Publications by authors named "Arjen Koppen"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Profiling of 3696 Nuclear Receptor-Coregulator Interactions: A Resource for Biological and Clinical Discovery.

Endocrinology 2018 06;159(6):2397-2407

Molecular Cancer Research and Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, CG Utrecht, Netherlands.

Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-inducible transcription factors that play critical roles in metazoan development, reproduction, and physiology and therefore are implicated in a broad range of pathologies. The transcriptional activity of NRs critically depends on their interaction(s) with transcriptional coregulator proteins, including coactivators and corepressors. Short leucine-rich peptide motifs in these proteins (LxxLL in coactivators and LxxxIxxxL in corepressors) are essential and sufficient for NR binding. With 350 different coregulator proteins identified to date and with many coregulators containing multiple interaction motifs, an enormous combinatorial potential is present for selective NR-mediated gene regulation. However, NR-coregulator interactions have often been determined experimentally on a one-to-one basis across diverse experimental conditions. In addition, NR-coregulator interactions are difficult to predict because the molecular determinants that govern specificity are not well established. Therefore, many biologically and clinically relevant NR-coregulator interactions may remain to be discovered. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of 3696 NR-coregulator interactions by systematically characterizing the binding of 24 nuclear receptors with 154 coregulator peptides. We identified unique ligand-dependent NR-coregulator interaction profiles for each NR, confirming many well-established NR-coregulator interactions. Hierarchical clustering based on the NR-coregulator interaction profiles largely recapitulates the classification of NR subfamilies based on the primary amino acid sequences of the ligand-binding domains, indicating that amino acid sequence is an important, although not the only, molecular determinant in directing and fine-tuning NR-coregulator interactions. This NR-coregulator peptide interactome provides an open data resource for future biological and clinical discovery as well as NR-based drug design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2018-00149DOI Listing
June 2018

Is it really safe to withhold folinic acid when less than 1000 mg/m methotrexate is ingested?

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 11 26;55(9):1018. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

a University Medical Center Utrecht , National Poisons Information Center , Utrecht , Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2017.1307386DOI Listing
November 2017

Is a 1% Plasma Lipid Concentration Helpful to Treat the Intoxicated Patient?

Ann Emerg Med 2016 Mar;67(3):418-9

National Poisons Information Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Intensive Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2015.11.003DOI Listing
March 2016

The relation between body iron stores and adipose tissue function in patients with manifest vascular disease.

Eur J Clin Invest 2013 Dec 23;43(12):1240-9. Epub 2013 Sep 23.

Department of Vascular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: We investigated whether plasma ferritin levels through the pro-inflammatory effects of free iron are associated with adipose tissue dysfunction in a relevant population of patients with manifest vascular disease who would potentially benefit the most from further aetiological insights.

Materials And Methods: In a cohort of 355 patients with vascular diseases, the association between plasma ferritin and adiponectin levels was quantified using linear regression analysis. Interleukin-6 and adiponectin levels were measured in medium from pre-adipocytes and adipocytes after incubation with increasing concentrations of Fe(III)-citrate and after co-incubation with iron chelators or radical scavengers.

Results: Increasing ferritin plasma concentrations were not related to plasma adiponectin levels in patients without (β -0·13; 95% CI -0·30 to 0·04) or with the metabolic syndrome (β -0·04; 95% CI -0·17 to 0·10). Similar results were found in patients who developed a new cardiovascular event in the follow-up period. In vitro, incubation with increasing concentrations of Fe(III)-citrate-induced inflammation in pre-adipocyte cultures as witnessed by increased IL-6 secretion at 30 μm Fe(III)-citrate vs. control (500 ± 98 pg/mL vs. 194 ± 31 pg/mL, P = 0·03). Co-incubation of pre-adipocytes with iron chelators or radical scavengers prevented this inflammatory response. Incubation of adipocytes with 30 μm Fe(III)-citrate did not influence adiponectin secretion compared with control.

Conclusions: In patients with vascular disease, there is no association between plasma ferritin and adiponectin levels. In vitro, free iron induces an inflammatory response in pre-adipocytes, but not in adipocytes. This response was blocked by co-incubation with iron chelators or radical scavengers. Adiponectin secretion by adipocytes was not influenced by free iron.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.12165DOI Listing
December 2013

Early adipogenesis is regulated through USP7-mediated deubiquitination of the histone acetyltransferase TIP60.

Nat Commun 2013 ;4:2656

Section Metabolic Diseases, Molecular Cancer Research, and Netherlands Metabolomics Centre, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht 3584 CG, The Netherlands.

Transcriptional coregulators, including the acetyltransferase Tip60, have a key role in complex cellular processes such as differentiation. Whereas post-translational modifications have emerged as an important mechanism to regulate transcriptional coregulator activity, the identification of the corresponding demodifying enzymes has remained elusive. Here we show that the expression of the Tip60 protein, which is essential for adipocyte differentiation, is regulated through polyubiquitination on multiple residues. USP7, a dominant deubiquitinating enzyme in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mouse adipose tissue, deubiquitinates Tip60 both in intact cells and in vitro and increases Tip60 protein levels. Furthermore, inhibition of USP7 expression and activity decreases adipogenesis. Transcriptome analysis reveals several cell cycle genes to be co-regulated by both Tip60 and USP7. Knockdown of either factor results in impaired mitotic clonal expansion, an early step in adipogenesis. These results reveal deubiquitination of a transcriptional coregulator to be a key mechanism in the regulation of early adipogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3656DOI Listing
May 2014

Pmch-deficiency in rats is associated with normal adipocyte differentiation and lower sympathetic adipose drive.

PLoS One 2013 26;8(3):e60214. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

Hubrecht Institute-KNAW and University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The orexigenic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a product of Pmch, is an important mediator of energy homeostasis. Pmch-deficient rodents are lean and smaller, characterized by lower food intake, body-, and fat mass. Pmch is expressed in hypothalamic neurons that ultimately are components in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive to white and interscapular brown adipose tissue (WAT, iBAT, respectively). MCH binds to MCH receptor 1 (MCH1R), which is present on adipocytes. Currently it is unknown if Pmch-ablation changes adipocyte differentiation or sympathetic adipose drive. Using Pmch-deficient and wild-type rats on a standard low-fat diet, we analyzed dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass and adipocyte morphology (size and number) throughout development, and indices of sympathetic activation in WAT and iBAT during adulthood. Moreover, using an in vitro approach we investigated the ability of MCH to modulate 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Pmch-deficiency decreased dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass by reducing adipocyte size, but not number. In line with this, in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was unaffected by MCH. Finally, adult Pmch-deficient rats had lower norepinephrine turnover (an index of sympathetic adipose drive) in WAT and iBAT than wild-type rats. Collectively, our data indicate that MCH/MCH1R-pathway does not modify adipocyte differentiation, whereas Pmch-deficiency in laboratory rats lowers adiposity throughout development and sympathetic adipose drive during adulthood.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0060214PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3608591PMC
September 2013

Short-chain fatty acids stimulate angiopoietin-like 4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ.

Mol Cell Biol 2013 Apr 22;33(7):1303-16. Epub 2013 Jan 22.

Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4/FIAF) has been proposed as a circulating mediator between the gut microbiota and fat storage. Here, we show that transcription and secretion of ANGPTL4 in human T84 and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells is highly induced by physiological concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA induce ANGPTL4 by activating the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), as demonstrated using PPARγ antagonist, PPARγ knockdown, and transactivation assays, which show activation of PPARγ but not PPARα and PPARδ by SCFA. At concentrations required for PPARγ activation and ANGPTL4 induction in colon adenocarcinoma cells, SCFA do not stimulate PPARγ in mouse 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes, suggesting that SCFA act as selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARM), which is supported by coactivator peptide recruitment assay and structural modeling. Consistent with the notion that fermentation leads to PPAR activation in vivo, feeding mice a diet rich in inulin induced PPAR target genes and pathways in the colon. We conclude that (i) SCFA potently stimulate ANGPTL4 synthesis in human colon adenocarcinoma cells and (ii) SCFA transactivate and bind to PPARγ. Our data point to activation of PPARs as a novel mechanism of gene regulation by SCFA in the colon, in addition to other mechanisms of action of SCFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00858-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3624264PMC
April 2013

The serine/threonine phosphatase PPM1B (PP2Cβ) selectively modulates PPARγ activity.

Biochem J 2013 Apr;451(1):45-53

Department of Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Reversible phosphorylation is a widespread molecular mechanism to regulate the function of cellular proteins, including transcription factors. Phosphorylation of the nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) at two conserved serine residue (Ser(112) and Ser(273)) results in an altered transcriptional activity of this transcription factor. So far, only a very limited number of cellular enzymatic activities has been described which can dephosphorylate nuclear receptors. In the present study we used immunoprecipitation assays coupled to tandem MS analysis to identify novel PPARγ-regulating proteins. We identified the serine/threonine phosphatase PPM1B [PP (protein phosphatase), Mg(2+)/Mn(2+) dependent, 1B; also known as PP2Cβ] as a novel PPARγ-interacting protein. Endogenous PPM1B protein is localized in the nucleus of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes where it can bind to PPARγ. Furthermore we show that PPM1B can directly dephosphorylate PPARγ, both in intact cells and in vitro. In addition PPM1B increases PPARγ-mediated transcription via dephosphorylation of Ser(112). Finally, we show that knockdown of PPM1B in 3T3-L1 adipocytes blunts the expression of some PPARγ target genes while leaving others unaltered. These findings qualify the phosphatase PPM1B as a novel selective modulator of PPARγ activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20121113DOI Listing
April 2013

Natural killer T cells in adipose tissue prevent insulin resistance.

J Clin Invest 2012 Sep 6;122(9):3343-54. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Lipid overload and adipocyte dysfunction are key to the development of insulin resistance and can be induced by a high-fat diet. CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been proposed as mediators between lipid overload and insulin resistance, but recent studies found decreased iNKT cell numbers and marginal effects of iNKT cell depletion on insulin resistance under high-fat diet conditions. Here, we focused on the role of iNKT cells under normal conditions. We showed that iNKT cell-deficient mice on a low-fat diet, considered a normal diet for mice, displayed a distinctive insulin resistance phenotype without overt adipose tissue inflammation. Insulin resistance was characterized by adipocyte dysfunction, including adipocyte hypertrophy, increased leptin, and decreased adiponectin levels. The lack of liver abnormalities in CD1d-null mice together with the enrichment of CD1d-restricted iNKT cells in both mouse and human adipose tissue indicated a specific role for adipose tissue-resident iNKT cells in the development of insulin resistance. Strikingly, iNKT cell function was directly modulated by adipocytes, which acted as lipid antigen-presenting cells in a CD1d-mediated fashion. Based on these findings, we propose that, especially under low-fat diet conditions, adipose tissue-resident iNKT cells maintain healthy adipose tissue through direct interplay with adipocytes and prevent insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI62739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428087PMC
September 2012

A novel RNAi lethality rescue screen to identify regulators of adipogenesis.

PLoS One 2012 5;7(6):e37680. Epub 2012 Jun 5.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Netherlands Metabolomics Centre, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Adipogenesis, the differentiation of fibroblast-like mesenchymal stem cells into mature adipocytes, is tightly regulated by a complex cascade of transcription factors, including the nuclear receptor Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ). RNAi-mediated knock down libraries may present an attractive method for the identification of additional adipogenic factors. However, using in vitro adipogenesis model systems for high-throughput screening with siRNA libraries is limited since (i) differentiation is not homogeneous, but results in mixed cell populations, and (ii) the expression levels (and activity) of adipogenic regulators is highly dynamic during differentiation, indicating that the timing of RNAi-mediated knock down during differentiation may be extremely critical. Here we report a proof-of-principle for a novel RNAi screening method to identify regulators of adipogenesis that is based on lethality rescue rather than differentiation, using microRNA expression driven by a PPARγ responsive RNA polymerase II promoter. We validated this novel method through screening of a dedicated deubiquitinase knock down library, resulting in the identification of UCHL3 as an essential deubiquitinase in adipogenesis. This system therefore enables the identification of novel genes regulating PPARγ-mediated adipogenesis in a high-throughput setting.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0037680PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3367974PMC
October 2012

Pref-1 preferentially inhibits heat production in brown adipose tissue.

Biochem J 2012 May;443(3):e3-5

Department of Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht 3584, The Netherlands.

In mammals there are two types of adipocytes with opposing functions. Brown adipocytes are characterized by a high number of mitochondria and are specialized for heat production (thermogenesis), expressing thermogenic genes such as UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). White adipocytes, on the other hand, store energy. Although many key regulators in the differentiation of white adipocytes have been established, our current knowledge on the same proteins in brown adipogenesis is lagging behind. One example is Pref-1 (pre-adipocyte factor-1), which maintains white pre-adipocytes in an undifferentiated state, but is only poorly characterized in the brown pre-adipocyte lineage. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Armengol et al. now shed new light on the role and regulation of Pref-1 in brown pre-adipocytes. First, Pref-1 specifically inhibits the thermogenic gene programme in brown pre-adipocytes. Secondly, they identified the transcription factor C/EBPδ (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ) as a direct positive regulator of Pref-1 expression, whereas this protein does not fulfil this role in white adipogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate that specific manipulation of brown adipocyte differentiation and/or function without interfering with their white adipocyte counterparts may be possible, which may open up new therapeutic ways to combat obesity-associated health problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20120382DOI Listing
May 2012

Brown vs white adipocytes: the PPARgamma coregulator story.

FEBS Lett 2010 Aug 30;584(15):3250-9. Epub 2010 Jun 30.

Department of Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases, UMC Utrecht, Lundlaan 6, 3584 EA Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The development of adipose tissue is a process which involves the concerted cooperation of numerous transcription factors together with their coactivators and corepressors. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is considered to be one of the master regulators of adipocyte differentiation. The presence of two functionally distinct types of adipose tissue, white and brown (WAT and BAT), requires an even more complex regulation of adipose tissue development. In this review we will focus on the role of PPARgamma coregulators in adipogenesis and especially on the role of PPARgamma coregulators in white and brown adipose tissue. Specificity in coregulator function in WAT and BAT may form an additional level of regulation of adipose tissue development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2010.06.035DOI Listing
August 2010

Epidermis-type lipoxygenase 3 regulates adipocyte differentiation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity.

Mol Cell Biol 2010 Aug 7;30(16):4077-91. Epub 2010 Jun 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is essential for adipogenesis. Although several fatty acids and their derivatives are known to bind and activate PPAR gamma, the nature of the endogenous ligand(s) promoting the early stages of adipocyte differentiation has remained enigmatic. Previously, we showed that lipoxygenase (LOX) activity is involved in activation of PPAR gamma during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. Of the seven known murine LOXs, only the unconventional LOX epidermis-type lipoxygenase 3 (eLOX3) is expressed in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Here, we show that forced expression of eLOX3 or addition of eLOX3 products stimulated adipogenesis under conditions that normally require an exogenous PPAR gamma ligand for differentiation. Hepoxilins, a group of oxidized arachidonic acid derivatives produced by eLOX3, bound to and activated PPAR gamma. Production of hepoxilins was increased transiently during the initial stages of adipogenesis. Furthermore, small interfering RNA-mediated or retroviral short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of eLOX3 expression abolished differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Finally, we demonstrate that xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and eLOX3 synergistically enhanced PPAR gamma-mediated transactivation. Collectively, our results indicate that hepoxilins produced by the concerted action of XOR and eLOX3 may function as PPAR gamma activators capable of promoting the early PPAR gamma-dependent steps in the conversion of preadipocytes into adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01806-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916447PMC
August 2010

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) but not PPARalpha serves as a plasma free fatty acid sensor in liver.

Mol Cell Biol 2009 Dec 5;29(23):6257-67. Epub 2009 Oct 5.

Nutrigenomics Consortium, TI Food and Nutrition, Nieuwe Kanaal 9A, 6709 PA Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is an important transcription factor in liver that can be activated physiologically by fasting or pharmacologically by using high-affinity synthetic agonists. Here we initially set out to elucidate the similarities in gene induction between Wy14643 and fasting. Numerous genes were commonly regulated in liver between the two treatments, including many classical PPARalpha target genes, such as Aldh3a2 and Cpt2. Remarkably, several genes induced by Wy14643 were upregulated by fasting independently of PPARalpha, including Lpin2 and St3gal5, suggesting involvement of another transcription factor. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, Lpin2 and St3gal5 were shown to be direct targets of PPARbeta/delta during fasting, whereas Aldh3a2 and Cpt2 were exclusive targets of PPARalpha. Binding of PPARbeta/delta to the Lpin2 and St3gal5 genes followed the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration, consistent with activation of PPARbeta/delta by plasma FFAs. Subsequent experiments using transgenic and knockout mice for Angptl4, a potent stimulant of adipose tissue lipolysis, confirmed the stimulatory effect of plasma FFAs on Lpin2 and St3gal5 expression levels via PPARbeta/delta. In contrast, the data did not support activation of PPARalpha by plasma FFAs. The results identify Lpin2 and St3gal5 as novel PPARbeta/delta target genes and show that upregulation of gene expression by PPARbeta/delta is sensitive to plasma FFA levels. In contrast, this is not the case for PPARalpha, revealing a novel mechanism for functional differentiation between PPARs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00370-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2786701PMC
December 2009

Nuclear receptor-coregulator interaction profiling identifies TRIP3 as a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma cofactor.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2009 Oct 10;8(10):2212-26. Epub 2009 Jul 10.

Department of Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Nuclear receptors (NRs) are major targets for drug discovery and have key roles in development and homeostasis as well as in many diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer. NRs are ligand-dependent transcription factors that need to work in concert with so-called transcriptional coregulators, including corepressors and coactivators, to regulate transcription. Upon ligand binding, NRs undergo a conformational change, which alters their binding preference for coregulators. Short alpha-helical sequences in the coregulator proteins, LXXLL (in coactivators) or LXXXIXXXL (in corepressors), are essential for the NR-coregulator interactions. However, little is known on how specificity is dictated. To obtain a comprehensive overview of NR-coregulator interactions, we used a microarray approach based on interactions between NRs and peptides derived from known coregulators. Using the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) as a model NR, we were able to generate ligand-specific interaction profiles (agonist rosiglitazone versus antagonist GW9662 versus selective PPARgamma modulator telmisartan) and characterize NR mutants and isotypes (PPARalpha, -beta/delta, and -gamma). Importantly, based on the NR-coregulator interaction profile, we were able to identify TRIP3 as a novel regulator of PPARgamma-mediated adipocyte differentiation. These findings indicate that NR-coregulator interaction profiling may be a useful tool for drug development and biological discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/mcp.M900209-MCP200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2758751PMC
October 2009

Effect of synthetic dietary triglycerides: a novel research paradigm for nutrigenomics.

PLoS One 2008 Feb 27;3(2):e1681. Epub 2008 Feb 27.

Nutrigenomics Consortium, Top Institute (TI) Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The effect of dietary fats on human health and disease are likely mediated by changes in gene expression. Several transcription factors have been shown to respond to fatty acids, including SREBP-1c, NF-kappaB, RXRs, LXRs, FXR, HNF4alpha, and PPARs. However, it is unclear to what extent these transcription factors play a role in gene regulation by dietary fatty acids in vivo.

Methodology/principal Findings: Here, we take advantage of a unique experimental design using synthetic triglycerides composed of one single fatty acid in combination with gene expression profiling to examine the effects of various individual dietary fatty acids on hepatic gene expression in mice. We observed that the number of significantly changed genes and the fold-induction of genes increased with increasing fatty acid chain length and degree of unsaturation. Importantly, almost every single gene regulated by dietary unsaturated fatty acids remained unaltered in mice lacking PPARalpha. In addition, the majority of genes regulated by unsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid, were also regulated by the specific PPARalpha agonist WY14643. Excellent agreement was found between the effects of unsaturated fatty acids on mouse liver versus cultured rat hepatoma cells. Interestingly, using Nuclear Receptor PamChip(R) Arrays, fatty acid- and WY14643-induced interactions between PPARalpha and coregulators were found to be highly similar, although several PPARalpha-coactivator interactions specific for WY14643 were identified.

Conclusions/significance: We conclude that the effects of dietary unsaturated fatty acids on hepatic gene expression are almost entirely mediated by PPARalpha and mimic those of synthetic PPARalpha agonists in terms of regulation of target genes and molecular mechanism. Use of synthetic dietary triglycerides may provide a novel paradigm for nutrigenomics research.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0001681PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2244803PMC
February 2008

Dickkopf-3 expression is a marker for neuroblastic tumor maturation and is down-regulated by MYCN.

Int J Cancer 2008 Apr;122(7):1455-64

Department of Human Genetics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma are neuroblastic tumors originating from the developing sympathetic peripheral nervous system. Ganglioneuromas are usually benign, while neuroblastomas have a variable prognosis and include very aggressive tumors. Examples exist of neuroblastomas regressing to ganglioneuromas and ganglioneuromas progressing to neuroblastomas. Little is known of the molecular differences between the tumor types. Here we report that Dickkopf-3 (DKK3), a putative extra cellular inhibitor of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, showed a strongly differential expression between neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma. Microarray analyses of 109 neuroblastic tumors revealed that DKK3 is strongly expressed in ganglioneuroma but only weakly in neuroblastoma. Low DKK3 expression in neuroblastoma correlated with a poor prognosis. The expression of DKK3 in the tumor series and in neuroblastoma cell lines was inversely correlated with the expression of the MYCN oncogene. Analysis of 2 neuroblastoma cell lines with inducible activity of MYCN showed that DKK3 is down-regulated by MYCN. We subsequently generated cell lines with inducible expression of DKK3, which revealed an inhibitory effect of DKK3 on proliferation. High DKK3 expression in the benign ganglioneuromas and down-regulation of DKK3 by MYCN in neuroblastoma might contribute to the strongly different clinical behavior of both neuroblastic tumor types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23180DOI Listing
April 2008

Direct regulation of the minichromosome maintenance complex by MYCN in neuroblastoma.

Eur J Cancer 2007 Nov 10;43(16):2413-22. Epub 2007 Sep 10.

Department of Human Genetics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The c-Myc and MYCN oncogenes strongly induce cell proliferation. Although a limited series of cell cycle genes were found to be induced by the myc transcription factors, it is still unclear how they mediate the proliferative phenotype. We therefore analysed a neuroblastoma cell line with inducible MYCN expression. We found that all members of the minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM2-7) and MCM8 and MCM10 were up-regulated by MYCN. Expression profiling of 110 neuroblastoma tumours revealed that these genes strongly correlated with MYCN expression in vivo. Extensive chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments were performed to investigate whether the MCM genes were primary MYCN targets. MYCN was bound to the proximal promoters of the MCM2 to -8 genes. These data suggest that MYCN stimulates the expression of not only MCM7, which is a well defined MYCN target gene, but also of the complete minichromosome maintenance complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2007.07.024DOI Listing
November 2007

Dickkopf-1 is down-regulated by MYCN and inhibits neuroblastoma cell proliferation.

Cancer Lett 2007 Oct 23;256(2):218-28. Epub 2007 Jul 23.

Department of Human Genetics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Neuroblastomas are tumors of the developing peripheral sympathetic nervous system, which originates from the neural crest. Twenty percent of neuroblastomas show amplification of the MYCN oncogene, which correlates with poor prognosis. The MYCN transcription factor can activate and repress gene expression. To broaden our insight in the spectrum of genes down-regulated by MYCN, we generated gene expression profiles of the neuroblastoma cell lines SHEP-21N and SKNAS-NmycER, in which MYCN activity can be regulated. In this study, we show that MYCN suppresses the expression of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) in both cell lines. DKK1 is a potent inhibitor of the wnt/beta-catenin signalling cascade, which is known to function in neural crest cell migration. We generated a DKK1 inducible cell line, IMR32-DKK1, which showed impaired proliferation upon DKK1 expression. Surprisingly, DKK1 expression did not inhibit the canonical wnt/beta-catenin signalling, suggesting a role of DKK1 in an alternative route of the wnt pathway. Gene expression profiling of two IMR32-DKK1 clones showed that only a few genes, amongst which SYNPO2, were up-regulated by DKK1. SYNPO2 encodes an actin-binding protein and was previously found to inhibit proliferation and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells. These results suggest that MYCN might stimulate cell proliferation by inhibiting the expression of DKK1. DKK1 might exert part of its growth suppressive effect by induction of SYNPO2 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2007.06.011DOI Listing
October 2007

Inhibition of a new differentiation pathway in neuroblastoma by copy number defects of N-myc, Cdc42, and nm23 genes.

Cancer Res 2005 Apr;65(8):3136-45

Department of Human Genetics M1-134, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The best studied oncogenic mechanisms are inactivating defects in both alleles of tumor suppressor genes and activating mutations in oncogenes. Chromosomal gains and losses are frequent in human tumors, but for many regions, like 1p36 and 17q in neuroblastoma, no mutated tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes were identified. Amplification of N-myc in neuroblastoma is strongly correlated with loss of 1p36 and gain of 17q. Here we report that N-myc down-regulates the mRNA expression of many genes with a role in cell architecture. One of them is the 1p36 gene Cdc42. Restoring the Cdc42 expression in neuroblastoma cells strongly induced differentiation. N-myc also inhibited Cdc42 functioning at the protein level. This was mediated by nm23-H1 and nm23-H2, which are located in the amplified 17q region. Nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 are strongly up-regulated downstream targets of N-myc. Nm23-H1 was shown to bind Cdc42 and prevented the induction of differentiation. Overexpression of Nm23 due to gain of 17q and induction by N-myc combined with weak expression of Cdc42 due to loss of 1p36 and down-regulation by N-myc can thus block differentiation. Although this marks Cdc42 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene, no mutations were found. Further silencing of Cdc42 by small interfering RNA induced massive apoptosis, indicating that tumor cell survival requires a minimal Cdc42 activity. Three regions of chromosomal gain and loss thus affect genes functioning in one pathway in neuroblastoma. They converge to bring the pathway out of balance and prevent Cdc42 mediated differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-2469DOI Listing
April 2005