Publications by authors named "Arjan C Lankester"

119 Publications

IL-7 and IL-15 Levels Reflect the Degree of T Cell Depletion during Lymphopenia and Are Associated with an Expansion of Effector Memory T Cells after Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

J Immunol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Primary Immune Deficiency, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Differentially and functionally distinct T cell subsets are involved in the development of complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but little is known about factors regulating their recovery after HSCT. In this study, we investigated associations between immune-regulating cytokines, T cell differentiation, and clinical outcomes. We included 80 children undergoing allogeneic HSCT for acute leukemia using bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells grafted from a matched sibling or unrelated donor. Cytokines (IL-7, IL-15, IL-18, SCF, IL-6, IL-2, and TNF-α) and active anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) levels were longitudinally measured along with extended T cell phenotyping. The cytokine profiles showed a temporary rise in IL-7 and IL-15 during lymphopenia, which was strongly dependent on exposure to active ATG. High levels of IL-7 and IL-15 from graft infusion to day +30 were predictive of slower T cell recovery during the first 2 mo post-HSCT; however, because of a major expansion of memory T cell stages, only naive T cells remained decreased after 3 mo ( < 0.05). No differential effect was seen on polarization of CD4 T cells into Th1, Th2, or Th17 cells or regulatory T cells. Low levels of IL-7 and IL-15 at day +14 were associated with acute graft-versus-host disease grades II-IV in ATG-treated patients ( = 0.0004 and = 0.0002, respectively). Children with IL-7 levels comparable to healthy controls at day +14 post-HSCT were less likely to develop EBV reactivation posttransplant. These findings suggest that quantification of IL-7 and IL-15 may be useful as biomarkers in assessing the overall T cell depletion and suggest a potential for predicting complications after HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2001077DOI Listing
June 2021

Chronic kidney disease ten years after pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Kidney Int 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Willem-Alexander Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important sequela of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but data regarding CKD after pediatric HSCT are limited. In this single center cohort study, we evaluated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) dynamics, proteinuria and hypertension in the first decade after HSCT and assessed risk factors for CKD in 216 pediatric HSCT survivors, transplanted 2002-2012. The eGFR decreased from a median of 148 to 116 ml/min/1.73 m between pre-HSCT to ten years post-HSCT. CKD (KDIGO stages G2 or A2 or more; eGFR under 90 ml/min/1.73m and/or albuminuria) occurred in 17% of patients. In multivariate analysis, severe prolonged stage 2 or more acute kidney injury (AKI), with an eGFR under 60ml/min/1.73m and duration of 28 days or more, was the main risk factor for CKD (hazard ratio 9.5, 95% confidence interval 3.4-27). Stage 2 or more AKI with an eGFR of 60ml/min/1.73m or more and KDIGO stage 2 or more AKI with eGFR under 60ml/min/1.73m but recovery within 28 days were not associated with CKD. Furthermore, hematological malignancy as HSCT indication was an independent risk factor for CKD. One third of patients had both CKD criteria, one third had isolated eGFR reduction and one third only had albuminuria. Hypertension occurred in 27% of patients with CKD compared to 4.4% of patients without. Tubular proteinuria was present in 7% of a subgroup of 71 patients with available β2-microglobulinuria. Thus, a significant proportion of pediatric HSCT recipients developed CKD within ten years. Our data stress the importance of structural long-term monitoring of eGFR, urine and blood pressure after HSCT to identify patients with incipient CKD who can benefit from nephroprotective interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2021.05.030DOI Listing
June 2021

International retrospective study of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for activated PI3K-delta syndrome.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.

Background: Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS) is a combined immunodeficiency with a heterogeneous phenotype considered reversible by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).

Objectives: This study sought to characterize HCT outcomes in APDS.

Methods: Retrospective data were collected on 57 patients with APDS1/2 (median age, 13 years; range, 2-66 years) who underwent HCT.

Results: Pre-HCT comorbidities such as lung, gastrointestinal, and liver pathology were common, with hematologic malignancy in 26%. With median follow-up of 2.3 years, 2-year overall and graft failure-free survival probabilities were 86% and 68%, respectively, and did not differ significantly by APDS1 versus APDS2, donor type, or conditioning intensity. The 2-year cumulative incidence of graft failure following first HCT was 17% overall but 42% if mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor(s) (mTORi) were used in the first year post-HCT, compared with 9% without mTORi. Similarly, 2-year cumulative incidence of unplanned donor cell infusion was overall 28%, but 65% in the context of mTORi receipt and 23% without. Phenotype reversal occurred in 96% of evaluable patients, of whom 17% had mixed chimerism. Vulnerability to renal complications continued post-HCT, adding new insights into potential nonimmunologic roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase not correctable through HCT.

Conclusions: Graft failure, graft instability, and poor graft function requiring unplanned donor cell infusion were major barriers to successful HCT. Post-HCT mTORi use may confer an advantage to residual host cells, promoting graft instability. Longer-term post-HCT follow-up of more patients is needed to elucidate the kinetics of immune reconstitution and donor chimerism, establish approaches that reduce graft instability, and assess the completeness of phenotype reversal over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2021.04.036DOI Listing
May 2021

Modeling Influencing Factors in B-Cell Reconstitution After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:684147. Epub 2021 May 7.

Willem-Alexander Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Laboratory for Pediatric Immunology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Reduced total and memory B-cell numbers in peripheral blood long term after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are associated with an increased incidence of infections and immune complications. Using novel modelling strategies, baseline factors influencing B-cell reconstitution can be comprehensively studied. This study aims to investigate the numerical total and memory B-cell reconstitution in children and the association with baseline determinants 0.5-2 years after allogeneic HSCT. Eligible for inclusion were children transplanted in our center between 2004-2017 who received a first HSCT for malignant or non-malignant disorders. The continuous absolute counts of total and memory B-cells were evaluated as outcome measure. Exploratory analysis at one year was done to identify possible determinants. Linear mixed effect modelling was used to analyze the association of these determinants with total and memory B-cell reconstitution 0.5-2 years after HSCT. In a cohort of 223 evaluable patients analyzed at 1-year after HSCT donor age, stem cell source, donor type, recipient age and conditioning were identified as significant determinants for total and memory B-cell numbers. Multivariable analysis revealed that both donor and recipient age were inversely correlated with the size of total and memory B-cell reconstitution. In contrast, no correlation was found with stem cell source, donor type and conditioning. Making use of linear mixed modelling both stem cell donor and recipient age were identified as independent determinants of total and memory B-cell reconstitution 0.5-2 years after HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.684147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138425PMC
May 2021

Combining Mobilizing Agents with Busulfan to Reduce Chemotherapy-Based Conditioning for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Cells 2021 Apr 30;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Immunology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands.

In the context of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, conditioning with myelo- and immune-ablative agents is used to eradicate the patient's diseased cells, generate space in the marrow and suppress immune reactions prior to the infusion of donor HSCs. While conditioning is required for effective and long-lasting HSC engraftment, currently used regimens are also associated with short and long-term side effects on extramedullary tissues and even mortality. Particularly in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), who are generally less than 1-year old at the time of transplantation and often suffer from existing comorbidities. There is a pressing need for development of alternative, less toxic conditioning regimens. Hence, we here aimed to improve efficacy of currently used myeloablative protocols by combining busulfan with stem-cell niche-directed therapeutic agents (G-CSF or plerixafor) that are approved for clinical use in stem cell mobilization. T, B and myeloid cell recovery was analyzed in humanized NSG mice after different conditioning regimens. Increasing levels of human leukocyte chimerism were observed in a busulfan dose-dependent manner, showing comparable immune recovery as with total body irradiation in CD34-transplanted NSG mice. Notably, a better T cell reconstitution compared to TBI was observed after busulfan conditioning not only in NSG mice but also in SCID mouse models. Direct effects of reducing the stem cell compartment in the bone marrow were observed after G-CSF and plerixafor administration, as well as in combination with low doses of busulfan. Unfortunately, these direct effects on the stem population in the bone marrow were not reflected in increased human chimerism or immune recovery after CD34 transplantation in NSG mice. These results indicate moderate potential of reduced conditioning regimens for clinical use relevant for all allogeneic transplants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10051077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147230PMC
April 2021

Successful mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric hemoglobinopathy by using ATG and post-transplant cyclophosphamide.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Laboratory of Pediatric Immunology, Willem-Alexander Children's Hospital, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

The use of HLA-mismatched (un)related donors is historically associated with a higher incidence of transplant-related complications and mortality. However, the use of such donors may overcome the limited availability of HLA-matched donors for patients with β-thalassemia major (TM) and sickle cell disease (SCD). We investigated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcomes of pediatric TM and SCD patients treated with a mismatched donor using a treosulfan-based conditioning in combination with ATG and post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-CY) and compared these results to the clinical outcome of patients treated by matched donor HSCT without PT-CY. Thirty-eight children (n = 24 HLA-identical or 10/10-matched donors; n = 14 HLA-mismatched donors), who received a non-depleted bone marrow graft were included. Event-free survival (EFS) and GvHD were not higher in the mismatched PT-Cy group as compared to the matched group. Moreover, despite delayed neutrophil engraftment (day +22 vs. +26, p = 0.002) and immune recovery in the mismatched PT-Cy group, this did not result in more infectious complications. Therefore, we conclude that in the absence of an HLA-identical or a matched unrelated donor, HSCT with a mismatched unrelated or haploidentical donor in combination with ATG plus PT-CY can be considered a safe and effective treatment option for pediatric hemoglobinopathy patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01302-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Hematopoietic cell transplantation and cellular therapy survey of the EBMT: monitoring of activities and trends over 30 years.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 07 23;56(7):1651-1664. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Numbers of Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in Europe and collaborating countries continues to rise with 48,512 HCT in 43,581 patients, comprising of 19,798 (41%) allogeneic and 28,714 (59%) autologous, reported by 700 centers in 51 countries during 2019. Main indications were myeloid malignancies 10,764 (25%), lymphoid malignancies 27,895 (64%), and nonmalignant disorders 3173 (7%). A marked growth in CAR-T cellular therapies from 151 in 2017 to 1134 patients in 2019 is observed. This year's analyses focus on changes over 30 years. Since the first survey in 1990 where 143 centers reported 4234 HCT, the number has increased to 700 centers and 48,512 HCT. Transplants were reported in 20 countries in 1990, and 51, 30 years later. More than 800,000 HCT in 715,000 patients were reported overall. Next to the massive expansion of HCT technology, most notable developments include the success of unrelated donor and haploidentical HCT, an increase followed by decrease in the number of cord blood transplants, use of reduced intensity HCT in older patients, and the phenomenal rise in cellular therapy. This annual report of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) reflects current activity and highlights important trends vital for health care planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01227-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263343PMC
July 2021

Modeling Long-Term Erythropoietic Recovery After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplants in Pediatric Patients.

Front Pediatr 2020 30;8:584156. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Willem Alexander Children's Hospital, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Long term erythropoietic reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) has not been extensively studied. We aimed to describe erythropoietic reconstitution as an indicator of long-term graft function by modeling hemoglobin levels during the first 3 years post HSCT in pediatric patients. We retrospectively included 414 patients and 11,957 measurements. The largest hemoglobin increase was at day 45 and levels reached a steady state at day 648 with a level of 7.48 mmol/L. In patients transplanted for hematological malignancies hemoglobin levels normalized faster ( < 0.0001). Increasing patient age correlated with faster recovery ( < 0.0001), while donor age had no influence. Conditioning, donor type and graft source did not influence recovery significantly. In the ABO mismatched group there was a transient negative effect on hemoglobin levels, and a delay in reticulocyte recovery (21 vs. 19 days; = 0.012). In contrast, hemoglobin levels reached a higher plateau beyond 9 months in these patients ( < 0.0001). After alloHSCT, experiencing a CMV reactivation negatively affected reconstitution ( = 0.034), while EBV reactivations and acute graft vs. host disease did not. In summary, erythropoietic recovery was mainly influenced by patient factors and primary disease, and less influenced by donor factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.584156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734089PMC
November 2020

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hepatitis-associated Aplastic Anemia Following Liver Transplantation for Nonviral Hepatitis: A Retrospective Analysis and a Review of the Literature by the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (SAAWP-EBMT).

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Hopital St. Louis, Paris.

Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA) has been reported in 23% to 33% of patients who received orthotopic liver transplantation (LT) for acute liver disease of unknown origin (nonviral hepatitis). In this situation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) might be a curative option. Here the authors report on 6 patients who received HSCT after LT for nonviral HAAA hepatitis. The outcomes were interpreted in the context of recently reported immune suppressive therapy (IST) outcomes in 8 patients with HAAA and to HSCT outcomes in patients with HAAA who recovered from hepatitis without undergoing LT. All patients transplanted by using HLA-identical sibling donors (3 out of 6) were alive and had normal liver function and hematopoiesis without graft versus host disease. Both patients receiving bone marrow from a matched unrelated donor (MUD) experienced extensive graft versus host disease that was fatal for one patient. Thereby, the authors conclude that HSCT can be considered as a first-choice treatment for this category of patients when HLA-identical donors are available. When no HLA-identical donor is available, IST should be applied as HSCT with other donor sources might be reserved for IST nonresponders or poor responders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001991DOI Listing
December 2020

Parents' Perspectives and Societal Acceptance of Implementation of Newborn Screening for SCID in the Netherlands.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Jan 18;41(1):99-108. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Laboratory for Pediatric Immunology, Willem-Alexander Children's Hospital, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: While neonatal bloodspot screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has been introduced more than a decade ago, implementation in NBS programs remains challenging in many countries. Even if high-quality test methods and follow-up care are available, public uptake and parental acceptance are not guaranteed. The aim of this study was to describe the parental perspective on NBS for SCID in the context of an implementation pilot. Psychosocial aspects have never been studied before for NBS for SCID and are important for societal acceptance, a major criterion when introducing new disorders in NBS programs.

Methods: To evaluate the perspective of parents, interviews were conducted with parents of newborns with abnormal SCID screening results (N = 17). In addition, questionnaires about NBS for SCID were sent to 2000 parents of healthy newborns who either participated or declined participation in the SONNET-study that screened 140,593 newborns for SCID.

Results: Support for NBS for SCID was expressed by the majority of parents in questionnaires from both a public health perspective and a personal perspective. Parents emphasized the emotional impact of an abnormal screening result in interviews. (Long-term) stress and anxiety can be experienced during and after referral indicating the importance of uniform follow-up protocols and adequate information provision.

Conclusion: The perspective of parents has led to several recommendations for NBS programs that are considering screening for SCID or other disorders. A close partnership of NBS programs' stakeholders, immunologists, geneticists, and pediatricians-immunologists in different countries is required for moving towards universal SCID screening for all infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00886-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846522PMC
January 2021

Extended clinical and immunological phenotype and transplant outcome in CD27 and CD70 deficiency.

Blood 2020 12;136(23):2638-2655

Dr von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Biallelic mutations in the genes encoding CD27 or its ligand CD70 underlie inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) characterized predominantly by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated immune dysregulation, such as chronic viremia, severe infectious mononucleosis, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoproliferation, and malignancy. A comprehensive understanding of the natural history, immune characteristics, and transplant outcomes has remained elusive. Here, in a multi-institutional global collaboration, we collected the clinical information of 49 patients from 29 families (CD27, n = 33; CD70, n = 16), including 24 previously unreported individuals and identified a total of 16 distinct mutations in CD27, and 8 in CD70, respectively. The majority of patients (90%) were EBV+ at diagnosis, but only ∼30% presented with infectious mononucleosis. Lymphoproliferation and lymphoma were the main clinical manifestations (70% and 43%, respectively), and 9 of the CD27-deficient patients developed HLH. Twenty-one patients (43%) developed autoinflammatory features including uveitis, arthritis, and periodic fever. Detailed immunological characterization revealed aberrant generation of memory B and T cells, including a paucity of EBV-specific T cells, and impaired effector function of CD8+ T cells, thereby providing mechanistic insight into cellular defects underpinning the clinical features of disrupted CD27/CD70 signaling. Nineteen patients underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) prior to adulthood predominantly because of lymphoma, with 95% survival without disease recurrence. Our data highlight the marked predisposition to lymphoma of both CD27- and CD70-deficient patients. The excellent outcome after HSCT supports the timely implementation of this treatment modality particularly in patients presenting with malignant transformation to lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735164PMC
December 2020

A Comprehensive Workflow for Applying Single-Cell Clustering and Pseudotime Analysis to Flow Cytometry Data.

J Immunol 2020 08 26;205(3):864-871. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Biomedical Data Sciences, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZC Leiden, the Netherlands; and.

The introduction of single-cell platforms inspired the development of high-dimensional single-cell analysis tools to comprehensively characterize the underlying cellular heterogeneity. Flow cytometry data are traditionally analyzed by (subjective) gating of subpopulations on two-dimensional plots. However, the increasing number of parameters measured by conventional and spectral flow cytometry reinforces the need to apply many of the recently developed tools for single-cell analysis on flow cytometry data, as well. However, the myriads of analysis options offered by the continuously released novel packages can be overwhelming to the immunologist with limited computational background. In this article, we explain the main concepts of such analyses and provide a detailed workflow to illustrate their implications and additional prerequisites when applied on flow cytometry data. Moreover, we provide readily applicable R code covering transformation, normalization, dimensionality reduction, clustering, and pseudotime analysis that can serve as a template for future analyses. We demonstrate the merit of our workflow by reanalyzing a public human dataset. Compared with standard gating, the results of our workflow provide new insights in cellular subsets, alternative classifications, and hypothetical trajectories. Taken together, we present a well-documented workflow, which utilizes existing high-dimensional single-cell analysis tools to reveal cellular heterogeneity and intercellular relationships in flow cytometry data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1901530DOI Listing
August 2020

The challenge of COVID-19 and hematopoietic cell transplantation; EBMT recommendations for management of hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, their donors, and patients undergoing CAR T-cell therapy.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 11 13;55(11):2071-2076. Epub 2020 May 13.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread over the world causing the disease by WHO called COVID-19. This pandemic poses unprecedented stress on the health care system including programs performing allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and cellular therapy such as with CAR T cells. Risk factors for severe disease include age and predisposing conditions such as cancer. The true impact on stem cell transplant and CAR T-cell recipients in unknown. The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) has therefore developed recommendations for transplant programs and physicians caring for these patients. These guidelines were developed by experts from the Infectious Diseases Working Party and have been endorsed by EBMT's scientific council and board. This work intends to provide guidelines for transplant centers, management of transplant candidates and recipients, and donor issues until the COVID-19 pandemic has passed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0919-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220575PMC
November 2020

Targeted busulfan-based reduced-intensity conditioning and HLA-matched HSCT cure hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

Blood Adv 2020 05;4(9):1998-2010

Department of Immunology. Hematology, Oncology and SCT, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

Reduced-intensity/reduced-toxicity conditioning and allogeneic T-cell replete hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are curative in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Unstable donor chimerism (DC) and relapses are clinical challenges . We examined the effect of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen based on targeted busulfan to enhance myeloid DC in HLH. The European Society for Bone and Marrow Transplantation-approved reduced-intensity conditioning protocol comprised targeted submyeloablative IV busulfan, IV fludarabine, and serotherapy comprising IV alemtuzumab (0.5-0.8 mg/kg) for unrelated-donor and IV rabbit anti-T-cell globulin for related-donor transplants. We assessed toxicity, engraftment, graft-versus-host disease (GHVD), DC in blood cell subtypes, and overall survival/event-free survival. Twenty-five patients from 7 centers were treated (median age, 0.68 year). The median total dose and cumulative area under the curve of busulfan was 13.1 mg/kg (6.4-26.4) and 63.1 mg/L × h (48-77), respectively. Bone marrow, peripheral blood stem cell, or cord blood transplants from HLA-matched related (n = 7) or unrelated (n = 18) donors were administered. Donor cells engrafted in all patients (median: neutrophils d+20/platelets d+28). At last follow-up (median, 36 months; range, 8-111 months), the median DC of CD15+ neutrophils, CD3+ T cells, and CD16+56+ natural killer cells was 99.5% (10-100), 97% (30-100), and 97.5% (30-100), respectively. Eight patients (32%) developed sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, resolving after defibrotide treatment. The 3-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were both 100%. None of the patients developed acute grade III to IV GHVD. Limited chronic GVHD was encountered in 4%. This regimen achieves excellent results with stable DC in patients with HLH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218427PMC
May 2020

Proceeding of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) congress on sickle cell disease, 16-17 may 2019, Regensburg, Germany: What is the impact of antithymocyte globulin pharmacokinetics on haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2020 Jun 12;13(2):61-65. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is a widely accepted part of the conditioning regimen applied in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to prevent graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease. Although weight-based dosing of ATG has been introduced to optimize ATG dosing, substantial variance in clearance of active ATG, the actual lymphocyte binding component, remains a challenge. Therefore, further research regarding ATG pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in different HSCT settings and in patients with different types of underlying diseases is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hemonc.2019.12.003DOI Listing
June 2020

The role of HLA matching in unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for sickle cell disease in Europe.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 10 10;55(10):1946-1954. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Pediatric Hematology Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

We report the results of an analysis of unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) in 71 patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) transplanted in EBMT centers between 2005 and 2017. Median age was 9.3 years; graft type was bone marrow in 79% and peripheral blood in 21%. Recipient-donor HLA match at high resolution typing was 10/10 in 31, 9/10 in 20, and 8/10 in 4 patients; the other patients had intermediate resolution typing. The most frequent conditioning regimens were fludarabine-thiotepa-treosulfan (64%) or busulfan-cyclophosphamide (12%). Cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 92%; platelet engraftment was 90%. Eleven patients (15%) experienced graft failure. Grade II-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) was 23%; 3-year chronic GvHD was 23%. Three-year overall survival (OS) was 88 ± 4%. GRFS was 62 ± 6%. HLA matching was the most significant risk factor for OS: 3-year OS was 96 ± 4% in 10/10 group vs. 75 ± 10% in 9-8/10 (p = 0.042); GRFS was 69 ± 9% vs. 50 ± 12% (p = 0.114), respectively. In conclusion, unrelated donor HSCT is a valid option for SCD patients who lack an HLA-identical sibling donor, preferably in the context of clinical trials. Using a 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donor yields better survival indicating that HLA matching is an important donor selection factor in this nonmalignant disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0847-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Parental experiences in end-of-life decision-making in allogeneic pediatric stem cell transplantation: "Have I been a good parent?"

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 05 5;67(5):e28229. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: In pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the end-of-life (EOL) phase and the loss of the child is often characterized by a sudden deterioration of the child following a period of intensive curative treatment. This demands a fast transition for parents. Therefore, an understanding of the parents' perspective on decision-making in such a complex situation is needed. This study aims to gain insight in parental experiences in EOL decision-making in allogeneic pediatric HSCT.

Methods: A qualitative descriptive study was performed among parents of eight families. Data were thematically analyzed.

Results: All parents were aware of their child's deterioration. Six families were confronted with a rapid deterioration, while two families experienced a gradual realization that their child would not survive. Parental EOL decision-making in pediatric HSCT shows a reflective perspective on the meaning of parenthood in EOL decision-making. Two central themes were identified: "survival-oriented decision-making" and "struggling with doubts in hindsight." Six subthemes within the first theme described the parents' goal of doing everything to achieve survival.

Discussion: Parents experienced EOL decision-making mainly as a process guided by health care professionals (HCPs) based on the child's condition and treatment possibilities. The decision-making is characterized by following opportunities and focusing on hope for cure. In hindsight parents experienced doubts about treatment steps and their child's suffering. HCPs can strengthen the parental role by an early integration of palliative care, providing timely support to parents in the process of imminent loss. Advance care planning can be used to support communication processes, defining preferences for future care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28229DOI Listing
May 2020

Plasmapheresis to eliminate immunosuppressive alemtuzumab levels in a child with disseminated adenovirus infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 08 18;55(8):1671-1673. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Pediatric Stem Cell Transplantation, Willem Alexander Children's Hospital, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0837-1DOI Listing
August 2020

The EBMT activity survey on hematopoietic-cell transplantation and cellular therapy 2018: CAR-T's come into focus.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 08 17;55(8):1604-1613. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Hematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) is widely used for acquired and congenital disorders of the hematopoietic system. Number of transplants performed in Europe and associated countries continues to rise with 47,468 HCT in 42,901 patients [19,630 allogeneic (41%) and 27,838 autologous (59%)] reported by 701 centers in 50 countries in 2018. Main indications were myeloid malignancies 10,679 (25%; 97% allogeneic), lymphoid malignancies 27,318 (64%; 20% allogeneic), solid tumors 1625 (4%; 2.9% allogeneic), and nonmalignant disorders 3063 (7%; 81% allogeneic). This year's analysis focuses on cellular therapies with the marked growth in CAR T-cell therapies from 151 in 2017 to 301 patients reported in 2018. Other cellular therapy numbers show less significant changes. Important trends in HCT include a 49% increase in allogeneic HCT for chronic phase CML (although transplant numbers remain low) and a 24% increase in aplastic anemia. In autologous HCT, there is an ongoing increase in autoimmune diseases (by 19%), predominantly due to activity in multiple sclerosis. This annual report reflects current activity and highlights important trends, useful for health care planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0826-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391287PMC
August 2020

Integrating gene delivery and gene-editing technologies by adenoviral vector transfer of optimized CRISPR-Cas9 components.

Gene Ther 2020 05 3;27(5):209-225. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Cell and Chemical Biology (CCB), Leiden University Medical Center, Einthovenweg 20, 2333 ZC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Enhancing the intracellular delivery and performance of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases (RGNs) remains in demand. Here, we show that nuclear translocation of commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) proteins is suboptimal. Hence, we generated eCas9.4NLS by endowing the high-specificity eSpCas9(1.1) nuclease (eCas9.2NLS) with additional nuclear localization signals (NLSs). We demonstrate that eCas9.4NLS coupled to prototypic or optimized guide RNAs achieves efficient targeted DNA cleavage and probe the performance of SpCas9 proteins with different NLS compositions at target sequences embedded in heterochromatin versus euchromatin. Moreover, after adenoviral vector (AdV)-mediated transfer of SpCas9 expression units, unbiased quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy revealed 2.3-fold higher eCas9.4NLS nuclear enrichment levels than those observed for high-specificity eCas9.2NLS. This improved nuclear translocation yielded in turn robust gene editing after nonhomologous end joining repair of targeted double-stranded DNA breaks. In particular, AdV delivery of eCas9.4NLS into muscle progenitor cells resulted in significantly higher editing frequencies at defective DMD alleles causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) than those achieved by AdVs encoding the parental, eCas9.2NLS, protein. In conclusion, this work provides a strong rationale for integrating viral vector and optimized gene-editing technologies to bring about enhanced RGN delivery and performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41434-019-0119-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253353PMC
May 2020

Delineating Human B Cell Precursor Development With Genetically Identified PID Cases as a Model.

Front Immunol 2019 26;10:2680. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

B-cell precursors (BCP) arise from hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow (BM). Identification and characterization of the different BCP subsets has contributed to the understanding of normal B-cell development. BCP first rearrange their immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (IGH) genes to form the pre-B-cell receptor (pre-BCR) complex together with surrogate light chains. Appropriate signaling via this pre-BCR complex is followed by rearrangement of the Ig light chain genes, resulting in the formation, and selection of functional BCR molecules. Consecutive production, expression, and functional selection of the pre-BCR and BCR complexes guide the BCP differentiation process that coincides with corresponding immunophenotypic changes. We studied BCP differentiation in human BM samples from healthy controls and patients with a known genetic defect in V(D)J recombination or pre-BCR signaling to unravel normal immunophenotypic changes and to determine the effect of differentiation blocks caused by the specific genetic defects. Accordingly, we designed a 10-color antibody panel to study human BCP development in BM by flow cytometry, which allows identification of classical preB-I, preB-II, and mature B-cells as defined via BCR-related markers with further characterization by additional markers. We observed heterogeneous phenotypes associated with more than one B-cell maturation pathway, particularly for the preB-I and preB-II stages in which V(D)J recombination takes place, with asynchronous marker expression patterns. Next Generation Sequencing of complete IGH gene rearrangements in sorted BCP subsets unraveled their rearrangement status, indicating that BCP differentiation does not follow a single linear pathway. In conclusion, B-cell development in human BM is not a linear process, but a rather complex network of parallel pathways dictated by V(D)J-recombination-driven checkpoints and pre-BCR/BCR mediated-signaling occurring during B-cell production and selection. It can also be described as asynchronous, because precursor B-cells do not differentiate as full population between the different stages, but rather transit as a continuum, which seems influenced (in part) by V-D-J recombination-driven checkpoints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6901940PMC
November 2020

Leukocyte Counts and Other Hematological Values in Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome and Twin Anemia-Polycythemia Sequence.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2020 1;47(2):123-128. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands,

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in leukocyte counts at birth between donors and recipients with twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) or twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS).

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in monochorionic twin pairs with TTTS or TAPS. TTTS and TAPS cases treated with fetoscopic laser surgery were excluded. Primary outcome was the difference in leukocyte levels at birth between donor and recipient twins and the presence of leukopenia (defined as leukocyte count <4 × 109/L). Secondary outcomes included early-onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, use of antibiotics during admission, and neonatal mortality.

Results: We included 99 twins pairs, of which 61 twin pairs were affected by TAPS and 38 twin pairs by TTTS. The mean leukocyte count at birth in donors and recipients was 7.5 × 109/L versus 7.4 × 109/L (p = 0.936), respectively. Leukopenia was significantly more common in donor twins compared to recipient twins (7.1% [7/99] vs. 0% [0/99], p = 0.016). Of the 7 donors with leukopenia, 6 were affected by TAPS and 1 by TTTS. Overall, donors were more often affected by early-onset sepsis than recipients, 23.7% (23/97) versus 13% (13.7/95) (p = 0.049), respectively.

Conclusions: Leukocyte counts at birth in twins with TTTS or TAPS are similar between donors and recipients, but TAPS donors are at an increased risk of leukopenia. Overall, TTTS and TAPS donors seem to be at an increased risk of early-onset neonatal sepsis compared to recipient twins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7050663PMC
November 2020

Population Pharmacokinetics of Alemtuzumab (Campath) in Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Towards Individualized Dosing to Improve Outcome.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2019 12;58(12):1609-1620

Division of Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background And Objective: Alemtuzumab (Campath) is used to prevent graft-versus-host disease and graft failure following pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The main toxicity includes delayed immune reconstitution, subsequent viral reactivations, and leukemia relapse. Exposure to alemtuzumab is highly variable upon empirical milligram/kilogram dosing.

Methods: A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for alemtuzumab was developed based on a total of 1146 concentration samples from 206 patients, aged 0.2-19 years, receiving a cumulative intravenous dose of 0.2-1.5 mg/kg, and treated between 2003 and 2015 in two centers.

Results: Alemtuzumab PK were best described using a two-compartment model with a parallel saturable and linear elimination pathway. The linear clearance pathway, central volume of distribution, and intercompartmental distribution increased with body weight. Blood lymphocyte counts, a potential substrate for alemtuzumab, did not impact clearance.

Conclusion: The current practice with uniform milligram/kilogram doses leads to highly variable exposures in children due to the non-linear relationship between body weight and alemtuzumab PK. This model may be used for individualized dosing of alemtuzumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40262-019-00782-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885503PMC
December 2019

B Cell Reconstitution and Influencing Factors After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children.

Front Immunol 2019 12;10:782. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Willem-Alexander Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Laboratory for Pediatric Immunology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

B cell reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is variable and influenced by different patient, donor, and treatment related factors. In this review we describe B cell reconstitution after pediatric allogeneic HST, including the kinetics of reconstitution of the different B cell subsets and the development of the B cell repertoire, and discuss the influencing factors. Observational studies show important roles for stem cell source, conditioning regimen, and graft vs. host disease in B cell reconstitution. In addition, B cell recovery can play an important role in post-transplant infections and vaccine responses to encapsulated bacteria, such as pneumococcus. A substantial number of patients experience impaired B cell function and/or dependency on Ig substitution after allogeneic HSCT. The underlying mechanisms are largely unresolved. The integrated aspects of B cell recovery after HSCT, especially BCR repertoire reconstitution, are awaiting further investigation using modern techniques in order to gain more insight into B cell reconstitution and to develop strategies to improve humoral immunity after allogeneic HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6473193PMC
August 2020

Indications for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders: current practice in Europe, 2019.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 10 5;54(10):1525-1552. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Hopital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

This is the seventh special EBMT report on the indications for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders. Our aim is to provide general guidance on transplant indications according to prevailing clinical practice in EBMT countries and centres. In order to inform patient decisions, these recommendations must be considered together with the risk of the disease, the risk of the transplant procedure and the results of non-transplant strategies. In over two decades since the first report, the EBMT indications manuscripts have incorporated changes in transplant practice coming from scientific and technical developments in the field. In this same period, the establishment of JACIE accreditation has promoted high quality and led to improved outcomes of patient and donor care and laboratory performance in transplantation and cellular therapy. An updated report with operating definitions, revised indications and an additional set of data with overall survival at 1 year and non-relapse mortality at day 100 after transplant in the commonest standard-of-care indications is presented. Additional efforts are currently underway to enable EBMT member centres to benchmark their risk-adapted outcomes as part of the Registry upgrade Project 2020 against national and/or international outcome data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0516-2DOI Listing
October 2019

Determining the extent of maternal-foetal chimerism in cord blood.

Sci Rep 2019 03 27;9(1):5247. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Sanquin Research, Dept of Hematopoiesis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

During pregnancy, maternal T cells can enter the foetus, leading to maternal-foetal chimerism. This phenomenon may affect how leukaemia patients respond to transplantation therapy using stem cells from cord blood (CB). It has been proposed that maternal T cells, primed to inherited paternal HLAs, are present in CB transplants and help to suppress leukaemic relapse. Several studies have reported evidence for the presence of maternal T cells in most CBs at sufficiently high numbers to lend credence to this idea. We here aimed to functionally characterise maternal T cells from CB. To our surprise, we could not isolate viable maternal cells from CB even after using state-of-the-art enrichment techniques that allow detection of viable cells in heterologous populations at frequencies that were several orders of magnitude lower than reported frequencies of maternal T cells in CB. In support of these results, we could only detect maternal DNA in a minority of samples and at insufficient amounts for reliable quantification through a sensitive PCR-based assay to measure In/Del polymorphisms. We conclude that maternal microchimerism is far less prominent than reported, at least in our cohort of CBs, and discuss possible explanations and implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41733-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437214PMC
March 2019

Differential Elimination of Anti-Thymocyte Globulin of Fresenius and Genzyme Impacts T-Cell Reconstitution After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:315. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is a lymphocyte depleting agent applied in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to prevent rejection and Graft-vs.-Host Disease (GvHD). In this study, we compared two rabbit ATG products, ATG-Genzyme (ATG-GENZ), and ATG-Fresenius (ATG-FRES), with respect to dosing, clearance of the active lymphocyte binding component, post-HSCT immune reconstitution and clinical outcome. Fifty-eigth pediatric acute leukemia patients ( = 42 ATG-GENZ, = 16 ATG-FRES), who received a non-depleted bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell graft from an unrelated donor were included. ATG-GENZ was given at a dosage of 6-10 mg/kg; ATG-FRES at 45-60 mg/kg. The active component of ATG from both products was cleared at different rates. Within the ATG-FRES dose range no differences were found in clearance of active ATG or T-cell re-appearance. However, the high dosage of ATG-GENZ (10 mg/kg), in contrast to the low dosage (6-8 mg/kg), correlated with prolonged persistence of active ATG and delayed T-cell reconstitution. Occurrence of serious acute GvHD (grade III-IV) was highest in the ATG-GENZ-low dosage group. These results imply that dosing of ATG-GENZ is more critical than dosing of ATG-FRES due to the difference in clearance of active ATG. This should be taken into account when designing clinical protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6414431PMC
May 2020

Dynamics of the Gut Microbiota in Children Receiving Selective or Total Gut Decontamination Treatment during Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 06 5;25(6):1164-1171. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Center for Microbiome Analyses and Therapeutics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Bloodstream infections and graft-versus-host disease are common complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) procedures, associated with the gut microbiota that acts as a reservoir for opportunistic pathogens. Selective gut decontamination (SGD) and total gut decontamination (TGD) during HSCT have been associated with a decreased risk of developing these complications after transplantation. However, because studies have shown conflicting results, the use of these treatments remains subject of debate. In addition, their impact on the gut microbiota is not well studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate the dynamics of the microbiota during and after TGD and to compare these with the dynamics of SGD. In this prospective, observational, single-center study fecal samples were longitudinally collected from 19 children eligible for allogenic HSCT (TGD, n=12; SGD, n=7), weekly during hospital admission and monthly after discharge. In addition, fecal samples were collected from 3 family stem cell donors. Fecal microbiota structure of patients and donors was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Microbiota richness and diversity markedly decreased during SGD and TGD and gradually increased after cessation of decontamination treatment. During SGD, gut microbiota composition was relatively stable and dominated by Bacteroides, whereas it showed high inter- and intraindividual variation and low Bacteroides abundance during TGD. In some children TGD allowed the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus to thrive during treatment. A gut microbiota dominated by Bacteroides was associated with increased predicted activity of several metabolic processes. Comparing the microbiota of recipients and their donors indicated that receiving an SCT did not alter the patient's microbiota to become more similar to that of its donor. Overall, our findings indicate that SGD and TGD affect gut microbiota structure in a treatment-specific manner. Whether these treatments affect clinical outcomes via interference with the gut microbiota needs to be further elucidated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.01.037DOI Listing
June 2019

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for CD40 ligand deficiency: Results from an EBMT/ESID-IEWP-SCETIDE-PIDTC study.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 06 17;143(6):2238-2253. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

Objective: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure.

Results: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%.

Conclusion: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2018.12.1010DOI Listing
June 2019
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