Publications by authors named "Arintaya Phrommintikul"

98 Publications

Gut microbiota-generated metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide, and subclinical myocardial damage: a multicenter study from Thailand.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):14963. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Cardiovascular Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.

Plasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota metabolite from dietary phosphatidylcholine, is mechanistically linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and adverse cardiovascular events. We aimed to examine the relationship between plasma TMAO levels and subclinical myocardial damage using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin-T (hs-cTnT). We studied 134 patients for whom TMAO data were available from the Cohort Of patients at a high Risk of Cardiovascular Events-Thailand (CORE-Thailand) registry, including 123 (92%) patients with established atherosclerotic disease and 11 (8%) with multiple risk factors. Plasma TMAO was measured by NMR spectroscopy. In our study cohort (mean age 64 ± 8.9 years; 61% men), median TMAO was 3.81 μM (interquartile range [IQR] 2.89-5.50 μM), and median hs-cTnT was 15.65 ng/L (IQR 10.17-26.67). Older patients and those with diabetic or hypertension were more likely to have higher TMAO levels. Plasma TMAO levels correlated with those of hs-cTnT (r = 0.54; p < 0.0001) and were significantly higher in patients with subclinical myocardial damage (hs-cTnT ≥ 14 ng/L; 4.48 μM vs 2.98 μM p < 0.0001). After adjusting for traditional risk factors, elevated TMAO levels remained independently associated with subclinical myocardial damage (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.58; 95% CI 1.24-2.08; p = 0.0007). This study demonstrated that plasma TMAO was an independent predictor for subclinical myocardial damage in this study population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93803-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298599PMC
July 2021

The effects of dapagliflozin on hepatic and visceral fat in type 2 diabetes patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background And Aim: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have shown excellent results in glucose control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, while also promoting weight loss. These mechanisms may be beneficial in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our study aims to investigate the effect of dapagliflozin on hepatic and visceral fat contents and related biochemical markers in T2DM with NAFLD patients.

Methods: This is a double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized, single-center study. Non-insulin-dependent T2DM patients with NAFLD were prospectively enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either dapagliflozin (10 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary end-point was the changes in intrahepatic lipid contents, evaluated by the liver attenuation index.

Results: Of 40 patients enrolled, 38 patients completed the study (dapagliflozin group, n = 18; placebo group, n = 20). Baseline demographic and laboratory findings were similar in both groups. After 12 weeks of treatment, dapagliflozin significantly decreased intrahepatic lipid contents demonstrated by an increase in liver attenuation index in comparison with the placebo treatment (5.8 ± 5.1 vs 0.5 ± 6.1 Hounsfield units, P = 0.006). Significant reduction in bodyweight, bodyfat, visceral fat/subcutaneous fat ratio, hemoglobin A1c, and alanine aminotransferase were also observed in the dapagliflozin-treated group as compared with the placebo group (all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in adipokines including adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α changes between the dapagliflozin-treated group and the placebo group (all P = nonsignificant).

Conclusion: Dapagliflozin treatment for 12 weeks is associated with improvement in hepatic fat content, a decrease in visceral fat and bodyweight, enhanced glycemic control, and improved liver biochemistry among T2DM patients with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15580DOI Listing
June 2021

The cardio-ankle vascular index as a predictor of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

J Hypertens 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Internal medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.

Objective: To assess the association between maternal hemodynamic parameters; cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), representing arterial stiffness; mean arterial pressure (MAP), uterine artery pulsatility index (Ut-PI), and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia (PE), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on low-risk pregnancies. All were serially measured for the mean CAVI, MAP, and Ut-PI for four times at gestational age (GA) 11-14, 18-22, 28-32, and after 36 weeks. Also, the women were followed up for pregnancy outcomes, focusing on PE, FGR, and GDM.

Results: Of 335 recruited cases meeting the inclusion criteria, 16 cases developed PE, 24 cases had FGR, and 83 cases had GDM. Compared to the non-PE group, women developing PE had a significant increase in CAVI at 18-22, 28-32, and after 36 weeks (P-value = 0.021, 0.003, and <0.001, respectively), a significant increase in MAP at all of the four periods (P-value < 0.001, for all periods), and a significant increase in Ut-PI during GA 18-22 weeks (P-value = 0.021). In pregnancies with FGR, there was a significant increase of CAVI at GA 18-22, 28-32 and after 36 weeks (P-value = 0.012, 0.015, and 0.004, respectively), an increase in Ut-PI in all gestational periods (P-value < 0.05) but no changes of MAP throughout pregnancy. In GDM, the three parameters were not significantly different from those in the non-GDM group in all of the four periods. CAVI could predict PE and FGR with AUC of 0.655-0.835 and 0.673-0.760, respectively. CAVI added predictive values when combined with MAP or Ut-PI.

Conclusion: Increased CAVI, like MAP and Ut-PI, can be used as a predictor of PE and FGR but not GDM. Also, it has an added predictive value when combined with MAP or Ut-PI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002907DOI Listing
June 2021

Influence of gender on the clinical outcomes of Asian non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients: insights from the prospective multicentre COOL-AF registry.

BMJ Open 2021 05 6;11(5):e043862. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Mahidol University Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objective: To determine the effect of gender on clinical outcomes of Asian non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients.

Design: This is a cohort study.

Setting: 27 university and regional hospitals in Thailand.

Participants: Patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

Primary And Secondary Outcomes Measures: The clinical outcomes were ischaemic stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA), major bleeding, intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), heart failure and death. Follow-up data were recorded every 6 months until 3 years. Differences in clinical outcomes between males and females were determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the effect of gender on clinical outcomes. Survival analysis and log-rank test were performed to determine the time-dependent effect of clinical outcomes, and the difference between males and females. Effect of oral anticoagulant (OAC) on outcomes and net clinical benefit of OAC was assessed. The analysis was performed both for the whole dataset and propensity score matching with multiple imputation.

Results: A total of 3402 patients (mean age: 67.4±11.3 years; 58.2% male) were included. Average follow-up duration 25.7±10.6 months (7192.6 persons-year). Rate of ischaemic stroke/TIA, major bleeding, ICH, heart failure and death were 1.43 (1.17-1.74), 2.11 (1.79-2.48), 0.70 (0.52-0.92), 3.03 (2.64-3.46) and 3.77 (3.33-4.25) per 100 person-years. Females had increased risk for ischaemic stroke/TIA and heart failure and males had increased risk for major bleeding and ICH. Ischaemic stroke/TIA risk in females and major bleeding and ICH risk in males remained even after correction for age, comorbid conditions and anticoagulation treatment. OAC reduced the risk of ischaemic stroke/TIA in males and females, and markedly increased the risk of major bleeding and ICH in males.

Conclusions: Females had a higher risk of ischaemic stroke/TIA and heart failure, and a lower risk of major bleeding and ICH compared with males. OAC reduced risk of ischaemic stroke/TIA in females, and markedly increased risk of major bleeding and ICH in males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103947PMC
May 2021

Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and surgical site infection rate among patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 May 15;106:409-414. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Electronic address:

Background: Nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus are at increased risk of postoperative surgical site infection. Nasal decolonization with mupirocin is recommended in patients undergoing cardiac surgery to reduce surgical site infection. These data are still lacking in Thailand. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in Thai patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. The association of surgical site infection and S. aureus nasal carriage was also examined.

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 352 patients who planned to undergo elective cardiac surgery. Nasal swab culture was performed in all patients preoperatively.

Results: Of 352 patients, 46 (13.1%) had a positive nasal swab culture for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and one patient (0.3%) harbored a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain. The incidence of superficial and deep surgical site infection was 1.3% and 0.3%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, S. aureus nasal carriage was independently associated with superficial surgical site infection (odds ratio 13.04, 95% confidence interval 1.28-133.27; P=0.03).

Conclusions: The prevalence of MSSA and MRSA nasal carriage in Thai patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery was low. The incidence of surgical site infection was also very low in the population studied. Nevertheless, it was found that S. aureus nasal carriage increased the risk of superficial surgical site infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.03.024DOI Listing
May 2021

Identification of Circulating Endocan-1 and Ether Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Complications in Thalassemia Patients.

Metabolites 2021 Jan 26;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON M3J1P3, Canada.

Despite advances in our knowledge and attempts to improve therapies, β-thalassemia remains a prevalent disorder with increased risk for the development of cardiomyopathy. Using an untargeted discovery-based lipidomic workflow, we uncovered that transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) patients had a unique circulating lipidomic signature consisting of 387 lipid features, allowing their significant discrimination from healthy controls (Q-value < 0.01). In particular, TDT patients had elevated triacylglycerols and long-chain acylcarnitines, albeit lower ether phospholipids or plasmalogens, sphingomyelins, and cholesterol esters, reminiscent of that previously characterized in cardiometabolic diseases resulting from mitochondrial and peroxisomal dysfunction. Discriminating lipid (sub)classes correlated differentially with clinical parameters, reflecting blood (ether phospholipids) and iron (cholesterol ester) status or heart function (triacylglycerols). We also tested 15 potential serum biomarkers related to cardiometabolic disease and found that both lipocalin-2 and, for the first time, endocan-1 levels were significantly elevated in TDT patients and showed a strong correlation with blood parameters and three ether diacylglycerophosphatidylcholine species. In conclusion, this study identifies new characteristics of TDT patients which may have relevance in developing biomarkers and therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11020070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912378PMC
January 2021

Association between medication adherence and cardiovascular outcomes among acute coronary syndrome patients.

Res Social Adm Pharm 2021 09 7;17(9):1631-1635. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand. Electronic address:

Background: Medication adherence to guideline-recommended therapy is important and associated with a lower rate of death and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Objective: This retrospective study aimed to evaluate medication adherence in four classes of guideline-recommended medicines (antiplatelets, ACEIs/ARBs, beta-blockers, and statins) among patients discharged with ACS and to assess the association between patients' adherence to each medication and the occurrence of MACE including all causes of death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, heart failure, stroke, atrial fibrillation or coronary revascularization.

Methods: The electronic medical records of patients with ACS admitted at a tertiary teaching hospital in northern Thailand between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015 were reviewed. Medication adherence was evaluated from a hospital database of prescription refills using the medication gap technique with ≥90% as a cut-off for full adherence and <90% as partial adherence.

Results: Of 256 patients, the mean age was 65.9 (±13.0) years. The median percentage of medication adherence in the dual antiplatelet group, ACEI/ARB group, beta-blocker group, and statin group were 94.7, 93.6, 93.1, and 93.1%, respectively. Sixty-two patients (24.2%) experienced MACE after a median follow-up of 1.5 years. Patients with ≥90% adherence of beta-blockers had a significantly lower risk of MACE than those with <90% adherence: HR = 0.47, 95% Cl, 0.26-0.87, p = 0.016, adjusted with potential confounders. No other significant associations were observed.

Conclusions: Medication adherence of each medication was above 90%. ACS patients with at least 90% adherence to beta-blockers had a lower risk of MACE than those having less than 90% adherence, but no other significant associations were found for other medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.01.003DOI Listing
September 2021

Cognitive impairment is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of elderly population.

Sci Rep 2020 12 8;10(1):21400. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Neurophysiology Unit, Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.

Cognitive impairment is commonly found in the elderly population. Evidence suggests that mitochondrial function in lymphocytes are potential biomarkers in the progression of neurodegeneration, as peripheral mitochondrial function is associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the elderly population. Therefore, we hypothesize that impaired mitochondrial ATP production and oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are associated with cognitive impairment in the elderly population. Data were collected from 897 participants from the EGAT (The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand) cohort. The participants were classified to be in the normal cognition group (n = 428) or mild cognitive impairment group (n = 469), according to their MoCA score. The association of mitochondrial function and cognitive status was analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis. MCI participants had higher age, systolic blood pressure, waist/hip ratio, and lower plasma high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, when compared to the normal cognition group. In addition, estimated glomerular filtration rate were lower in the MCI group than those in the normal cognition group. Collectively, MCI is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in PBMCs as indicated by decreasing mitochondrial ATP production, increasing proton leak, and oxidative stress, in the elderly population, independently of the possible confounding factors in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78551-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723050PMC
December 2020

Cost-Effectiveness of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Patients with Heart Failure in Thailand.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2020 14;12:579-588. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves symptoms and survival in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the CRT devices are costly and can impose a significant burden to the relatively constrained health budgets of middle-income countries such as Thailand. The aim of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of CRT in combination with optimal medical therapy (OMT) relative to patients with OMT alone.

Methods: A two-component model was used to analyze lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) from a healthcare perspective. Clinical inputs were mostly obtained from meta-analysis of landmark trials. All cost-related data, risk of non-cardiovascular death and readmission rate were based on Thai HF data. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 3%. Findings were reported as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). A variety of sensitivity analyses were also performed.

Results: CRT plus OMT costs more than OMT (123,279 vs 11,165 THB or 3,972.90 vs 359.81 USD), and is more effective (3.57 QALYs vs 2.49 QALYs), yielding an ICER of 104,325 THB per QALY (3,362.07 USD per QALY). CRT was cost-effective at the Thai willingness to pay threshold of 160,000 THB per QALY (5,156.30 USD per QALY). The results were sensitive to cost of CRT maintenance.

Conclusion: The use of CRT was associated with a cost-effectiveness ratio below generally accepted benchmarks for therapeutic interventions of 160,000 THB per QALY (5,156.30 USD per QALY). This suggests that the clinical benefits of CRT can be achieved at a reasonable cost in Thai HF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S268553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569046PMC
October 2020

Real-World Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants vs. Warfarin in a Developing Country.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 May 22;109(5):1282-1292. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Liverpool Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Liverpool and Liverpool Heart & Chest Hospital, Liverpool, UK.

We aimed to compare effectiveness and safety of the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) vs. warfarin for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in a developing country where anticoagulation control with warfarin is suboptimal. A real-world study was conducted among patients with NVAF in Thailand receiving NOACs and warfarin from 9 hospitals during January 2012 to April 2018. Propensity-score weighting was used to balance covariates across study groups. Cox regression models were used to compare the risk of thromboembolism, major bleeding, and net adverse clinical events across matched cohorts. A total of 2,055 patients; 605, 604, 441, and 405 patients receiving warfarin, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and apixaban, respectively, were included. Median (interquartile range) time in therapeutic range (TTR) for warfarin users was 49.5% (26.6%-70.3%). Compared with warfarin, NOACs were associated with a significant reduction in major bleeding either when analyzed as a group (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 0.46 (0.34-0.62) or by each agent. Compared with warfarin users with poor TTR, apixaban (adjusted HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.86, P = 0.013) and dabigatran (adjusted HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.90, P = 0.025) were associated with a lower risk of thromboembolism, in addition to markedly lower risk of major bleeding. In a healthcare system where anticoagulation control with warfarin is suboptimal, use of NOACs was associated with a profound reduction in major bleeding. The effectiveness and safety advantages of NOACs were more pronounced compared with warfarin users with low TTR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2090DOI Listing
May 2021

Prescriber compliance to direct oral anticoagulant labels and impact on outcomes in Thailand.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 03 9;87(3):1390-1400. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Liverpool Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Liverpool and Liverpool Heart & Chest Hospital, UK.

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the prescriber compliance to the approved labels of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and impact of appropriateness of dosing on clinical outcomes.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using simple-stratified random sampling of adult patients receiving ≥6 months of DOACs for various indications during 2013-2017 in 10 tertiary care hospitals. Patients were classified into 3 dosing groups including approved dose, underdosing and overdosing based on the Thai Food and Drug Administration-approved labels. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the impact of different dosings on thromboembolic and bleeding events.

Results: From 1200 patients included in the data analysis, prescribing of DOACs was consistent with the approved indications in 1130 cases (94.2%) while 70 patients (5.8%) received DOACs despite having contraindications or with off-label usage. Among 1026 cases of dosing evaluation cohort, 688 patients (67.1%) received approved doses. There were 227 (21.9%) and 110 (10.7%) cases of underdosing and overdosing, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that underdosing was associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism 3.023 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.291-7.080; P = .011) while overdosing was associated with an increased risk of bleeding requiring hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.045; 95% CI, 1.501-6.178; P = .002) and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2 or more (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.196; 95% CI, 1.083-4.452; P = .029).

Conclusion: Prescribers' compliance to approved indications were high. However, 1/3 of DOAC prescriptions were inconsistent with approved dosing. Dosing deviation was associated with an increase in adverse clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14535DOI Listing
March 2021

Cardiorenal syndrome in thalassemia patients.

BMC Nephrol 2020 08 3;21(1):325. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), a serious condition with high morbidity and mortality, is characterized by the coexistence of cardiac abnormality and renal dysfunction. There is limited information about CRS in association thalassemia. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of CRS in thalassemia patients and also associated risk factors.

Methods: Thalassemia patients who attended the out-patient clinic of a tertiary care university hospital from October 2016 to September 2017 were enrolled onto this cross-sectional study. Clinical and laboratory findings from 2 consecutive visits, 3 months apart, were assessed. The criteria for diagnosis of CRS was based on a system proposed by Ronco and McCullough. Cardiac abnormalities are assessed by clinical presentation, establishment of acute or chronic heart failure using definitions from 2016 ESC guidelines or from structural abnormalities shown in an echocardiogram. Renal dysfunction was defined as chronic kidney disease according to the 2012 KDIGO guidelines.

Results: Out of 90 thalassemia patients, 25 (27.8%) had CRS. The multivariable analysis showed a significant association between CRS and extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) (odds ratio (OR) 20.55, p = 0.016); thalassemia type [β/β vs β/β thalassemia (OR 0.005, p = 0.002)]; pulmonary hypertension (OR 178.1, p = 0.001); elevated serum NT-proBNP (OR 1.028, p = 0.022), and elevated 24-h urine magnesium (OR 1.913, p = 0.016). There was no association found between CRS and frequency of blood transfusion, serum ferritin, liver iron concentration, cardiac T2*, type of iron chelating agents, or urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin level.

Conclusions: CRS is relatively common in thalassemia patients. Its occurrence is associated with laboratory parameters which are easily measured in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-01990-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398251PMC
August 2020

Prevalence and risk factors of high echocardiographic probability of pulmonary hypertension in myeloproliferative neoplasms patients.

Int J Hematol 2020 Nov 23;112(5):631-639. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, 110 Inthawaroros Street, Muang, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is emerging as a complication of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). This was a prospective study conducted at Chiang Mai University Hospital. The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of high echocardiographic probability of PH in MPNs patients. The secondary objectives were to determine risk factors of PH and the correlation between risk factors and peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV). All MPNs patients aged over 18 years, including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), were enrolled. All eligible patients underwent echocardiography for evaluation of the probability of PH in line with the 2015 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) Guidelines. Sixty-six patients with a median age of 59 years were enrolled. There were 35 PV, 25 ET, and 6 PMF patients included. The prevalence of high echocardiographic probability of PH was 4.55% (2 ET and 1 PMF). Risk factors associated with high echocardiographic probability of PHT were not analyzed. There were three risk factors associated with increased TRV specifically lower hemoglobin, older age, and the presence of JAK2V617F mutation. The prevalence of high echocardiographic probability of PH in MPNs patients was 4.55%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02952-4DOI Listing
November 2020

Incidence, predictors, and survival of pulmonary hypertension determined by echocardiography in Thai patients with early systemic sclerosis (SSc): inception cohort study.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Mar 18;40(3):973-980. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Division of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Objectives: We investigated the incidence, predictors, and survival of pulmonary hypertension (PH) determined by Doppler echocardiography in Thai patients with early SSc (systemic sclerosis), in which the majority were diffuse cutaneous SSc (DcSSc) with anti-topoisomerase I-positive.

Methods: We used an inception cohort study of patients with early SSc seen at the Rheumatology Clinic, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital. All patients were assessed for clinical data and underwent Doppler echocardiography at the study entry and then annually.

Results: A total of 133 patients (81 female, 106 DcSSc, 103 anti-topoisomerase I-positive) with a mean disease duration of 11.9 months were recruited. During the mean observational period of 4.2 years, 14 patients developed PH concurrent with ILD and 6 with left heart disease. The incidence rate for the development of PH was 3.95 per 100 person years. The multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated higher NYHA class (HR 6.90, 95% CI 2.28-20.94, p = 0.001), telangiectasia (HR 4.18, 95% CI 1.25-13.92, p = 0.020), and enlarged LA diameter (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.28, p = 0.005) as predictors of PH. Raynaud's phenomenon (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.84, p = 0.026) and high oxygen saturation (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.99, p = 0.047) were protective factors. The survival rate after PH diagnosis at 1, 3, and 5 years were 88.9%, 82.3%, and 48.0%, respectively.

Conclusions: In this study cohort, the majority had early DcSSc, the incidence of PH was modest, and all cases developed concomitantly with ILD or left heart disease, resulting in poor survival. The presence of higher NYHA class, telangiectasia, and enlarged LA diameter was predictors of secondary PH. Further study regarding the treatment strategies for PH associated with ILD and left heart disease in SSc is needed. Key Points • In this cohort of early SSc in which the main subtype was DcSSc, the incidence of PH was modest and all PH was secondary PH associated with ILD and left heart disease, resulting in poor survival. • The presence of higher NYHA functional class, telangiectasia, and enlarged LA diameter was baseline predictors of developing secondary PH. • Effective treatment strategies for secondary PH due to ILD and cardiac involvement in SSc patients are urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-020-05296-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Gut Microbiota Profiles of Treated Metabolic Syndrome Patients and their Relationship with Metabolic Health.

Sci Rep 2020 06 22;10(1):10085. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a worldwide health issue. Recent studies reveal that the human gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of this disease. While drug treatments may greatly improve metabolic symptoms, little is known about the gut microbiota composition of these treated MetS patients. This study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota composition of treated-MetS patients and analyse the possibility of using gut microbiota as an indicator of metabolic conditions. 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing approach was used to profile gut microbiota of 111 treated MetS patients from The Cohort of patients at a high Risk of Cardiovascular Events (CORE)-Thailand registry. Our results show that the gut microbiota profiles of MetS patients are diverse across individuals, but can be classified based on their similarity into three groups or enterotypes. We also showed several associations between species abundance and metabolic parameters that are enterotype specific. These findings suggest that information on the gut microbiota can be useful for assessing treatment options for MetS patients. In addition, any correlations between species abundance and human properties are likely specific to each microbial community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67078-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308281PMC
June 2020

N-acetylcysteine Restored Heart Rate Variability and Prevented Serious Adverse Events in Transfusion-dependent Thalassemia Patients: a Double-blind Single Center Randomized Controlled Trial.

Int J Med Sci 2020 18;17(9):1147-1155. Epub 2020 May 18.

Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.

Regular blood transfusions in transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) patients can lead to iron overload, causing oxidative stress and sympathovagal imbalance, resulting in increased cardiac complications. We hypothesized that administrating of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevents serious adverse events including cardiac complications in TDT patients by reducing systemic oxidative stress and balancing cardiac sympathovagal control. This study was double-blind, randomized control trial, investigating in 59 Thai TDT patients. After randomization, the participants were divided into two groups. The control group received standard care of TDT patient plus placebo, whereas the intervention group received 600 mg of NAC orally for six months. Serum 8-isoprostane, TNF-alpha, IL-10, 24-hour ECG monitoring, echocardiograms and the incidence of thalassemia-related complications were collected. At baseline, no significant difference in any parameters between the control and the intervention groups. At the end of intervention, the incidence of serious adverse events (i.e. infection, worsening thalassemia) was significantly higher in the control group when compared with the intervention group (24.1% vs. 3.3%, p=0.019) (Chi-square test; absolute risk reduction=20.8%, number needed to treat=4.8). The control group also had significantly lower time-dependent HRV parameters, compared with the intervention group (p=0.025 and 0.030, independent t-test). Treatment with NAC restored HRV and reduced serious adverse event in TDT patients, however, no difference in cardiac complications could be demonstrated. NAC could prevent serious adverse events in TDT patients. The proposed mechanism might be the balancing of sympathovagal control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.45795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294923PMC
March 2021

Anti-Factor Xa Activity of Fixed-Dose Fondaparinux in Low-Body-Weight Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Ann Pharmacother 2020 11 28;54(11):1083-1089. Epub 2020 May 28.

Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: Fixed-dose 2.5 mg of fondaparinux subcutaneous injection once daily has been recommended in treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) irrespective of body weight (BW). However, data on anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa) activity of fondaparinux are scarce in low-BW patients.

Objective: We aimed to assess anti-FXa activity of fondaparinux in low-BW patients (BW < 50 kg) compared with normal-BW patients (BW ≥ 50 kg) who presented with NSTE-ACS.

Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of patients with NSTE-ACS receiving fondaparinux. Anti-FXa activity was measured 4 hours after 2.5 mg subcutaneous injection of fondaparinux after the first 2 doses.

Results: Among 87 enrolled patients, 18 (21%) had BW <50 kg. Patients in the low-BW group were older and had lower creatinine clearance. Median duration of fondaparinux therapy was 3 (IQR 2-4) days. Anti-FXa activity after the first dose of fondaparinux was similar between the low-BW and normal-BW groups (0.40 ± 0.15 vs 0.40 ± 0.17 mg/L, = 0.914). However, anti-FXa activity after the second dose of fondaparinux was significantly higher in the low-BW group as compared with the normal-BW group (0.53 ± 0.10 vs 0.44 ± 0.16 mg/L, = 0.011). Multivariate analysis showed that BW was the only independent factor that inversely correlated with anti-FXa activity. There was only 1 bleeding event during hospitalization in the normal-BW group and none in the low-BW group.

Conclusion And Relevance: Anti-FXa activity of the second dose of fondaparinux was higher in low-BW patients but still within the expected range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1060028020930186DOI Listing
November 2020

Anti-Factor Xa Activity of Standard and Japan-Specific Doses of Rivaroxaban in Thai Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation.

Circ J 2020 06 26;84(7):1075-1082. Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University.

Background: Recommended rivaroxaban doses for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (SPAF) are 20 and 15 mg/day in patients with normal and reduced renal function, respectively, but lower doses (15 and 10 mg) have been tested and approved in Japan. It is not known whether 15 and 10 mg rivaroxaban are appropriate in other Asian populations. This study compared the anti-Factor Xa (FXa) activity of 20 and 15 mg rivaroxaban in Thai patients with normal renal function and 15 and 10 mg rivaroxaban in patients with reduced renal function.Methods and Results:Sixty non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients receiving rivaroxaban (mean [±SD] age 69.3±9.1 years, mean creatinine clearance 59.2±22.7 mL/min) were enrolled. The anti-FXa activity of standard rivaroxaban and Japan-specific doses was measured at peak and trough concentrations. Median anti-FXa activity at peak concentrations was significantly higher for the standard than Japan-specific dose. Median anti-FXa activity measured at the trough was significantly higher for the standard dose only in those with impaired renal function. A higher proportion of patients receiving the Japan-specific rather than standard dose had anti-FXa activity at peak concentrations within the expected range (87.7% vs. 64.4%; P=0.001). One-third of those receiving the standard dose had anti-FXa activity higher than the expected range.

Conclusions: A significantly higher proportion of Thai patients receiving the Japan-specific dose of rivaroxaban had anti-FXa activity at peak concentrations within the expected range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-20-0056DOI Listing
June 2020

Effects of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity on cardiac mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial function: Insights for future interventions.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 06 26;24(12):6534-6557. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Anthracyclines is an effective chemotherapeutic treatment used for many types of cancer. However, high cumulative dosage of anthracyclines leads to cardiac toxicity and heart failure. Dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics and function are major pathways driving this toxicity. Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions aiming to attenuate cardiac toxicity by targeting mitochondrial dynamics and function have shown beneficial effects in cell and animal models. However, in clinical practice, there is currently no standard therapy for the prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. This review summarizes current reports on the impact of anthracyclines on cardiac mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial function and potential interventions targeting these pathways. The roles of mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial function in the development of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity should provide insights in devising novel strategies to attenuate the cardiac toxicity induced by anthracyclines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299722PMC
June 2020

GRACE score and cardiovascular outcomes prediction among the delayed coronary intervention after post-fibrinolytic STEMI patients in a limited PCI-capable hospital.

Open Heart 2020 18;7(1):e001133. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: In Thailand, due to limited availability of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-capable hospitals, a number of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after fibrinolytic therapy underwent the delayed coronary intervention (24 hours to 2 weeks). Existing tool such as the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Event (GRACE) to define patients at high risk of cardiovascular outcomes has been used widely, except for patients who had the delayed coronary intervention. We, therefore, evaluated the cardiovascular outcomes of STEMI patients who underwent the delayed coronary intervention.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed the data from the PCI-capable hospital (Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital) STEMI registry during the period 2007-2012. Patients who received fibrinolytic treatment (SK) and underwent the delayed coronary intervention were included. The outcomes of the study were 30-day and 6-month composite cardiovascular outcomes (including death, re-hospitalised with acute coronary syndrome, re-hospitalised with heart failure and stroke).

Results: Of all 341 patients included, 229 (67.2%) patients were in the low GRACE score group (<126 points) and 112 (32.8%) patients in the intermediate-high GRACE score group (≥126 points). At 30 days, the composite cardiovascular outcome occurred in 2.2% (n=5) in the low GRACE score group and 11.6% (n=13) in the intermediate-high GRACE score group (p value=0.001). At 6 months, the composite cardiovascular outcomes occurred in 3.9% (n=9) in the low GRACE score group and 13.4% (n=15) in the intermediate-high GRACE score group (p value=0.003). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of GRACE score for 6-month composite cardiovascular outcomes was 0.746 (95% CI 0.698 to 0.793).

Conclusion: Intermediate-high GRACE risk STEMI patients after fibrinolytic therapy in limited PCI-capable hospital who underwent the delayed coronary intervention increased 30-day and 6-month cardiovascular outcomes compared with the low GRACE risk patients. In limited available PCI-capable hospital, GRACE risk score can be helpful in guiding the cardiologists to select a proper time for coronary intervention in post-fibrinolytic STEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2019-001133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101037PMC
June 2020

Impact of guideline-recommended versus non-guideline-recommended β-blocker and Doppler echocardiographic parameters on 1-year mortality in Thai ischemic cardiomyopathy patients: A prospective multicenter registry.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020 01 9;20(1). Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Green Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a high-cost, resource-intensive public health burden that is associated with a 1-year mortality rate of about 16% in western population. Different in patient ethnicity and pattern of practice may impact the clinical outcome. We aim to determine 1-year mortality and to identify factors that significantly predicts 1-year mortality of Thai patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

Methods: This prospective multicenter registry enrolled consecutive Thai patients that were diagnosed with ischemic cardiomyopathy at 9 institutions located across Thailand. Patients with left ventricular function < 40% and one of the following criteria were included: 1) presence of epicardial coronary stenoses > 75% in the left main or proximal left anterior descending artery or coronary angiography, and/or two major epicardial coronary stenoses; 2) prior myocardial infarction; 3) prior revascularization by coronary artery bypass graft or percutaneous coronary intervention; or, 4) magnetic resonance imaging pattern compatible with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Baseline clinical characteristics, coronary and echocardiographic data were recorded. The 1-year clinical outcome was pre-specified.

Results: Four hundred and nineteen patients were enrolled. Thirty-nine patients (9.9%) had died at 1 year, with 27 experiencing cardiovascular death, and 12 experiencing non-cardiovascular death. A comparison between patients who were alive and patients who were dead at 1 year revealed lower baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (26.7 ± 7.6% vs 30.2 ± 7.8%; p = 0.021), higher left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) (185.8 ± 73.2 ml vs 155.6 ± 64.2 ml; p = 0.014), shorter mitral valve deceleration time (142.9 ± 57.5 ml vs 182.4 ± 85.7 ml; p = 0.041), and lower use of statins (94.7% vs 99.7%; p = 0.029) among deceased patients. Patients receiving guideline-recommended β-blockers had lower mortality than patients receiving non-guideline-recommended β-blockers (8.1% vs 18.2%; p = 0.05).

Conclusions: The results of this study revealed a 9.9% 1-year mortality rate among Thai ischemic cardiomyopathy patients. Doppler echocardiographic parameters significantly associated with 1-year mortality were LVEF, LVEDV, mitral E velocity, and mitral valve deceleration time. The use of non-guideline-recommended β-blockers rather than guideline recommended β-blockers were associated with increased with 1-year mortality. Guidelines recommended β-blockers should be preferred.

Trial Registration: Thai Clinical Trials Registry TCTR20190722002. Registered 22 July 2019. "Retrospectively registered".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-019-01311-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950985PMC
January 2020

The Asia-Pacific Society of Cardiology (APSC) Expert Committee Consensus Recommendations for Assessment of Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome Using High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T in the Emergency Department.

Circ J 2020 01 18;84(2):136-143. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Flinders University.

The Asia-Pacific Society of Cardiology (APSC) high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) consensus recommendations and rapid algorithm were developed to provide guidance for healthcare professionals in the Asia-Pacific region on assessing patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) using a hs-TnT assay. Experts from Asia-Pacific convened in 2 meetings to develop evidence-based consensus recommendations and an algorithm for appropriate use of the hs-TnT assay. The Expert Committee defined a cardiac troponin assay as a high-sensitivity assay if the total imprecision is ≤10% at the 99th percentile of the upper reference limit and measurable concentrations below the 99th percentile are attainable with an assay at a concentration value above the assay's limit of detection for at least 50% of healthy individuals. Recommendations for single-measurement rule-out/rule-in cutoff values, as well as for serial measurements, were also developed. The Expert Committee also adopted similar hs-TnT cutoff values for men and women, recommended serial hs-TnT measurements for special populations, and provided guidance on the use of point-of-care troponin T devices in individuals suspected of ACS. These recommendations should be used in conjunction with all available clinical evidence when making the diagnosis of ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-19-0874DOI Listing
January 2020

Large Aneurysmal Rupture of Coronary-Pulmonary Artery Fistula After Buffalo Goring.

Am J Case Rep 2019 Dec 18;20:1892-1895. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

BACKGROUND Coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistulas are congenital coronary anomalies that are often incidentally found and no hemodynamic significance. They are abnormal vessels originating from the coronary artery and terminating into the pulmonary artery, with a tortuous pathway. However, coronary-pulmonary artery fistula associated with coronary artery aneurysm is a rare condition that can cause cardiac death. CASE REPORT A 55-year-old Thai woman diagnosed with traumatic aortic injury after being gored by a buffalo was incidentally found by computed tomography (CT) to have a coronary arteriovenous fistula with large aneurysm. One week after urgent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), she had a cardiac tamponade. Median sternotomy was performed for diagnosis and treatment. The final diagnosis was rupture of a large aneurysm of the coronary-pulmonary artery fistula (CPAF). No complications were found and the patient was discharged 2 weeks after surgery. CONCLUSIONS CPAF associated with rupture of a giant coronary aneurysm is a rare and life-threatening condition. Prompt diagnosis and emergency surgery are essential to treatment of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.918838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6930698PMC
December 2019

Cost-effectiveness of warfarin care bundles and novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation in Thailand.

Thromb Res 2020 01 15;185:63-71. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia; College of Pharmacy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; Asian Centre for Evidence Synthesis in Population, Implementation and Clinical Outcomes (PICO), Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21) Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and warfarin care bundles (e.g. genotyping, patient self-testing or self-management) are alternatives to usual warfarin care for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of NOACs and warfarin care bundles in patients with AF in a middle-income country, Thailand.

Materials And Methods: A Markov model was used to evaluate the economic and treatment outcomes of warfarin care bundles and NOACs compared with usual warfarin care. Cost-effectiveness was assessed from a societal perspective over a lifetime horizon with 3% discount rate in a hypothetical cohort of 65-year-old atrial fibrillation patients. Input parameters were derived from published literature, meta-analysis and local data when available. The outcome measure was incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained (ICER).

Results: Using USD5104 as the threshold of willingness-to-pay per QALY, patient's self-management of warfarin was cost-effective when compared to usual warfarin care, with an ICER of USD1395/QALY from societal perspective. All NOACs were not cost-effective in Thailand, with ICER ranging from USD8678 to USD14,247/QALY. When compared to the next most effective intervention, patient's self-testing and genotype-guided warfarin dosing were dominated. In the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve, patient's self-management had the highest probability of being cost-effective in Thailand, approximately 78%. Results were robust over a range of inputs in sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: In Thailand, NOACs were unlikely to be cost-effective at current prices. Conversely, patient's self-management is a highly cost-effective intervention and may be considered for adoption in developing regions with resource-limited healthcare systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2019.11.012DOI Listing
January 2020

Mechanisms and potential interventions associated with the cardiotoxicity of ErbB2-targeted drugs: Insights from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies in breast cancer patients.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2020 Apr 24;77(8):1571-1589. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.

Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among women worldwide. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 or ErbB2) is overexpressed in between 20 and 25% of invasive breast cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Trastuzumab, an anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, reduces cancer recurrence and mortality in HER2-positive breast cancer patients, but unexpectedly induces cardiac dysfunction, especially when used in combination with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Novel approved ErbB2-targeting drugs, including lapatinib, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab-emtansine, also potentially cause cardiotoxicity, although early clinical studies demonstrate their cardiac safety profile. Unfortunately, the mechanism involved in causing the cardiotoxicity is still not completely understood. In addition, the use of preventive interventions against trastuzumab-induced cardiac dysfunction, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers, remain controversial. Thus, this review aims to summarize and discuss the evidence currently available from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies regarding the mechanism and potential interventions associated with the cardiotoxicity of ErbB2-targeted drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-019-03340-wDOI Listing
April 2020

Electrocardiographic predictors of cardiovascular events in patients at high cardiovascular risk: a multicenter study.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2019 Aug;16(8):630-638

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: There are limited data on the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities, and their value for predicting a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) in patients at high cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ECG abnormalities in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events, and to identify ECG abnormalities that significantly predict MACE.

Methods: Patients aged ≥ 45 years with established atherosclerotic disease (EAD) were consecutively enrolled from the outpatient clinics of the six participating hospitals during April 2011 to March 2014. The following data were collected: demographic data, cardiovascular risk factors, history of cardiovascular event, physical examination, ECG and medications. ECG was analyzed using Minnesota Code criteria. MACE included cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and hospitalization due to unstable angina or heart failure.

Results: A total of 2009 patients were included, 1048 patients (52.2%) had established EAD, and 961 patients (47.8%) had multiple risk factors (MRF). ECG abnormalities included atrial fibrillation (6.7%), premature ventricular contraction (5.4%), pathological Q-wave (Q/QS) (21.3%), T-wave inversion (20.0%), intraventricular ventricular conduction delay (IVCD) (7.3%), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (12.2%), and AV block (12.5%). MACE occurred in 88 patients (4.4%). Independent predictors of MACE were chronic kidney disease, EAD, and the presence of atrial fibrillation, Q/QS, IVCD or LVH by ECG.

Conclusions: A high prevalence of ECG abnormalities was found. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was high even among those with risk factors without documented cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2019.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6748904PMC
August 2019

Cardiovascular outcomes of early versus delayed coronary intervention in low to intermediate-risk patients with STEMI in Thailand: a randomised trial.

Heart Asia 2019 12;11(2):e011201. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: The benefit of an early coronary intervention after streptokinase (SK) therapy in low to intermediate-risk patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) still remains uncertain. The current study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular outcomes of early versus delayed coronary intervention in low to intermediate-risk patients with STEMI after successful therapy with SK.

Methods: We randomly assigned low to intermediate Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score to patients with STEMI who had successful treatment with full-dose SK at Lampang Hospital and Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital into early and delayed coronary intervention groups. The primary endpoints were 30-day and 6-month composite cardiovascular outcomes (death, rehospitalised with acute coronary syndrome, rehospitalised with heart failure and stroke).

Results: One hundred and sixty-two patients were included in our study. At the 30 days, composite cardiovascular outcomes were 4.9% in the early coronary intervention group and 2.5% in the delayed group (p=0.682). At the 6 months, the composite cardiovascular outcomes were 16.1% in the early group and 6.2% in the delayed group (p=0.054).

Conclusions: The delayed coronary intervention (>24 hours) in low to intermediate STEMI after successful therapy with SK did not increase in short and long-term cardiovascular events compared with an early coronary intervention.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02131103.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartasia-2019-011201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6579563PMC
June 2019

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Complicated with Left Ventricular Thrombus in Myasthenic Crisis: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2019 May 26;20:743-747. Epub 2019 May 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

BACKGROUND Myasthenia gravis can precipitate severe stress particularly during a myasthenic crisis episode. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy has been demonstrated in several conditions associated with emotional or physical stress. As a result, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is not uncommon in patients with MG. The severe complications of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy include heart failure and left ventricular thrombus associated with thromboembolic risk. The concomitant myasthenic crisis and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with apical left ventricular thrombus has never been reported. CASE REPORT A 67-year- old Thai female diagnosed with myasthenia gravis was admitted to the intensive care unit due to the myasthenic crisis. The 12-lead electrocardiogram showed marked QT interval prolongation and diffuse large T-wave inversion. Echocardiogram demonstrated basal hyperkinesia and apical akinesia with apical ballooning. Hyperechoic mass was noted in akinetic left ventricular apex. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with apical left ventricular thrombus was diagnosed. Both conditions were successfully treated in this patient without any complications. CONCLUSIONS The electrocardiogram surveillance in patients with myasthenic crisis is essential to detect the occurrence of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and its complications. Early diagnosis and treatments may decrease mortality and morbidity related with this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.915415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6558114PMC
May 2019

The rate of patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease with an optimal low-density cholesterol level: a multicenter study from Thailand.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2019 Apr;16(4):344-353

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular events in patients with established atherosclerotic disease (EAD) and in those with multiple risk factors (MRFs). This study aimed to investigate the rate of optimal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level in a multicenter registry of patients at high risk for cardiovascular events.

Methods: A multicenter registry of EAD and MRF patients was conducted. Demographic data, medical history, cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric data, laboratory data, and medications were recorded and analyzed. We classified patients according to target LDL levels based on recommendation by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2011 into Group 1 which is EAD and diabetes or chronic kidney disease (CKD)-target LDL below 70 mg/dL, and Group 2 which is MRF without diabetes or CKD-target LDL below 100 mg/dL. The rate of optimal LDL level in patients with Group 1 and Group 2 was analyzed and stratified according to the treatment pattern of lipid-lowering medications.

Results: A total of 3100 patients were included. Of those, 51.7% were male. Average age was 65.8 ± 9.7 years. Average LDL level was 96.3 ± 32.6 mg/dL. A vast majority (92.7%) received statin and 9.3% received ezetimibe. Optimal LDL level was achieved in 20.3% of patients in Group 1 (LDL < 70 mg/dL), and in 46.6% in Group 2 (LDL < 100 mg/dL). The overall rate of optimal LDL control was 23% since 89.6% of study population belongs to Group 1. The rate of optimal LDL was not different between high and low potency statin. Factors that were associated with optimal LDL control were older age, the presence of coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease.

Conclusions: The rates of optimal LDL level were unacceptably low in this study population. As such, a strategy to improve LDL control in high-risk population should be implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2019.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6503480PMC
April 2019

Rate of anticoagulant use, and factors associated with not prescribing anticoagulant in older Thai adults with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: A multicenter registry.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2019 Mar;16(3):242-250

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objectives: To investigate the rate of anticoagulant use, the reasons for not prescribing anticoagulant, and the factors associated with non-prescription of anticoagulant in older Thai adults with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

Methods: A multicenter registry of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation was conducted during 2014 to 2017 in Thailand. Demographic, medical history, antithrombotic medication, non-antithrombotic medication, and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. Data were compared between the older adult (≥ 65 years) and younger adult (< 65 years) groups. The reasons why anticoagulant was not prescribed were collected, and predictive factors were identified.

Results: A total of 3218 patients (1873 males) with an average age of 67.3 ± 11.3 years were included. Almost two-thirds (61.0%) of patients were in the older adult group. Anticoagulant was prescribed in 2422 patients (75.3%): 81.4% in the older adult group and 65.7% in the younger adult group. The three main reasons for not prescribing anticoagulant were already taking antiplatelets, patient refusal, and bleeding risk. These reasons were more common in older adults as compared to younger adults. Multivariate analysis revealed current use of antiplatelets to be the most important factor that predict the non-prescription of anticoagulant in older population.

Conclusions: The prevalence of anticoagulant prescription among older Thai adults with atrial fibrillation is 81.4%. Taking antiplatelet drugs was found to be the strongest reason that predicts the non-prescription of anticoagulant in this patient population. A guideline should be developed to optimize the use of anticoagulant and antiplatelet in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2019.03.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500563PMC
March 2019
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