Publications by authors named "Arnab Banerjee"

90 Publications

Worldwide flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate combined with high lipid diet provokes metabolic alterations and systemic anomalies: An overview.

Toxicol Rep 2021 29;8:938-961. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Physiology (UG & PG), Serampore College, 9 William Carey Road, Serampore, Hooghly, 712201, West Bengal, India.

In this fast-food era, people depend on ready-made foods and engage in minimal physical activities that ultimately change their food habits. Majorities of such foods have harmful effects on human health due to higher percentages of saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids, and hydrogenated fats in the form of high lipid diet (HLD). Moreover, food manufacturers add monosodium glutamate (MSG) to enhance the taste and palatability of the HLD. Both MSG and HLD induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby alter the redox-homeostasis to cause systemic damage. However, MSG mixed HLD (MH) consumption leads to dyslipidemia, silently develops non-alcoholic fatty liver disease followed by metabolic alterations and systemic anomalies, even malignancies, via modulating different signaling pathways. This comprehensive review formulates health care strategies to create global awareness about the harmful impact of MH on the human body and recommends the daily consumption of more natural foods rich in antioxidants instead of toxic ingredients to counterbalance the MH-induced systemic anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120859PMC
April 2021

Soft anharmonic phonons and ultralow thermal conductivity in Mg(Sb, Bi) thermoelectrics.

Sci Adv 2021 May 21;7(21). Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

The candidate thermoelectric compounds MgSb and MgBi show excellent performance near ambient temperature, enabled by an anomalously low lattice thermal conductivity (κ) comparable to those of much heavier PbTe or BiTe Contrary to common mass-trend expectations, replacing Mg with heavier Ca or Yb yields a threefold increase in κ in CaMgSb and YbMgBi Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of phonons in the series Mg ( = Mg, Ca, and Yb; = Bi and Sb) based on inelastic neutron/x-ray scattering and first-principles simulations and show that the anomalously low κ of Mg has inherent phononic origins. We uncover a large phonon softening and flattening of low-energy transverse acoustic phonons in Mg compared to the ternary analogs and traced to a specific Mg- bond, which markedly enlarges the scattering phase-space, enabling the threefold tuning in κ These results provide key insights for manipulating phonon scattering without the traditional reliance on heavy elements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abg1449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139592PMC
May 2021

Altered Food Habits? Understanding the Feeding Preference of Free-Ranging Gray Langurs Within an Urban Settlement.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:649027. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Environmental Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India.

Urbanization affects concurrent human-animal interactions as a result of altered resource availability and land use pattern, which leads to considerable ecological consequences. While some animals have lost their habitat due to urban encroachment, few of them managed to survive within the urban ecosystem by altering their natural behavioral patterns. The feeding repertoire of folivorous colobines, such as gray langur, largely consists of plant parts. However, these free-ranging langurs tend to be attuned to the processed high-calorie food sources to attain maximum benefits within the concrete jungle having insignificant greenery. Therefore, besides understanding their population dynamics, the effective management of these urbanized, free-ranging, non-human primate populations also depends on their altered feeding habits. Here, we have used a field-based experimental setup that allows gray langurs to choose between processed and unprocessed food options, being independent of any inter-specific conflicts over resources due to food scarcity. The multinomial logit model reveals the choice-based decision-making of these free-ranging gray langurs in an urban settlement of West Bengal, India, where they have not only learned to recognize the human-provisioned processed food items as an alternative food source but also shown a keen interest in it. However, such a mismatch between the generalized feeding behavior of folivorous colobines and their specialized gut physiology reminds us of Liem's paradox and demands considerable scientific attention. While urbanization imposes tremendous survival challenges to these animals, it also opens up for various alternative options for surviving in close proximity to humans which is reflected in this study, and could guide us for the establishment of a sustainable urban ecosystem in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.649027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107681PMC
April 2021

Manipulation of genes could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection that causes COVID-19 pandemics.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Apr 25:15353702211008106. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Physiology (UG & PG), Serampore College, Serampore, Hooghly 712201, India.

The year 2020 witnessed an unpredictable pandemic situation due to novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreaks. This condition can be more severe if the patient has comorbidities. Failure of viable treatment for such viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is due to lack of identification. Thus, modern and productive biotechnology-based tools are being used to manipulate target genes by introducing the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) system. Moreover, it has now been used as a tool to inhibit viral replication. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the CRISPR/Cas system can be a viable tool to target both the SARS-CoV-2 genome with specific target RNA sequence and host factors to destroy the SARS-CoV-2 community via inhibition of viral replication and infection. Moreover, comorbidities and COVID-19 escalate the rate of mortality globally, and as a result, we have faced this pandemic. CRISPR/Cas-mediated genetic manipulation to knockdown viral sequences may be a preventive strategy against such pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, prophylactic antiviral CRISPR in human cells (PAC-MAN) along with CRISPR/Cas13d efficiently degrades the specific RNA sequence to inhibit viral replication. Therefore, we suggest that CRISPR/Cas system with PAC-MAN could be a useful tool to fight against such a global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. This is an alternative preventive approach of management against the pandemic to destroy the target sequence of RNA in SARS-CoV-2 by viral inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15353702211008106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8090827PMC
April 2021

Efficacy of against monosodium glutamate induced hepato-cardiac anomalies by inhibiting NF-kB and caspase 3 mediated signalling in rat model.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2021 Apr 22:9603271211010895. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Physiology (UG & PG), 212035Serampore College, Hooghly, West Bengal, India.

Since prehistoric times has been used as traditional medicine for various diseases including diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic and digestive disorders. Although the rationality of efficacy as natural antioxidants with different bioactive compounds in against monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced hepato-cardiac damage remains to be disclosed. Six different solvent extracts of the leaves of were chosen to evaluate antioxidant and free radical (FR)-scavenging activity. Due to high antioxidant content and FR-scavenging property of ethanol extract of leaves (EECGL) and presence of different bioactive compounds in EECGL was further tested to evaluate hepato-protective and cardio-protective efficacy against MSG-induced anomalies. MSG-induced dyslipidemia, increased cell toxicity markers altered functional status and histopathological peculiarities of target organs were blunted by EECGL. Additionally, MSG incited increase level of interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β which activates nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) guided inflammation via down regulation of IL-10; impaired redox-homeostasis subsequently promoted inflammation associated oxidative stress (OS) and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which provoked microvascular proliferation related cellular damage. On the contrary, increased lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide promotes reduced cell viability, deoxyribonucleic acid damage and apoptosis via activation of caspase 3. EECGL significantly reduced MSG-induced inflammation mediated OS and apoptosis via inhibition of pro-inflammatory factors and pro-apoptotic mediators to protect liver and heart. Therefore, it can be suggested that EECGL contributed competent scientific information to validate the demands for its use to treat MSG-induced hepato-cardiac OS mediated inflammation and apoptosis from natural origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09603271211010895DOI Listing
April 2021

Elucidating evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of diapause regulation using an in silico approach.

FEBS Lett 2021 May 21;595(9):1350-1374. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, BITS Pilani KK Birla Goa Campus, Goa, India.

Embryonic diapause is an enigmatic phenomenon that appears in diverse species. Although regulatory mechanisms have been established, there is much to be discovered. Herein, we have made the first comprehensive attempt to elucidate diapause regulatory mechanisms using a computational approach. We found transcription factors unique to promoters of genes in diapause species. From pathway analysis and STRING PPI networks, the signaling pathways regulated by these unique transcription factors were identified. The pathways were then consolidated into a model to combine various known mechanisms of diapause regulation. This work also highlighted certain transcription factors that may act as 'master transcription factors' to regulate the phenomenon. Promoter analysis further suggested evidence for independent evolution for some of regulatory elements involved in diapause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.14064DOI Listing
May 2021

Increase in optic nerve sheath diameter predicts early cerebral involvement in fat embolism syndrome.

Chin J Traumatol 2021 May 9;24(3):180-182. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Early diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism in a patient with contradiction to MRI is challenging. Here we report an interesting case, where the raised optic nerve sheath diameter helped us to predict the early cerebral involvement with fat emboli in a left femoral shaft fracture patient. MRI scan could not be performed due to the presence of a metallic implant in the patient from a previous surgery. He was later diagnosed as an atypical presentation of fat embolism syndrome. Optic nerve sheath monitoring also helped us to guide further management of the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjtee.2021.02.004DOI Listing
May 2021

induced testicular assault through Leydig cell derangement: an approach.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Physiology, Harimohan Ghose College (affiliated to University of Calcutta), J206, Paharpur Road, Garden Reach, Kolkata 700024, West Bengal, India.

Objectives: (TA) has been widely used as folk medicine since ancient times. Apart from its therapeutic properties it also has anti-spermatogenic activity, but its effectiveness and mode of action on male gonadal activity remains to be revealed.

Methods: TA bark extract was dissolved in 1% dimethyl sulfoxide and applied in primary Leydig cell culture from rat testis in dose dependent manner. After 24 h of treatment cellular toxicity marker, cytokines, steroid 5-alpha-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and androgen receptor (AR) were measured.

Results: Present study first proposed the cytotoxic impacts of TA on Leydig cells via leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and inflammatory responses by altering the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in dose-dependent-manner. Furthermore, down regulation of SRD5A1 and AR indicated inhibition of normal steroidogenesis which well corroborated with cytotoxity and inflammation related parameters to promote damage of Leydig cell function. Nevertheless, it can be speculated that the inhibition of normal steroidogenesis and thereby spermatogenesis induced by TA is possibly due to the presence of β-sitosterol.

Conclusions: Therefore, the dose and duration of treatment should be carefully monitored in cases of its medicinal uses and longer duration should be avoided to protect reproductive health and fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2020-0300DOI Listing
January 2021

Variation of tree biochemical and physiological characters under different air pollution stresses.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 6;28(14):17960-17980. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

U.T.D, Department of Environmental Science, Sarguja Vishwavidyalaya, Ambikapur, Chhattisgarh, 497001, India.

The present work was undertaken in order to detect some pollution responsive variables such as ascorbic acid, pH, total chlorophyll, relative water content, total soluble sugar, amino acid and protein of four selected plant species, namely Ficus religiosa, Anthocephalus cadamba, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Cassia siamea, at nine different sites of Durgapur, West Bengal, India. The spatial variability analyses of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) along with Anticipated Performance Index (API) were also examined on each plant species. In this study, the highest APTI was recorded in L. speciosa (183.54 mg/g) during 2015 at site S5 (CCR), whereas the lowest APTI was reported in C. siamea (11.25 mg/g) during 2014 at site S3 (DGC). The API gradation revealed that L. speciosa was categorised as a best performer followed by A. cadamba and F. religiosa; in contrast, C. siamea showed poor performance among all the sites. One-way ANOVA (at p < 0.05, with Dunnett's post hoc) was conducted for spatial variability analysis both on biochemical parameters and air pollutants (SO, NOx and SPM) with respect to control site, while two-way ANOVA also operated for the detection of spatio-temporal interaction on concerned biochemical parameters of each tree species. A significant positive correlation was observed both in ascorbic acid and APTI of A. cadamba and L. speciosa with the air pollutants. So it would be said that, for varied environmental situations, different biochemical responses have been reflected by vegetation of the same species. Thus, the present study has tremendous potentiality to screening out tree species on the basis of APTI with pooling their API assessment category and spatial variability detection of biochemical parameters. Biochemical plasticity and adaptability were better revealed on L. speciosa, F. religiosa and A. cadamba which will be suitable for green belt development in air pollution-affected areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11674-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Mechanistic study of attenuation of monosodium glutamate mixed high lipid diet induced systemic damage in rats by Coccinia grandis.

Sci Rep 2020 09 22;10(1):15443. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Physiology (UG & PG), Serampore College, 9 William Carey Road, Serampore, Hooghly-712201, West Bengal, India.

In the context of failure of treatment for non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-mediated systemic damages, recognition of novel and successful characteristic drug to combat these anomalous situations is earnestly required. The present study is aimed to evaluate protective value of ethanol extract of Coccinia grandis leaves (EECGL), naturally occurring medicinal plant, on NAFLD-mediated systemic damage induced by high lipid diet along with monosodium glutamate (HM)-fed rats. Our study uncovered that EECGL significantly ameliorates HM-induced hyperlipidemia, increased lipogenesis and metabolic disturbances (via up regulation of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ), oxidative stress (via reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species and regulating the redox-homeostasis) and inflammatory response (via regulating the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors with concomitant down regulation of NF-kB, iNOS, TNF-α and up regulation of eNOS). Furthermore, EECGL significantly inhibited HM-induced increased population of cells in sub G0/G1 phase, decreased Bcl2 expression and thereby loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with over expression of Bax, p53, p21, activation of caspase 3 and 9 indicated the apoptosis and suppression of cell survival. It is perhaps the first comprehensive study with a mechanistic approach which provides a strong unique strategy for the management of HM-induced systemic damage with effective dose of EECGL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72076-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508805PMC
September 2020

Altered composition of high-lipid diet may generate reactive oxygen species by disturbing the balance of antioxidant and free radicals.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2020 Mar 30;31(3). Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Physiology (UG and PG), Serampore College, 9 William Carey Road, Serampore, Hooghly-712201, West Bengal, India, Phone: +91-9433509890.

Background In the present era, obesity is increasing rapidly, and high dietary intake of lipid could be a noteworthy risk factor for the occasion of obesity, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which is the independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. For a long time, high-lipid diet (HLD) in "fast food" is turning into part of our everyday life. So, we were interested in fulfilling the paucity of studies by means of preliminary evaluation of these three alternative doses of HLD on a rat model and elucidating the possible mechanism of these effects and divulging the most alarming dose. Methods Thirty-two rats were taken, and of these, 24 were fed with HLD in three distinctive compositions of edible coconut oil and vanaspati ghee in a ratio of 2:3, 3:2 and 1:1 (n = 8), orally through gavage at a dose of 10 mL/kg body weight for a period of 28 days, whereas the other eight were selected to comprise the control group. Results After completion of the experiment, followed by analysis of data it was revealed that hyperlipidemia with increased liver and cardiac marker enzymes, are associated with hepatocellular injury and cardiac damage. The data also supported increased proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). As oxidative stress parameter increased in both liver and heart, there is also an increased in TNF-α due to an increased expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, which led to a high production of NO. Moreover, HLD treatment explicitly weakens reasonability of hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes conceivably through G0/G1 or S stage capture or perhaps by means of enlistment of sub-G0/G1 DNA fragmentation and a sign of apoptosis. Conclusions Based on the outcomes, it tends to be inferred that consequences of the present examination uncovered HLD in combination of 2:3 applies most encouraging systemic damage by reactive oxygen species generation and hyperlipidemia and necroapoptosis of the liver and heart. Hence, outcome of this study may help to formulate health care strategy and warns about the food habit in universal population regarding the use of hydrogenated and saturated fats (vanaspati ghee) in diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2019-0141DOI Listing
March 2020

Prone positioning in a patient with fat embolism syndrome presenting as diffuse alveolar haemorrhage: new perspective.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Mar 10;13(3). Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is a rare complication of fat embolism syndrome leading to severe hypoxaemia due to the effusion of blood into the alveoli from the damaged pulmonary microvasculature. The management is usually supportive with patients being nursed in supine position. The use of prone position ventilation in a DAH has rarely been reported before. We report an interesting case of a 26-year-old male patient diagnosed with DAH caused by fat embolism in whom prone position ventilation improved the lung dynamics and oxygenation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-233452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7066632PMC
March 2020

Protein binding studies with human serum albumin, molecular docking and in vitro cytotoxicity studies using HeLa cervical carcinoma cells of Cu(ii)/Zn(ii) complexes containing a carbohydrazone ligand.

Dalton Trans 2020 Mar;49(9):2947-2965

Department of Chemical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, K. K. Birla Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa 403726, India.

The interaction of two binuclear mixed ligand Cu(ii) complexes [Cu(o-phen)LCu(OAc)] (1) and [Cu(o-phen)LCu(o-phen)](OAc) (2) (H3L = o-HOC6H4C(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]N-NH-C(OH)[double bond, length as m-dash]N-N[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)-C6H4OH-o) and a new mononuclear Zn(ii) complex [Zn(HL)(o-phen)(H2O)](OAc)·H2O (3) (H2L = o-HOC6H4-C(H)[double bond, length as m-dash]N-NH-C([double bond, length as m-dash]O)-NH-N[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)-C6H4OH-o, o-phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, and OAc = CH3COO-) with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied using fluorescence quenching, synchronous and 3D fluorescence measurements and UV-vis spectroscopy. 3D fluorescence studies showed that the HSA structure was altered at the secondary and tertiary levels upon binding with the complexes. This was further supported by the electronic absorption spectral studies of HSA in the absence and presence of the compounds. The average binding distance (r) between HSA and the complexes was obtained by Förster's resonance energy transfer theory. Complex 3 was structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Molecular docking studies indicated that all three complexes primarily bind to HSA in subdomain IIA with amino acid residues such as Arg218 and Lys199 which are located at the entrance of Sudlow's site I. The in vitro cytotoxicities of complexes 1-3 against HeLa cells showed promising anticancer activity (IC50 = 3.5, 3.9 and 16.9 μM for 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Live cell time lapse imaging for 1 was done to capture the dynamic behavior of the cells upon treatment with the complex. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry with HeLa cells indicated that 1 and 2 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase while 3 induced arrest in the G0/G1 phase leading to cell death. Compounds 1 and 2 but not 3 induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway as suggested from the relative p53, caspase3 and bcl2 mRNA levels measured by real-time quantitative PCR analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9dt04656aDOI Listing
March 2020

Regulation of the hypothalamic GnRH-GnIH system by putrescine in adult female rats and GT1-7 neuronal cell line.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2020 04 10;333(4):214-229. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, KK Birla Goa Campus, BITS Pilani, Zuarinagar, Goa, India.

The gonadotropin-releasing hormone-gonadotropin inhibitor (GnRH-GnIH) system in the hypothalamus of mammals is the key factor that controls the entire reproductive system. The aim of this study was to immunolocalize GnIH (RFRP-3) in the hypothalamus during the estrous cycle and to study the effect of putrescine on the expression of GnRH-I and GnIH through both in vivo and in vitro (GT1-7 cells) approach and the circulatory levels of GnRH-I, GnIH, and gonadotropins were also investigated. The study also aims in analyzing all the immunofluorescence images by measuring the relative pixel count of an image. This study showed the effect of putrescine on the morphology of ovary, uterus, and the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in the ovary. This study showed GnIH expression was intense during the diestrus and moderate during proestrus and estrus, whereas mild staining during the metestrus. The study further showed that putrescine supplementation to adult female rats increased both GnRH-I expression in the hypothalamus as well as the GnRH-I levels in circulation. The study, for the first time, also showed that putrescine supplementation decreased the expression and release of GnIH. These effects of upregulating GnRH-I expression and downregulating GnIH expression were confirmed by in vitro experiments using GT1-7 cells. Putrescine supplementation also increased the gonadotropin levels in the serum. To summarize, putrescine can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by increasing the GnRH-I, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels and suppressing GnIH levels. This is the first report showing the simultaneous effects of putrescine on the regulation of both GnRH-I and GnIH in the hypothalamus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.2351DOI Listing
April 2020

Type II diabetes mellitus and obesity: Common links, existing therapeutics and future developments.

J Biosci 2019 Dec;44(6)

Department of Chemistry, BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus, Zuarinagar 403 726, Goa, India.

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are two common pathophysiological conditions of metabolic syndrome (MetS), a collection of similar metabolic dysfunctions due to sedentary lifestyle and overnutrition. Obesity arises from improper adipogenesis which otherwise has a crucial role in maintaining proper metabolic functions. Downstream events arising from obesity have been linked to T2DM. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activator gamma (PPAR-γ), responsible for maintaining lipid and glucose homeostasis, is down-regulated under obesity leading to a weakened insulin sensitivity of the human body. In course of our review we will outline details of the down-regulation mechanism, provide an overview of the current clinical therapeutics and their shortcomings. Toxicity studies on the seminal drug troglitazone, belonging to the most effective glitazone anti-diabetic category, is also discussed. This will lead to an overview about structural adaptations on the existing glitazones to alleviate their side effects and toxicity. Finally, we forward a concept of novel therapeutics mimicking the glitazone framework, based on some design concepts and preliminary in silico studies. These could be later developed into dual acting drugs towards alleviating the deleterious effects of obesity on normal glucose metabolism, and address obesity in itself.
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December 2019

Structure, diversity and ecological function of shrub species in an urban setup of Sarguja, Chhattisgarh, India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Feb 17;27(5):5418-5432. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Environmental Science, Sant Gahira Guru Vishwavidyalaya, Sarguja, Ambikapur, 497001 (C.G.), India.

The vegetation plays important role in urban environment and associated ecology. Urban vegetation experienced various changes due to biotic and natural interference which alter the vegetation structure, function and ecology. The present study deals with the assessment of shrub species structure, diversity, biomass, volume, C storage and CO mitigation potential in an urban setup. Total four sites were selected, viz., east, west, north and south directions of Ambikapur City. A sum of eight shrub species representing seven families was recorded in Ambikapur City area. The highest representatives were recorded towards east direction (seven species with six families) and lowest towards south direction (five species with five families). The total density of shrubs ranged between 230 and 570 individual ha being highest at east direction and least at south direction. The higher diversity was found at east direction. The shrub biomass was ranged between 0.999 and 2.603 t/ha being highest at north direction and lowest at east direction. The shrub volume, C storage and CO mitigation values reflected similar trend as in case of shrub biomass. The shrub volume, C stock and CO mitigation values were ranged from 0.141 to 0.250 m/ha, 0.437 to1.132 t/ha and 1.597 to 4.156 t/ha, respectively, among the various sites. The species like Cestrum nocturnum and Nerium oleander are found to be potential in terms of various ecological services such as biomass, C storage and CO mitigation in different sites. However, Lantana camara was also found to be potential species under urban setup which can be utilized for its various ecological functions. Further, it was found that the contribution of the non-native species was higher over native species in terms of stand density, basal area, biomass, C stock, volume and CO mitigation potential among different study sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07172-wDOI Listing
February 2020

Herbaceous dynamics and CO mitigation in an urban setup-a case study from Chhattisgarh, India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jan 13;27(3):2881-2897. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Environmental Science, Sant Gahira Guru Vishwavidyalaya, Sarguja, Ambikapur, CG 497001, India.

Adjoining areas of urban environment has undergone rapid alteration in structure, composition and ecological changes, which makes them a dynamic entity. During the present investigation, herbaceous vegetation were studied in east, west, north and south directions of Ambikapur township at various seasons during March 2017 to April 2018. A total of 18 species representing 11 families were recorded at various directions of Ambikapur township in different seasons. Asteraceae was the predominant family in the study area. Highest species counts were recorded during summer season. Among the herbaceous vegetation, more than two-thirds of the herb species were exotic in nature, revealing the anthropogenic role towards loss of indigenous species. Highest species density was recorded in north direction (152,000 herb/ha during rainy, 104,000 herb/ha in winter and 184,000 herb/ha in summer) and lowest in south direction (90,000 herb/ha during rainy, 72,000 herb/ha in winter and 88,000 herb/ha in summer) in all seasons. Higher Shannon diversity (2.71 in rainy, 2.69 in winter and 3.07 in summer) and richness (0.67 in rainy, 0.52 in winter and 0.66 in summer after west direction) were recorded in the north direction. Total biomass, C storage and CO mitigation were found to be highest towards north direction in all seasons. Argemone mexicana, Cassia tora, Ocimum tenuiflorum and Sida acuata are the most suitable species in terms of C storage, CO mitigation under urban setup. Beside, some weed species also reflected significant potential. CO mitigation by herb species can act as complimentary system towards climate cane adaptation beside other vegetal layers. Such studies are also very much effective towards development of greenery in an urban setup leading to climate mitigation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07182-8DOI Listing
January 2020

Track the bands: Verwey phase transition in single magnetite nanocrystals.

J Phys Condens Matter 2020 Jan 11;32(5):055701. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

School of Physical Sciences, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032, India.

Verwey transition in magnetite is known for ages as an opening of bandgap below a transition temperature. With scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) in obtaining density of states in an extremely localized manner, STS has revealed Verwey transition in a single nanocrystal of FeO as a transition between a gapless state and a gapped state at around 110 K. In this work, we deliberate on the band-edges responsible during opening/collapse of the bandgap. We observe that the change in the conduction band is larger than the change in the valence band during the transition. The larger change in conduction band position has been explained in terms of antibonding nature of iron and oxygen orbitals in forming the conduction band and thereby its proneness to be affected upon the phase-change involved during a Verwey transition. The non-bonding nature of oxygen in forming the valence band has made the band less vulnerable during the transition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ab4d27DOI Listing
January 2020

Role of putrescine in ovary and embryo development in fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx during embryonic diapause.

Mol Reprod Dev 2019 12 3;86(12):1963-1980. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of putrescine on ovarian activity and the rate of embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx during delayed development. The result showed the presence of a rate-limiting enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase-1, in both ovary and utero-embryonic unit of C. sphinx suggests a synthesis of putrescine in these sites. The corpus luteum showed increased, whereas utero-embryonic unit showed decreased production of putrescine during delayed development as compared with the normal development. The bat treated in vivo with putrescine during delayed development showed increase in progesterone and estradiol synthesis, correlated with increased expression of luteinizing hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute receptor protein, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2)-mediated pathway in the ovary; but showed increase in the weight and expression of progesterone receptor (PR), B-cell lymphoma 2, proliferating cell nucleus antigen, and vascular endothelial growth factor proteins in utero-embryonic unit. The in vitro treatment of putrescine showed stimulatory whereas treatment with an inhibitor of putrescine, 2-difluoromethylornithine caused an inhibitory effect on ovarian progesterone synthesis and cell proliferation, and cell survival in the utero-embryonic unit. In conclusion, the putrescine showed two separate roles during embryonic diapause, high concentration of putrescine in the ovary may support corpus luteum and basal synthesis of progesterone, whereas a low level of putrescine causes retarded embryonic development by inhibiting cell proliferation in the utero-embryonic unit. The bat treated with putrescine either directly promotes cell proliferation, cell survival, and angiogenic activities or acts indirectly increasing PR on utero-embryonic unit thereby activating development in delayed embryo in C. sphinx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrd.23281DOI Listing
December 2019

Atypical presentation of thyroid storm: a diagnostic dilemma.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Aug 26;12(8). Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Critical and Intensive Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Thyroid storm (accelerated hyperthyroidism) is an uncommon life-threatening emergency. The diagnosis is difficult and at times delayed owing to atypical presentation. Early diagnosis is the key to its successful management. We came across a patient who had presentations of acute abdomen but later diagnosed in thyroid storm. Multiorgan involvement leads all resuscitative measures futile and prevented us to salvage the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-231090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6721697PMC
August 2019

A positron-emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) platform to track in vivo small extracellular vesicles.

Nanoscale 2019 Jul;11(28):13243-13248

CNC-Center for Neurosciences and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal. and Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal.

Here we report a two-step surface modification methodology to radiolabel small extracellular vesicles (SEVs) with 64CuCl2 for PET/MRI imaging. The modification did not change or damage the morphology, surface receptor proteins and internal RNA content. Radiolabeled SEVs could be detected in organs with low accumulation such as the brain (0.4-0.5% ID g-1) and their brain location determined by MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr02512jDOI Listing
July 2019

Clinical characteristics and management of patients with fat embolism syndrome in level I Apex Trauma Centre.

Chin J Traumatol 2019 Jun 14;22(3):172-176. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is systemic manifestation of fat emboli in the circulation seen mostly after long bone fractures. FES is considered a lethal complication of trauma. There are various case reports and series describing FES. Here we describe the clinical characteristics, management in ICU and outcome of these patients in level I trauma center in a span of 6 months.

Methods: In this prospective study, analysis of all the patients with FES admitted in our polytrauma intensive care unit (ICU) of level I trauma center over a period of 6 months (from August 2017 to January 2018) was done. Demographic data, clinical features, management in ICU and outcome were analyzed.

Results: We admitted 10 cases of FES. The mean age of patients was 31.2 years. The mean duration from time of injury to onset of symptoms was 56 h. All patients presented with hypoxemia and petechiae but central nervous system symptoms were present in 70% of patients. The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 11.7 days and the mean length of ICU stay was 14.7 days. There was excellent recovery among patients with no neurological deficit.

Conclusion: FES is considered a lethal complication of trauma but timely management can result in favorable outcome. FES can occur even after fixation of the fracture. Hypoxia is the most common and earliest feature of FES followed by CNS manifestations. Any patient presenting with such symptoms should raise the suspicion of FES and mandate early ICU referral.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjtee.2019.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6543189PMC
June 2019

Spectroscopic and viscometric determination of DNA-binding modes of some bioactive dibenzodioxins and phenazines.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2019 Jul 4;18:100629. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, BITS Pilani KK Birla Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa, 403726, India.

Push-pull dibenzodioxins and phenazines having 'anthracene-like' planar structures and good charge transfer character had been previously synthesised in our laboratory. The dibenzodioxins had earlier proven their anti-proliferative nature against HeLa tumor cell lines. Since phenazines are structural analogues of the former, these molecules were evaluated in course of the current study for their cytotoxic action against HeLa cell lines and they exhibited strong anti-tumor activity. This behavior could be related to their good DNA binding property. The DNA binding modes of molecules - (Fig. 1) were evaluated using various experimental techniques and they interacted with DNA in a non-covalently by both intercalative as well as groove binding mechanisms. Molecule follows predominantly intercalative binding mode whereas molecules and have nearly equal and opposite preferences for both groove binding and intercalative modes. For molecule , groove binding is preferred mode of binding to DNA. A rationale for such differential binding behaviour is provided based on the subtle structural differences in our synthesised dibenzodioxins and phenazines. Elucidation of the mode of a molecule-DNA-binding event is relevant for understanding the mechanism of action of these molecules and will help promote further research into designing better DNA targeting small molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2019.100629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449707PMC
July 2019

Liraglutide modulates adipokine expression during adipogenesis, ameliorating obesity, and polycystic ovary syndrome in mice.

Endocrine 2019 05 23;64(2):349-366. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, BITS Pilani KK Birla Goa Campus, Goa, 403726, India.

Purpose: The incidence of obesity is increasing among all age groups throughout the world and it is highly associated with numerous other metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) etc. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using in vitro and in vivo approach, this study investigated the adipokine profile after liraglutide on differentiated murine 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Effect of liraglutide on DHEA-induced PCOS mice were investigated. This study showed Liraglutide treatment resulted in up-regulation of adiponectin and IL-6 along with down-regulation of ICAM 1 in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Liraglutide in absence of other differentiating factors, significantly increased glucose, lipid uptake and PPARγ, C/EBPα expression in the adipocytes suggesting its ability to solely promote pre-adipocyte differentiation into mature adipocyte. Liraglutide treatment showed increased adiponectin expression and decreased number of cystic follicles, body weight, circulating glucose, triglyceride and testosterone levels in comparison to the PCOS induced mice.

Conclusion: This study suggests that adiponectin may act as a link between metabolic disorders and PCOS and that liraglutide might be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of PCOS in addition to obesity and insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-019-01891-3DOI Listing
May 2019

Nonlayered tellurene as an elemental 2D topological insulator: experimental evidence from scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

Nanoscale 2019 Feb;11(8):3591-3598

School of Physical Sciences, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, India.

We report the formation of a nonlayered tellurene monolayer in its alpha-phase through an anisotropic ultrasonication method. The nonlayered tellurene has so far been predicted to exhibit a topologically insulating state of matter in two-dimensional (2D) form with an insulating interior and metallic edge states propagating along the perimeter of the 2D objects. In this work, we report direct evidence of elemental topological insulator behavior in the material through a localized mode of measurement, that is, scanning tunneling spectroscopic studies. We moreover deliberate on the length scale the time-reversal symmetry-protected edge states extend towards the interior. The metallic edge, which has been found to span over a 3 nm region, opens and widens monotonically into gapped states. The appearance of the elemental 2D topological insulator phase has been explained in terms of built-in strains in the systems as viewed through a shift in the Raman modes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8nr09760gDOI Listing
February 2019

Role of farming awareness in crop pest management - A mathematical model.

J Theor Biol 2019 01 21;461:59-67. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Systems Ecology & Ecological Modeling Laboratory Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan, West Bengal 731235, India. Electronic address:

Control of pest attack is an important aspect in agriculture to obtain healthy crop as well as high yield. Farming awareness is also equally important in pest management. Awareness campaign are made for making people aware of damages due to the pest and protect the crop from pests which ultimately leads to high crop yield. In this article, a mathematical model is proposed to study the effect of awareness among the people in crop pest management using plant biomass, pest and aware population. Pest population is divided into two compartments: susceptible pest and infected pest. We assume that the growth of awareness level is assumed to be proportional to the density of healthy pest in the crop field. Global source such as radio, TV etc. can increase the level of awareness. It is further assumed that aware people will adopt biological control methods like integrated pest management. Susceptible pests are made infected by this process as infected pest are less harmful to crop. Moreover, there may be some time delay in measuring the healthy pests in the crop field i.e. some delay may take place in taking necessary steps while controlling the pest attack. Thus we developed the model incorporating time delay into the system. The existence and the stability criteria of the equilibria are obtained in terms of the basic reproduction number. The Hopf-bifurcation analysis has been done at the endemic equilibrium considering time delay as the bifurcation parameter. Numerical simulations are carried out to justify the analytical results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2018.10.043DOI Listing
January 2019

DNA binding, cleavage and cytotoxicity studies of three mononuclear Cu(II) chloro-complexes containing N-S donor Schiff base ligands.

J Biol Inorg Chem 2018 12 9;23(8):1331-1349. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, K.K. Birla Goa Campus, Goa, 403726, India.

We report the biological activity of three Cu(II) complexes [Cu(pabt)Cl] (1), [Cu(pma)Cl] (2), and [Cu(pdta)Cl]Cl (3) (pabt = N-(2-mercaptophenyl)-2'-pyridylmethylenimine, pma = N-(2-pyridylmethyl)-2-mercaptoaniline, pdta = 2,2'-di(pyridyl-2-methyleneimine)diphenyl disulfide). 1-3 display four-line EPR multiplet in solution at RT suggesting that these are mononuclear. DNA-binding studies using spectrophotometric titration of these complexes with calf thymus DNA showed binding through intercalation mode which was found to be consistent with the observation of increased viscosity of DNA and quenching of fluorescence of ethidium bromide bound DNA in the presence of these complexes. All three complexes were found to be efficient in bringing about oxidative and hydrolytic cleavage of DNA. The proposed mechanism of hydrolytic DNA cleavage has been discussed. MTT assay showed remarkable cytotoxicity on cervical cancer HeLa cell line and the IC values were 1.27, 4.13, and 3.92 μM for 1, 2 and 3, respectively, as compared to the IC value (13 μM) reported for cisplatin in HeLa cells. AO/PI and Annexin-V/PI assay suggest the induction of cell death primarily via apoptotic pathway. Nuclear staining using DAPI was used to assess changes in nuclear morphology during apoptotic cell death. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for induction of apoptotic cell death was studied using HDCF-DA assay and the result suggests that the generation of ROS by the complexes may be a possible cause for their antiproliferative activity. TUNEL assay showed DNA fragmentation in apoptotic cells. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed significant increase in the G2/M phase in HeLa cells by the compounds 1-3. Mononuclear Cu(II) complexes display remarkable cytotoxicity against cervical cancer HeLa cell line. The generation of ROS by the complexes may be a cause of their antiproliferative activity. Fluorescent images from DAPI staining assay revealed that the cells undergoing apoptosis displayed typical features like cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. TUNEL assay showed DNA fragmentation in apoptotic cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00775-018-1620-2DOI Listing
December 2018

Excess iodine-induced lymphocytic impairment in adult rats.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2019 Feb 28;29(2):110-118. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

a Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology , University College of Science and Technology, University of Calcutta , Kolkata , India.

Altered lymphocytic activity and its subset ratio found responsible for initiating abnormal autoimmune responses in men and animals after excess iodine exposure. Study objective is to reveal excess iodine-induced impairment of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), its functional status, antioxidant balance, DNA damage, proliferation assay, and serum cytokine levels (IL6 and TNF α)in adult male rats to understand the onset of autoimmune alterations if any indirectly that is unexplored. Experimental animals were grouped depending on doses of iodine(KI) treatment with moderately excess-7 mg/kg bw (100EI) and excessively excess-35 mg/kg bw (500EI)for 30 days to analyze IL6 and TNF α, hematological indices, oxidative stress, lymphocytic DNA damage, and proliferation status. Significant impairment in superoxide dismutase, catalase, GPx activities including elevated NO, LPO in lymphocytes of treated group, with increased IL6 and TNF α level, lymphocyte proliferation and DNA damage depending on doses of iodine. Therefore, excess iodine consumption leads to lymphocytic impairment that may be the potential cause of autoimmune thyroid diseases in long run. Highlights Excess iodine triggers the oxidative stress in lymphocytes. Excess iodine promotes the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Excess iodine causes impairment of functional status of lymphocytes leading to immune-cytotoxicity. Excess iodine exacerbates the autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2018.1528647DOI Listing
February 2019

Inhibition of catalase activity with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole intensifies bisphenol A (BPA)-induced toxicity in granulosa cells of female albino rats.

Toxicol Ind Health 2018 Nov 1;34(11):787-797. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

1 Environmental Toxicology and Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Serampore College, Hooghly, West Bengal, India   .

Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor and environmental toxicant, is associated with adverse estrogenic effects in both humans and wildlife species. Because the effects of BPA on the ovary at the cellular level are incompletely understood, the present study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanism of granulosa cell injury following BPA exposure. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were treated with BPA (25 mg/kg BW/day for 9 days, intraperitonially) with or without pretreatment of the catalase-specific blocker 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ; 1 g/kg BW/day for 5 days, intraperitonially). Different oxidative and antioxidant stress parameters, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and hormonal levels were measured. Catalase expression in isolated granulosa cells was analyzed by Western blot. There were noticeable increases in both nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation levels in the granulosa cells of the BPA-treated group with or without pretreatment with ATZ. Compared with the controls, BPA exposure resulted in a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels that was further increased following pretreatment with ATZ. Results of the hormonal assays clearly showed a significant decrease in both estrogen and progesterone levels. In contrast, there was a significant increase in both serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels following BPA exposure, with or without ATZ pretreatment. Results of Western blot analysis demonstrated decreased expression of catalase in the BPA-treated group and a further decrease in expression in the group treated with both BPA and ATZ. Our data suggest that catalase plays a role in mediating reproductive damage to granulosa cells exposed to BPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233718795744DOI Listing
November 2018

All-Organic Dual Spin Valves with Well-Resolved Four Resistive-States.

Small 2018 Aug 11;14(32):e1801510. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata, 700032, India.

The formation of all-organic dual spin valves (DSVs) with three organic spin-selective layers, that is, spin-injection, spin-detection, and an additional spin-filtering layer at the intermediate, is reported. As spin-selective layers, manganese- and cobalt phthalocyanines, which are well-known single-molecule magnets, are used in their immobilized forms, so that all-organic DSVs can be prefabricated for characterization. The three spin-selective layers have provided four configurations with at most two spin-flip interfaces enforcing spin-flipping at the two nonmagnetic organic spacer layers, for which copper phthalocyanine is used. Since a couple of the four configurations have exhibited similar resistivities, the degeneracy in the resistive-states is broken through asymmetric spin-injection and spin-detection layers and also through asymmetric thickness of the nonmagnetic spacer layers. When both the spin-flip interfaces are made operative independently, a 2-bit logic with four distinct resistive states can be achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201801510DOI Listing
August 2018