, leukemia-free survival, graft-versus-host disease-free-relapse-free survival, and lower cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality. Results suggest no major OS difference when choosing either a MUD or haploidentical donor for ALL patients needing a second allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01317-7DOI Listing
September 2021

The evolving role of allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation in the era of chimaeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.

Br J Haematol 2021 06 29;193(6):1060-1075. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

EBMT ALWP Office Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris, France.

Chimaeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR T) therapy has revolutionized the management of many haematological malignancies. It is associated with impressive disease responses in relapsed or refractory high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) with durable remissions in a subset of patients. Historically, haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been the standard consolidation strategy for many of these patients who are now being treated with CAR T. Relapses are frequent after CD19 CAR T therapy in B-ALL and consolidation with allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) may improve survival of patients with high-risk disease. There appears to be a clear difference in B-ALL outcomes between paediatric and adult patients, with the latter having a much higher risk of relapse after CAR T therapy. Late relapses are infrequent in patients with B-NHL and consolidation with allo-HCT may not be needed in patients who achieve a complete remission after CAR T therapy. Future registry-based and prospective studies will hopefully provide the needed data in the future to risk-stratify the recipients of CAR T therapy. Meanwhile, we provide guidance on patient selection and practical issues with performing allo-HCT after CAR T therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17460DOI Listing
June 2021

Development and Validation of a Simplified Score to Predict Early Relapse in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma in a Pooled Dataset of 2,190 Patients.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jul 29;27(13):3695-3703. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Myeloma Unit, Division of Hematology, University of Torino, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Torino, Italy.

Purpose: Despite the improvement of therapeutic regimens, several patients with multiple myeloma (MM) still experience early relapse (ER). This subset of patients currently represents an unmet medical need.

Experimental Design: We pooled data from seven European multicenter phase II/III clinical trials enrolling 2,190 patients with newly diagnosed MM from 2003 to 2017. Baseline patient evaluation included 14 clinically relevant features. Patients with complete data ( = 1,218) were split into training ( = 844) and validation sets ( = 374). In the training set, a univariate analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model on ER within 18 months (ER18) were made. The most accurate model was selected on the validation set. We also developed a dynamic version of the score by including response to treatment.

Results: The Simplified Early Relapse in Multiple Myeloma (S-ERMM) score was modeled on six features weighted by a score: 5 points for high lactate dehydrogenase or t(4;14); 3 for del17p, abnormal albumin, or bone marrow plasma cells >60%; and 2 for λ free light chain. The S-ERMM identified three patient groups with different risks of ER18: Intermediate (Int) versus Low (OR = 2.39, < 0.001) and High versus Low (OR = 5.59, < 0.001). S-ERMM High/Int patients had significantly shorter overall survival (High vs. Low: HR = 3.24, < 0.001; Int vs. Low: HR = 1.86, < 0.001) and progression-free survival-2 (High vs. Low: HR = 2.89, < 0.001; Int vs. Low: HR = 1.76, < 0.001) than S-ERMM Low. The Dynamic S-ERMM (DS-ERMM) modulated the prognostic power of the S-ERMM.

Conclusions: On the basis of simple, widely available baseline features, the S-ERMM and DS-ERMM properly identified patients with different risks of ER and survival outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0134DOI Listing
July 2021

Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation for myelofibrosis: a real-life perspective.

Br J Haematol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Service d'Hématologie Clinique et Thérapie Cellulaire, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Sorbonne Université, INSERM UMRs 938, Paris, France.

Myelofibrosis (MF) is a clonal stem cell neoplasm with heterogeneous clinical phenotypes and well-established molecular drivers. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers an important curative treatment option for primary MF and post-essential thrombocythaemia/polycythaemia vera MF or secondary MF. With a disease course that varies from indolent to highly progressive, we are now able to stratify risk of mortality through various tools including patient-related clinical characteristics as well as molecular genetic profile. Owing to the high risk of mortality and morbidity associated with HSCT for patients with myelofibrosis, it is important to improve patient selection for transplant. Our primary goal is to comprehensively define our understanding of current practices including the role of Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitors, to present the data behind transplantation before and after leukaemic transformation, and to introduce novel personalization of MF treatment with a proposed clinical-molecular prognostic model to help elucidate a timepoint optimal for consideration of HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17469DOI Listing
April 2021

Weathering the storm: COVID-19 infection in patients with hematological malignancies.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2020 Dec.;21(12):921-939

Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Within a matter of months, this highly contagious novel virus has led to a global outbreak and is still spreading rapidly across continents. In patients with COVID-19, underlying chronic diseases and comorbidities are associated with dismal treatment outcomes. Owing to their immunosuppressive status, patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) are at an increased risk of infection and have a worse prognosis than patients without HMs. Accordingly, intensive attention should be paid to this cohort. In this review, we summarize and analyze specific clinical manifestations for patients with coexisting COVID-19 and HMs. Furthermore, we briefly describe customized management strategies and interventions for this susceptible cohort. This review is intended to guide clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B2000423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759451PMC
April 2021

Second allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation using HLA-matched unrelated versus T-cell replete haploidentical donor and survival in relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2021 05 10;193(3):592-601. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Hematology, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne University and INSERM UMRs 938, Paris, France.

Optimal donor choice for a second allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) in relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remains unknown. We compared overall survival (OS) using registry data from the Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) involving 455 adults who received a second allo-HCT from a human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated (MUD) (n = 320) or a haploidentical (n = 135) donor. Eligibility criteria required adults aged ≥18 years who received a second allo-HCT for treating AML relapse between 2005 and 2019. The primary end-point was OS. There was no statistically significant difference in the median (interquartile range) age between the groups, MUD 46 (35-58) versus haploidentical 44 (33-53) years (P = 0·07). The median OS was not different between the MUD and the haploidentical groups (10 vs. 11 months, P = 0·57). Similarly, the 2-year OS was 31% for the MUD and 29% for the haploidentical donor groups. The OS was worse if the procedure was performed with active AML [hazard ratio (HR) 1·42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·07-1·89; P = 0·02]. Conversely, a longer time from first allo-HCT to relapse (>13·2 months) was associated with better OS (HR 0·50, 95% CI 0·37-0·69; P < 0·0001). The results of the present analysis limit the ability to recommend one donor type over another when considering a second allo-HCT for relapsed AML. Our findings highlight that best OS is achieved when receiving the second allo-HCT in complete remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17426DOI Listing
May 2021

Improved Outcomes of Haploidentical Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Total Body Irradiation-Based Myeloablative Conditioning in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 02 11;27(2):171.e1-171.e8. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Saint Antoine Hospital, INSERM UMR 938, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France; European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Paris Study Office/CEREST-TC, Paris, France.

The optimal myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for patients undergoing haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT) is unknown. We studied the outcomes of total body irradiation (TBI)-based versus chemotherapy (CT)-based MAC regimens in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The study included 427 patients who underwent first haplo-HCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy), following TBI-based (n = 188; 44%) or CT-based (n = 239; 56%) MAC. The median patient age was 32 years. Fludarabine-TBI (72%) and thiotepa-busulfan-fludarabine (65%) were the most frequently used TBI- and CT-based regimens, respectively. In the TBI and CT cohorts, 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 45% versus 37% (P = .05), overall survival (OS) was 51% versus 47% (P = .18), relapse incidence (RI) was 34% versus 32% (P = .44), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 21% versus 31% (P < .01). In the multivariate analysis, TBI was associated with lower NRM (hazard ratio [HR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 0.86; P = .01), better LFS (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.98; P =.04), and increased risk for grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.34; P = .02) compared with CT-based MAC. The type of conditioning regimen did not impact RI, chronic GVHD, OS, or GVHD-free, relapse-free survival after adjusting for transplantation-related variables. TBI-based MAC was associated with lower NRM and better LFS compared with CT-based MAC in patients with ALL after haplo-HCT/PTCy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.10.008DOI Listing
February 2021

Outcome of haploidentical versus matched sibling donors in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 04 1;14(1):53. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Haematology, Saint Antoine Hospital, INSERM UMR 938, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background: Non-T-cell depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HaploSCT) is being increasingly used in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with improving patient outcomes. We have recently reported that outcomes of adult patients (pts) with ALL in complete remission (CR) receiving HaploSCT are comparable to unrelated donor transplants. We now compared HaploSCT and matched sibling donor (MSD) transplants in pts with ALL.

Aim: To assess transplantation outcomes of HaploSCT and MSD transplants in pts with ALL in CR.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed adult patients (≥ 18 years) with ALL who underwent their first allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in first or second CR between 2012 and 2018, either from a T cell replete Haplo or MSD donor, and whose data were reported to the Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Multivariate analysis (MVA) adjusting for differences between the groups was performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Propensity score matching was also performed to reduce confounding effects.

Results: The analysis comprised 2304 patients: HaploSCT-413; MSD-1891. Median follow-up was 25 months. Median age was 37 (range 18-75) and 38 (18-76) years in HaploSCT and MSD, respectively. HaploSCT patients were transplanted more recently than those transplanted from MSD (2016 vs 2015, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of HaploSCT was in CR2 (33.4% vs 16.7%, p < 0.0001), respectively, and fewer received myeloablative conditioning (68% vs 83.2%, p < 0.0001). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity was lower in HaploSCT patients (22% vs 28%, p = 0.01) and donors (27.1% vs 33%, p < 0.02), and a higher proportion of the HaploSCTs were performed using a bone marrow (BM) graft (46.2% vs 18.6%, p < 0.0001). The 2 groups did not differ with regard to gender, Karnofsky performance status score, ALL phenotype, Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) positivity and pre-alloSCT measurable residual disease (MRD). Graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was mainly post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) based (92.7%) in the HaploSCT setting, while it was mostly pharmacologic in the setting of MSD (18.7% received ATG). Cumulative incidence of engraftment at day 60 was higher in MSD transplants compared to HaploSCT (98.7% vs 96.3%, p = 0.001), respectively. Day 180 incidence of acute (a) GVHD II-IV and III-IV was higher in HaploSCT vs. MSD: 36.3% vs 28.9% (p = 0.002 and 15.2% vs 10.5% (p = 0.005), respectively. Conversely, the 2-year chronic (c) GVHD and extensive cGVHD were 32% vs 38.8% (p = 0.009) and 11.9% vs 19.5% (p = 0.001) in HaploSCT vs MSD, respectively. Main causes of death were leukemia (31.8% vs 45%), infection (33.1% vs 19.7%) and GVHD (16.6% vs 19.7%) for HaploSCT and MSD, respectively. Two-year relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 26% vs 31.6%, 22.9% vs 13%, 51% vs 55.4%, 58.8% vs 67.4% and 40.6% vs 39% for HaploSCT and MSD, respectively. In the MVA, RI was significantly lower in HaploSCT in comparison with MSD, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.66 (95% CI 0.52-0.83, p = 0.004), while NRM was significantly higher, HR = 1.9 (95% CI 1.43-2.53, p < 0.0001). aGVHD grade II-IV and grade III-IV were higher in HaploSCT than in MSD HR = 1.53 (95% CI 1.23-1.9, p = 0.0002) and HR = 1.54 (95% CI 1.1-2.15, p = 0.011), respectively. Extensive cGVHD was lower in HaploSCT compared with MSD, HR = 0.61 (95% CI 0.43-0.88, p = 0.007), while total cGVHD did not differ significantly, HR = 0.94 (95% CI 0.74-1.18, p = 0.58). LFS, OS and GRFS did not differ significantly between the 2 transplant groups, HR = 0.96 (95% CI 0.81-1.14, p = 0.66); HR = 1.18 (95% CI 0.96-1.43, p = 0.11) and HR = 0.93 (95% CI 0.79-1.09, p = 0.37), respectively. These results were confirmed in a matched-pair analysis.

Conclusions: Outcomes of adult patients with ALL in CR receiving alloSCT from haploidentical donors are not significantly different from those receiving transplants from MSD in terms of LFS, OS and GRFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01065-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017786PMC
April 2021

Natural killer cell alloreactivity in HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic transplantation: a study on behalf of the CTIWP of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Aug 25;56(8):1900-1907. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-I mismatches that trigger donor-versus-recipient natural killer (NK)-cell alloreactivity reduce the incidence of leukemia relapse and improve survival of acute myeloid leukemia patients after T-cell-depleted HLA-haplotype mismatched ("haploidentical") hematopoietic transplantation. In murine graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) models, alloreactive NK-cells also prevent GvHD. Here we report the results of a non-interventional, prospective study performed on behalf of the Cellular Therapy and Immunobiology Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The study was aimed at re-assessing the role of NK-cell alloreactivity in a cohort of haploidentical transplants performed in Europe between 2012 and 2015 and composed of unmanipulated, as well as T-cell-depleted transplants. One hundred thirty-eight patients with acute myeloid or lymphoid leukemias were analyzed. Eighty-six patients received ex-vivo T-cell-depleted transplants, 52 patients received unmanipulated transplants. Fifty patients were transplanted from NK alloreactive donors, 88 from non-NK alloreactive donors. NK cell alloreactivity did not impact on GvHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS) in unmanipulated transplants (HR: 1.66 (0.9-3.1), p = 0.1). In contrast, it did impact beneficially on GRFS in T-cell-depleted transplants (HR: 0.6, (0.3-1.2), p = 0.14, interaction p < 0.001). This effect was the consequence of reduced incidences of acute and chronic GvHD and non-relapse mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01259-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Outcome of T-cell-replete haploidentical stem cell transplantation improves with time in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Cancer 2021 Jul 19;127(14):2507-2514. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Acute Leukemia Working Party, St Anthony Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: The use of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT) with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide prophylaxis is gaining traction in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Methods: The Acute Leukemia Working Party/European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry was used to evaluate the outcomes of adult patients with ALL who underwent haplo-HCT during 2011 through 2015 and compared them with the outcomes of those who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018.

Results: The analysis consisted of 195 patients, including 79 who underwent transplantation during 2011 through 2015 and 116 who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018. Overall, the 2-year leukemia-free survival and relapse incidence rates were 56.5% and 21%, respectively. The 100-day incidence of grade 2 through 4 acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) was 34.5%. The rates of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival (OS) were 22.5% and 64.7%, respectively. Patients who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018 experienced improved rates of leukemia-free survival (64.9% vs 47.3%; P = .019) and OS (75.5% vs 53.5%; P = .006). Patients who underwent transplantation during 2016 through 2018 developed more grade 2 through 4 acute GVHD (42% vs 26.4%; P = .047). The incidence of relapse, GVHD-free/relapse-free survival, grade 3 and 4 acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and extensive chronic GVHD did not differ significantly between groups. In multivariate analysis, more recently transplanted patients had a significantly reduced risk of NRM (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.89; P = .022) and improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26-0.86; P = .014). A comparable analysis of patients who had acute myeloid leukemia during the same timeframes did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any outcomes.

Conclusions: The outcome of adult patients with ALL who receive posttransplant cyclophosphamide has improved over time, with an impressive 2-year OS of 75% and, most recently, an NRM rate of only 17%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33522DOI Listing
July 2021

How Do We Manage Hematopoietic Cell Transplant during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic?

Acta Haematol 2021 Mar 9:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Institute of Hematology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China,

Patients receiving a hematopoietic cell transplant are thought to be at increased risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus infectious disease 2019. Transplant activities at our center continue, and notably, no patient has been infected with SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, social distancing, masking, and education for patients and donors are major pillars of prevention. We recommend potential transplant recipients and donors to be tested for SARS-CoV-2 with qRT-PCR, serum antibody detection, and a lung CT scan pretransplant. If possible, stem cells from HLA-matched unrelated donors by local processing laboratories should be cryopreserved and shipped before initiating pretransplant conditioning. An alternative HLA-haplotype-matched related donor should be identified and evaluated as a backup. The interval immediately after discharge is the time of greatest risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection because of travel and exposure to infected persons. We recommend self-isolation and minimal contact with family members. Nonessential clinic visits should be deferred or substituted with telemedicine consultations if possible. These recommendations are based on our experience at a major transplant center in China. Although some recommendations are evidence based, other recommendations are not and warrant validation in controlled trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018218PMC
March 2021

Prognostic factors for neutrophil engraftment after haploidentical cell transplantation with PT-Cy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission, on behalf of the ALWP-EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Aug 5;56(8):1842-1849. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Haematology and EBMT Paris Study Office/CEREST-TC, Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

The use of haplo-HCT with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is a new standard in the treatment of hematological diseases. A paucity of data exists on risk factors for engraftment failure in haplo-HCT with PT-Cy. We analyzed 1939 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received a first haplo-HCT from 2010 to 2019. Status at haplo-HCT was first complete remission (CR1) in 72.5% of patients, secondary AML was reported in 9.9%. Median follow-up was 24.4 months and median age at haplo-HCT was 51 years. Stem cell source was bone marrow (BM) in 42% and peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) in 58%, and 64% of patients received a myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen. Cumulative incidence of primary graft failure (GF) was 6%; GF was reported in 110 patients and 54 died before day +30 with no sign of cell recovery. Overall, 33 patients underwent a second HCT in a median time of 45 days and 13 were alive at last follow-up, the 2-year overall survival (OS) after second HCT being 32.4%. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with the risk of nonengraftment were: secondary AML (HR 1.30, p = 0.003), use of RIC (HR 1.22, p < 0.001), and use of BM (HR 1.21, p < 0.001). At 2 years, leukemia-free survival (LFS) and OS for the entire population was 55.2% (95% CI: 52.6-57.6) and 60.9% (95% CI: 58.4-63.3), respectively. Incidence of GF after haplo-HCT with PT-Cy is lower than reported T-cell-depleted haplo-HCT. Optimization of conditioning regimen and graft source should be considered for reducing the risk of GF in haplo-HCT recipients using PT-Cy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01248-3DOI Listing
August 2021

Development and validation of a disease risk stratification system for patients with haematological malignancies: a retrospective cohort study of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Mar;8(3):e205-e215

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Background: Diagnosis and remission status at the time of allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) are the principal determinants of overall survival following transplantation. We sought to develop a contemporary disease-risk stratification system (DRSS) that accounts for heterogeneous transplantation indications.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we included 55 histology and remission status combinations across haematological malignancies, including acute leukaemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorders. A total of 47 265 adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who received an allogeneic HSCT between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2016, and were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry were included. We divided EBMT patients into derivation (n=25 534), tuning (n=18 365), and geographical validation (n=3366) cohorts. Disease combinations were ranked in a multivariable Cox regression for overall survival in the derivation cohort, cutoff for risk groups were evaluated for the tuning cohort, and the selected system was tested on the geographical validation cohort. An independent single-centre US cohort of 660 patients transplanted between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2015 was used to externally validate the results.

Findings: The DRSS model stratified patients in the derivation cohort (median follow-up was 2·1 years [IQR 1·0-3·2]) into five risk groups with increasing mortality risk: low risk (reference group), intermediate-1 (hazard ratio for overall survival 1·26 [95% CI 1·17-1·36], p<0·0001), intermediate-2 (1·53 [1·42-1·66], p<0·0001), high (2·03 [1·86-2·22], p<0·0001), and very high (2·87 [2·63-3·13], p<0·0001). DRSS levels were also associated with a stepwise increase in risk across the tuning and geographical validation cohort. In the external validation cohort (median follow-up was 5·7 years [IQR 4·5-7·1]), the DRSS scheme separated patients into 4 risk groups associated with increasing risk of mortality: intermediate-2 risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1·34 [95% CI 1·04-1·74], p=0·025), high risk (HR 2·03 [95% CI 1·39-2·95], p=0·00023) and very-high risk (HR 2·26 [95% CI 1·62-3·15], p<0·0001) patients compared with the low risk and intermediate-1 risk group (reference group). Across all cohorts, between 64% and 65% of patients were categorised as having intermediate-risk disease by a previous prognostic system (ie, the disease-risk index [DRI]). The DRSS reclassified these intermediate-risk DRI patients, with 855 (6%) low risk, 7111 (51%) intermediate-1 risk, 5700 (41%) intermediate-2 risk, and 375 (3%) high risk or very high risk of 14 041 patients in a subanalysis combining the tuning and internal geographic validation cohorts. The DRI projected 2-year overall survival was 62·1% (95% CI 61·2-62·9) for these 14 041 patients, while the DRSS reclassified them into finer prognostic groups with overall survival ranging from 45·7% (37·4-54·0; very high risk patients) to 73·1% (70·1-76·2; low risk patients).

Interpretation: The DRSS is a novel risk stratification tool including disease features related to histology, genetic profile, and treatment response. The model should serve as a benchmark for future studies. This system facilitates the interpretation and analysis of studies with heterogeneous cohorts, promoting trial-design with more inclusive populations.

Funding: The Varda and Boaz Dotan Research Center for Hemato-Oncology Research, Tel Aviv University.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30394-XDOI Listing
March 2021
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