Publications by authors named "Arne B Brantsaeter"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Vaccination of healthcare personnel in Europe: Update to current policies.

Vaccine 2019 12 14;37(52):7576-7584. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Director, Mayo Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

We investigated and compared current national vaccination policies for health-care personnel (HCP) in Europe with results from our previous survey. Data from 36 European countries were collected using the same methodology as in 2011. National policies for HCP immunization were in place in all countries. There were significant differences in terms of number of vaccinations, target HCP and healthcare settings, and implementation regulations (recommended or mandatory vaccinations). Vaccination policies against hepatitis B and seasonal influenza were present in 35 countries each. Policies for vaccination of HCP against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella existed in 28, 24, 25 and 19 countries, respectively; and against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis in 21, 20, 19, and 18 countries, respectively. Recommendations for hepatitis A immunization existed in 17 countries, and against meningococcus B, meningococcus C, meningococcus A, C, W, Y, and tuberculosis in 10, 8, 17, and 7 countries, respectively. Mandatory vaccination policies were found in 13 countries and were a pre-requisite for employment in ten. Comparing the vaccination programs of the 30 European countries that participated in the 2011 survey, we found that more countries had national vaccination policies against measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis A, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, meningococcus C and/or meningococcus A, C, W, Y; and more of these implemented mandatory vaccination policies for HCP. In conclusion, European countries now have more comprehensive national vaccination programs for HCP, however there are still gaps. Given the recent large outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe and the occupational risk for HCP, vaccination policies need to be expanded and strengthened in several European countries. Overall, vaccination policies for HCP in Europe should be periodically re-evaluated in order to provide optimal protection against vaccine-preventable diseases and infection control within healthcare facilities for HCP and patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.061DOI Listing
December 2019

Indirect Effects of Pneumococcal Childhood Vaccination in Individuals Treated With Immunosuppressive Drugs in Ambulatory Care: A Case-cohort Study.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 04;68(8):1367-1373

Department of Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health.

Background: The extent to which iatrogenically-immunosuppressed individuals benefit from indirect effects of childhood vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) is unknown. We determined how the sequential introduction of PCV7 (2006) and PCV13 (2011) in the Norwegian childhood vaccination program has affected the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in individuals treated with immunosuppressants in ambulatory care.

Methods: We conducted a case-cohort study comprising 7926 IPD cases reported to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases in 2005-2014 and 249998 individuals randomly selected from the National Registry in 2012. We defined immunosuppressive treatment groups based on dispensed prescriptions retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database. Incidences and age-adjusted relative risks (RR) were estimated.

Results: IPD incidences decreased in all groups. The PCV13 incidence decreased by 5-12% across groups. The non-PCV13 incidence increased by 4-10%, mostly in individuals on chemotherapy (overlapping 95% confidence intervals). In the PCV13 era, the RR for IPD was highest (significant) and the percentage of cases caused by the polysaccharide vaccine PPV23 serotypes lowest (numerical) in individuals on chemotherapy (RR = 20.4, PPV23 = 52%), followed by individuals on corticosteroids (RR = 6.2, PPV23 = 64%), other immunosuppressants (RR = 5.6, PPV23 = 68%), and no immunosuppressants (RR = 1 [reference], PPV23 = 74%).

Conclusions: IPD incidences declined after PCV introduction in both immunocompetent and iatrogenically-immunosuppressed individuals, underscoring the benefit of childhood vaccination for the entire population. Still, individuals treated with immunosuppressants in ambulatory care are at increased risk of IPD caused by a more diverse group of serotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy714DOI Listing
April 2019

Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination of healthcare personnel: changing epidemiology calls for new recommendations in Norway.

Eur Respir J 2019 01 10;53(1). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01123-2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Clinical Management of Ebola Virus Disease in the United States and Europe.

N Engl J Med 2016 Feb;374(7):636-46

From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (T.M.U., J.G.) and the Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine (A.K.M.) - both in Atlanta; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (R.T.D.); Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, Dallas (A.M.L.); the Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (T.W.), the First Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (S.S.), and Leipzig Treatment Center for Highly Contagious Diseases, Klinikum St. Georg, Leipzig (T.G.) - all in Germany; the Division of Infectious Diseases and Laboratory of Virology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva (P.V.); the Department of Infection, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, London (M.J.); the Internal Medicine Department, Infectious Diseases Unit Madrid, Hospital La Paz-Carlos III IdiPAZ, Madrid (J.R.A.); New York University School of Medicine-Bellevue Hospital Center, New York (L.E.); University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (A.L.H.); the Departments of Infectious Diseases and Acute Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (A.B.B.); Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome (G.I.); the Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department, Bégin Military Hospital, Saint-Mandé, France (C.R.); and the Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands (A.I.M.H.).

Background: Available data on the characteristics of patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and clinical management of EVD in settings outside West Africa, as well as the complications observed in those patients, are limited.

Methods: We reviewed available clinical, laboratory, and virologic data from all patients with laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus infection who received care in U.S. and European hospitals from August 2014 through December 2015.

Results: A total of 27 patients (median age, 36 years [range, 25 to 75]) with EVD received care; 19 patients (70%) were male, 9 of 26 patients (35%) had coexisting conditions, and 22 (81%) were health care personnel. Of the 27 patients, 24 (89%) were medically evacuated from West Africa or were exposed to and infected with Ebola virus in West Africa and had onset of illness and laboratory confirmation of Ebola virus infection in Europe or the United States, and 3 (11%) acquired EVD in the United States or Europe. At the onset of illness, the most common signs and symptoms were fatigue (20 patients [80%]) and fever or feverishness (17 patients [68%]). During the clinical course, the predominant findings included diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia; 14 patients (52%) had hypoxemia, and 9 (33%) had oliguria, of whom 5 had anuria. Aminotransferase levels peaked at a median of 9 days after the onset of illness. Nearly all the patients received intravenous fluids and electrolyte supplementation; 9 (33%) received noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation; 5 (19%) received continuous renal-replacement therapy; 22 (81%) received empirical antibiotics; and 23 (85%) received investigational therapies (19 [70%] received at least two experimental interventions). Ebola viral RNA levels in blood peaked at a median of 7 days after the onset of illness, and the median time from the onset of symptoms to clearance of viremia was 17.5 days. A total of 5 patients died, including 3 who had respiratory and renal failure, for a mortality of 18.5%.

Conclusions: Among the patients with EVD who were cared for in the United States or Europe, close monitoring and aggressive supportive care that included intravenous fluid hydration, correction of electrolyte abnormalities, nutritional support, and critical care management for respiratory and renal failure were needed; 81.5% of these patients who received this care survived.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1504874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4972324PMC
February 2016

Cytomegalovirus viremia in dried blood spots is associated with an increased risk of death in HIV-infected patients: a cohort study from rural Tanzania.

Int J Infect Dis 2012 Dec 30;16(12):e879-85. Epub 2012 Sep 30.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, POB 4956 Nydalen, N-0424 Oslo, Norway.

Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the utility of dried blood spots (DBS) for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody and viremia in a resource-poor setting, to study the prevalence of CMV antibody and viremia in HIV-infected patients with access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Tanzania, and to relate CMV viremia to outcome.

Methods: DBS were prepared from 168 ART-naïve patients at baseline. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from patient records. CMV antibody was analyzed by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and viremia by quantitative PCR.

Results: All patients were CMV-seropositive. At baseline 38 (22.6%) had detectable CMV viremia and 14 (8.3%) had a CMV viral load ≥ 200 copies/ml. In 135 patients available for follow-up, CMV ≥ 200 copies/ml was an independent risk factor for death with a hazard ratio of 5.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-11.9) after adjusting for confounders. Symptoms compatible with CMV disease were common with viremia ≥ 200 copies/ml and CD4+ T cell counts <100 cells/mm(3), but confirmatory diagnostic procedures were unavailable.

Conclusions: DBS are suitable for the detection of CMV antibody and viremia in HIV patients in resource-poor areas. CMV viremia was frequent and associated with an increased risk of death. Improved diagnosis and treatment of CMV may improve the prognosis for HIV-infected patients in developing countries and should be addressed in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2012.08.003DOI Listing
December 2012

Nationwide study of invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Norway: importance of underlying disease.

J Infect 2008 Aug 9;57(2):139-46. Epub 2008 Jul 9.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway.

Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that may cause invasive disease. We describe the epidemiology of invasive P. aeruginosa infection in Norway and identify associated clinical factors.

Methods: All patients with invasive P. aeruginosa and Pseudomonas not identified at the species level (Pseudomonas spp.) in Norway 1992-2002 were included. Detailed information was collected for all cases during 1999-2002. Population and health institution statistics were obtained from national databases.

Results: In 1999-2002 the incidence rate was 3.16 per 100 000 person-years at risk or 0.20 per 1000 hospital stays. For hospital-acquired infection the rate was 671 per 100 000 person-years as compared with 1.13 for community-acquired infection, and 37 in nursing homes. The highest risk for invasive Pseudomonas disease was found in patients with malignant neoplasms of lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue (risk per 1000 hospital stays 1.9; 95% CI 1.5-2.3) and other diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (2.2; 95% CI 1.2-3.7). The case fatality rate was 35%.

Conclusions: The incidence of invasive P. aeruginosa infection in this population-based study was much lower than in most single-hospital studies. The nationwide study design and prudent antibiotic use may explain some of the difference. Infection risk is strongly associated with certain underlying diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2008.05.010DOI Listing
August 2008

CMV quantitative PCR in the diagnosis of CMV disease in patients with HIV-infection - a retrospective autopsy based study.

BMC Infect Dis 2007 Nov 6;7:127. Epub 2007 Nov 6.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Ullevaal University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Patients with advanced HIV infection at the time of diagnosis and patients not responding to antiretroviral therapy are at risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Earlier studies of patients with HIV infection have demonstrated that the diagnosis is often first made post-mortem. In recent years new molecular biological tests have become available for diagnosis of CMV disease. Although clinical evaluation of tests for diagnosis of CMV disease in HIV-infected individuals is suboptimal without autopsy, no results from such studies have been published. The aim of this study was to explore the diagnostic utility of CMV quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in plasma from HIV and CMV seropositive patients who died during the period 1991-2002 and in whom autopsy was performed.

Methods: Autopsy was performed in all cases, as part of routine evaluation of HIV-infected cases followed at Ullevaal University Hospital. Of 125 patients included, 53 had CMV disease, 37 of whom were first diagnosed at autopsy. CMV disease was diagnosed either by ophthalmoscopic findings typical of CMV retinitis, biopsy or autopsy. One or two plasma samples taken prior to the first diagnosis of CMV disease (alive or at autopsy) or death without CMV disease were analysed by CMV quantitative PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for different CMV viral load cut-offs and according to detection of viraemia in one versus two samples.

Results: Twenty-seven of 53 patients with CMV disease (51%) and 10 of 72 patients without CMV disease (14%) had detectable viraemia in at least one sample. Sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of the test, maximised with a cut-off at the test's limit of detection of CMV viraemia (400 copies/mL), were 47% and 70%, respectively. With cut-off at 10 000 copies/mL, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 100%. With a requirement for CMV viraemia in two samples, specificity and PPV were 100% in patients with CMV viraemia above the limit of detection.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that quantitative CMV PCR is best used to rule in, rather than to rule out CMV disease in HIV-infected individuals at high risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-7-127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2194717PMC
November 2007

Treatment outcome of new culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Norway.

BMC Public Health 2005 Feb 7;5:14. Epub 2005 Feb 7.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The key elements in tuberculosis (TB) control are to cure the individual patient, interrupt transmission of TB to others and prevent the tubercle bacilli from becoming drug resistant. Incomplete treatment may result in excretion of bacteria that may also acquire drug resistance and cause increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment outcome results serves as a tool to control the quality of TB treatment provided by the health care system. The aims of this study were to evaluate the treatment outcome for new cases of culture positive pulmonary TB registered in Norway during the period 1996-2002 and to identify factors associated with non-successful treatment.

Methods: This was a register-based cohort study. Treatment outcome was assessed according to sex, birthplace, age group, isoniazid (INH) susceptibility, mode of detection and treatment periods (1996-1997, 1998-1999 and 2000-2002). Logistic regression was also used to estimate the odds ratio for treatment success vs. non-success with 95% confidence interval (CI), taking the above variables into account.

Results: Among the 655 patients included, the total treatment success rate was 83% (95% CI 80%-86%). The success rates for those born in Norway and abroad were 79% (95% CI 74%-84%) and 86% (95% CI 83%-89%) respectively. There was no difference in success rates by sex and treatment periods. Twenty-two patients (3%) defaulted treatment, 58 (9%) died and 26 (4%) transferred out. The default rate was higher among foreign-born and male patients, whereas almost all who died were born in Norway. The majority of the transferred out group left the country, but seven were expelled from the country. In the multivariate analysis, only high age and initial INH resistance remained as significant risk factors for non-successful treatment.

Conclusion: Although the TB treatment success rate in Norway has increased compared to previous studies and although it has reached a reasonable target for treatment outcome in low-incidence countries, the total success rate for 1996-2002 was still slightly below the WHO target of success rate of 85%. Early diagnosis of TB in elderly patients to reduce the death rate, abstaining from expulsion of patients on treatment and further measures to prevent default could improve the success rate further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-5-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC549556PMC
February 2005