Publications by authors named "Arjen Bogaards"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Autofluorescence-guided surveillance for oral cancer.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2009 Nov;2(11):966-74

Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA.

Early detection of oral premalignant lesions (OPL) and oral cancers (OC) is critical for improved survival. We evaluated if the addition of autofluorescence visualization (AFV) to conventional white-light examination (WLE) improved the ability to detect OPLs/OCs. Sixty high-risk patients, with suspicious oral lesions or recently diagnosed untreated OPLs/OCs, underwent sequential surveillance with WLE and AFV. Biopsies were obtained from all suspicious areas identified on both examinations (n = 189) and one normal-looking control area per person (n = 60). Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for WLE, AFV, and WLE + AFV. Estimates were calculated separately for lesions classified by histopathologic grades as low-grade lesions, high-grade lesions (HGL), and OCs. Sequential surveillance with WLE + AFV provided a greater sensitivity than WLE in detecting low-grade lesions (75% versus 44%), HGLs (100% versus 71%), and OCs (100% versus 80%). The specificity in detecting OPLs/OCs decreased from 70% with WLE to 38% with WLE + AFV. Thirteen of the 76 additional biopsies (17%) obtained based on AFV findings were HGLs/OCs. Five patients (8%) were diagnosed with a HGL/OC only because of the addition of AFV to WLE. In seven patients, additional HGL/OC foci or wider OC margins were detected on AFV. Additionally, AFV aided in the detection of metachronous HGL/OC in 6 of 26 patients (23%) with a history of previously treated head and neck cancer. Overall, the addition of AFV to WLE improved the ability to detect HGLs/OCs. In spite of the lower specificity, AFV + WLE can be a highly sensitive first-line surveillance tool for detecting OPLs/OCs in high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-09-0062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3653312PMC
November 2009

Treatment planning and dose analysis for interstitial photodynamic therapy of prostate cancer.

Phys Med Biol 2009 Apr 20;54(8):2293-313. Epub 2009 Mar 20.

Division of Biophysics and Bioimaging, Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada.

With the development of new photosensitizers that are activated by light at longer wavelengths, interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a feasible alternative for the treatment of larger volumes of tissue. Described here is the application of PDT treatment planning software developed by our group to ensure complete coverage of larger, geometrically complex target volumes such as the prostate. In a phase II clinical trial of TOOKAD vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) for prostate cancer in patients who failed prior radiotherapy, the software was used to generate patient-specific treatment prescriptions for the number of treatment fibres, their lengths, their positions and the energy each delivered. The core of the software is a finite element solution to the light diffusion equation. Validation against in vivo light measurements indicated that the software could predict the location of an iso-fluence contour to within approximately +/-2 mm. The same software was used to reconstruct the treatments that were actually delivered, thereby providing an analysis of the threshold light dose required for TOOKAD-VTP of the post-irradiated prostate. The threshold light dose for VTP-induced prostate damage, as measured one week post-treatment using contrast-enhanced MRI, was found to be highly heterogeneous, both within and between patients. The minimum light dose received by 90% of the prostate, D(90), was determined from each patient's dose-volume histogram and compared to six-month sextant biopsy results. No patient with a D(90) less than 23 J cm(-2) had complete biopsy response, while 8/13 (62%) of patients with a D(90) greater than 23 J cm(-2) had negative biopsies at six months. The doses received by the urethra and the rectal wall were also investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/54/8/003DOI Listing
April 2009

Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (padoporfin, WST09) for recurrent prostate cancer after failure of external beam radiotherapy: a study of escalating light doses.

BJU Int 2008 Aug 20;102(5):556-62. Epub 2008 May 20.

Surgical Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Canada.

Objective: To report on the efficacy of TOOKAD (WST 09; NegmaLerads, Magny-Les-Hameaux, France) vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) as a method of whole-prostate ablation in patients with recurrent localized prostate cancer after the failure of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT).

Patients And Methods: Patients received a fixed photosensitizer dose of 2 mg/kg and patient-specific light doses as determined by computer-aided treatment planning. Up to six cylindrical light-diffusing delivery fibres were placed transperineally in the prostate under ultrasonographic guidance. The treatment response was assessed by measuring serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, lesion formation (avascular areas of tissue) measured on 7-day gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a 6-month biopsy.

Results: Treatment of the whole prostate was possible with minimal effects on surrounding organs. An increased light dose improved the tissue response, with MRI-detectable avascular lesions, encompassing up to 80% of the prostate in some patients. A complete response, as determined by the 6-month biopsy, required that patients received light doses of at least 23 J/cm(2) in 90% of the prostate volume (D(90) > 23 J/cm(2)). Of the 13 patients who received at least this light dose, eight were biopsy-negative at 6 months. In this group of eight patients, PSA levels decreased and did so to negligible levels for those patients with a baseline PSA level of <5 ng/mL. Side-effects were modest and self-limited in most patients; there were recto-urethral fistulae in two patients, one of which closed spontaneously.

Conclusions: TOOKAD-VTP can produce large avascular regions in the irradiated prostate, and result in a complete negative-biopsy response at high light doses. A response rate of more than half for those patients receiving the highest light doses shows the clinical potential of TOOKAD-VTP to manage recurrence of prostatic carcinoma after EBRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.07753.xDOI Listing
August 2008

Prostate gland: MR imaging appearance after vascular targeted photodynamic therapy with palladium-bacteriopheophorbide.

Radiology 2007 Jul 16;244(1):196-204. Epub 2007 May 16.

Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, 610 University Ave, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the prostate and periprostatic tissues after vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with palladium-bacteriopheophorbide for locally recurrent carcinoma after external beam radiation therapy.

Materials And Methods: Informed consent was obtained from all patients, and approval was obtained from the ethics review boards of all participating institutions. Nonenhanced T2-weighted and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging examinations were performed at baseline and 1 week, 4 weeks, and 6 months after VTP in 25 men (age range, 58-83 years; mean age, 73 years) as part of a prospective phase I/II trial. Percentage of MR-depicted necrosis was defined as the volume of nonenhancing prostatic tissue 1 week after VTP divided by the volume of the prostate. Patterns of intra- and extraprostatic necrosis were recorded. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to test correlations between necrosis and prostate-specific antigen level.

Results: Contrast material-enhanced T1-weighted MR images obtained 1 week after therapy showed necrosis in all patients. Treatment margins were irregular in 21 of 25 patients. T2-weighted images showed no clear treatment boundaries in any patient. Extraprostatic necrosis involved the puborectalis or levator ani muscles in 22, obturator internus muscle in 12, periprostatic veins in three, pubic bone marrow in four, and anterior rectal wall in nine of the 25 patients. The neurovascular bundle appeared to be spared in all patients. Percentage of MR-depicted intraprostatic necrosis was correlated with percentage decrease in prostate-specific antigen level (from baseline) at 4 weeks (r=0.41, P=.04) and 12 weeks (r=0.45, P=.02).

Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MR imaging depicts irregular margins of intraprostatic treatment effect. This finding suggests varied tissue sensitivities to VTP with palladium-bacteriopheophorbide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2441060398DOI Listing
July 2007

Photodynamic therapy for urological malignancies: past to current approaches.

J Urol 2006 Apr;175(4):1201-7

Prostate Cancer Center, University Health Network and Department of Medical Biophysics, Ontario Cancer Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: Modern PDT for urological tumors is a potentially selective approach in which in situ photosensitization by a nontoxic drug, locally activated by light, generates cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, causing cell death. While urological clinical experience with PDT is largely limited to treatment for superficial bladder cancer, the advent of novel photosensitizers and technologies for treatment planning, light delivery and dosimetry, PDT for prostate and other urological cancers appears increasingly realistic.

Materials And Methods: We reviewed the current literature on PDT for urological tumors, in addition to recent emerging data from our laboratory and elsewhere.

Results: Remarkable progress has been made in the field of photochemistry and photobiology. Together with improved optical delivery and imaging systems PDT holds promise as an alternative, minimally invasive and potentially curative treatment for localized solid tumors as well as for palliative treatment for isolated, clinically problematic metastases.

Conclusions: Current experience with photodynamic therapy using contemporary photosensitizing agents and light sources is mainly restricted to in vivo experimental models and early phase clinical trails. However, ongoing preclinical work and clinical trials indicate that safer and effective PDT treatments in uro-oncology are imminent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00701-9DOI Listing
April 2006

Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2005 Jun 24;79(3):211-22. Epub 2005 Mar 24.

Laboratory for Applied Biophotonics, University Health Network, University Avenue, Toronto, Canada.

Photodynamic therapy of solid organs requires sufficient PDT dose throughout the target tissue while minimizing the dose to proximal normal structures. This requires treatment planning for position and power of the multiple delivery channels, complemented by on-line monitoring during treatment of light delivery, drug concentration and oxygen levels. We describe our experience in implementing this approach in Phase I/II clinical trials of the Pd-bacteriophephorbide photosensitizer TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated PDT of recurrent prostate cancer following radiation failure. We present several techniques for delivery and monitoring of photodynamic therapy, including beam splitters for light delivery to multiple delivery fibers, multi-channel light dosimetry devices for monitoring the fluence rate in the prostate and surrounding organs, methods of measuring the tissue optical properties in situ, and optical spectroscopy for monitoring drug pharmacokinetics of TOOKAD in whole blood samples and in situ in the prostate. Since TOOKAD is a vascular-targeted agent, the design and implementation of the techniques are different than for cellular-targeted agents. Further development of these delivery and monitoring techniques will permit full on-line monitoring of the treatment that will enable real-time, patient-specific and optimized delivery of PDT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2005.01.008DOI Listing
June 2005

Fluorescence image-guided brain tumour resection with adjuvant metronomic photodynamic therapy: pre-clinical model and technology development.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2005 May 14;4(5):438-42. Epub 2005 Apr 14.

Division of Biophysics and Bioimaging, Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9, Canada.

Fluorescence-guided resection (FGR) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have previously been investigated separately with the objectives, respectively, of increasing the extent of brain tumour resection and of selectively destroying residual tumour post-resection. Both techniques have demonstrated trends towards improved survival, pre-clinically and clinically. We hypothesize that combining these techniques will further delay tumour re-growth. In order to demonstrate technical feasibility, we here evaluate fluorescence imaging and PDT treatment techniques in a specific intracranial tumour model. The model was the VX2 carcinoma grown by injection of tumour cells into the normal rabbit brain. An operating microscope was used for white light imaging and a custom-built fluorescence imaging system with co-axial excitation and detection was used for FGR. PDT treatment light was applied by intracranially-implanted light emitting diodes (LED). The fluorescent photosensitizer used for both FGR and PDT was ALA-induced PpIX. For PDT, ALA (100 mg kg(-1)) and low light doses (15 and 30 J) were administered over extended periods, which we refer to as metronomic PDT (mPDT). Eighteen tumour bearing rabbits were divided equally into three groups: controls (no resection); FGR; and FGR followed by mPDT. Histological whole brain sections (H&E stain) showed primary and recurrent tumours. No bacteriological infections were found by Gram staining. Selective tumour cell death through mPDT-induced apoptosis was demonstrated by TUNEL stain. These results demonstrate that the combined treatment is technically feasible and this model is a candidate to evaluate it. Further optimization of mPDT treatment parameters (drug/light dose rates) is required to improve survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b414829kDOI Listing
May 2005

Increased brain tumor resection using fluorescence image guidance in a preclinical model.

Lasers Surg Med 2004 ;35(3):181-90

Department of Medical Biophysics, Ontario Cancer Institute/University Health Network and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 2M9.

Background And Objectives: Fluorescence image-guided brain tumor resection is thought to assist neurosurgeons by visualizing those tumor margins that merge imperceptibly into normal brain tissue and, hence, are difficult to identify. We compared resection completeness and residual tumor, determined by histopathology, after white light resection (WLR) using an operating microscope versus additional fluorescence guided resection (FGR).

Study Design/materials And Methods: We employed an intracranial VX2 tumor in a preclinical rabbit model and a fluorescence imaging/spectroscopy system, exciting and detecting the fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced endogenously by administering 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) at 4 hours before surgery.

Results: Using FGR in addition to WLR significantly increased resection completeness by a factor 1.4 from 68+/-38 to 98+/-3.5%, and decreased the amount of residual tumor post-resection by a factor 16 from 32+/-38 to 2.0+/-3.5% of the initial tumor volume.

Conclusions: Additional FGR increased completeness of resection and enabled more consistent resections between cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.20088DOI Listing
February 2005