Publications by authors named "Arif Nuryawan"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Properties and Interfacial Bonding Enhancement of Oil Palm Bio-Ash Nanoparticles Biocomposites.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 17;13(10). Epub 2021 May 17.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

The effect of incorporating different loadings of oil palm bio-ash nanoparticles from agriculture waste on the properties of phenol-formaldehyde resin was investigated in this study. The bio-ash filler was used to enhance the performance of phenol-formaldehyde nanocomposites. Phenol-formaldehyde resin filled with oil palm bio-ash nanoparticles was prepared via the in-situ polymerization process to produce nanocomposites. The transmission electron microscope and particle size analyzer result revealed that oil palm bio-ash nanoparticles had a spherical geometry of 90 nm. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction results confirmed the formation of crystalline structure in oil palm bio-ash nanoparticles and phenol-formaldehyde nanocomposites. The thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the presence of oil palm bio-ash nanoparticles enhanced the thermal stability of the nanocomposites. The presence of oil palm bio-ash nanoparticles with 1% loading in phenol-formaldehyde resin enhanced the internal bonding strength of plywood composites. The scanning electron microscope image revealed that phenol-formaldehyde nanocomposites morphology had better uniform distribution and dispersion with 1% oil palm bio-ash nanoparticle loading than other phenol-formaldehyde nanocomposites produced. The nanocomposite has potential use in the development of particle and panel board for industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13101615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155993PMC
May 2021

Functional Properties of Antimicrobial Neem Leaves Extract Based Macroalgae Biofilms for Potential Use as Active Dry Packaging Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 20;13(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

Antimicrobial irradiated seaweed-neem biocomposite films were synthesized in this study. The storage functional properties of the films were investigated. Characterization of the prepared films was conducted using SEM, FT-IR, contact angle, and antimicrobial test. The macroscopic and microscopic including the analysis of the functional group and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry test revealed the main active constituents present in the neem extract, which was used an essential component of the fabricated films. Neem leaves' extracts with 5% / concentration were incorporated into the matrix of seaweed biopolymer and the seaweed-neem bio-composite film were irradiated with different dosages of gamma radiation (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 kGy). The tensile, thermal, and the antimicrobial properties of the films were studied. The results revealed that the irradiated films exhibited improved functional properties compared to the control film at 1.5 kGy radiation dosage. The tensile strength, tensile modulus, and toughness exhibited by the films increased, while the elongation of the irradiated bio-composite film decreased compared to the control film. The morphology of the irradiated films demonstrated a smoother surface compared to the control and provided surface intermolecular interaction of the neem-seaweed matrix. The film indicated an optimum storage stability under ambient conditions and demonstrated no significant changes in the visual appearance. However, an increase in the moisture content was exhibited by the film, and the hydrophobic properties was retained until nine months of the storage period. The study of the films antimicrobial activities against (SA), and (BS) indicated improved resistance to bacterial activities after the incorporation of neem leaves extract and gamma irradiation. The fabricated irradiated seaweed-neem bio-composite film could be used as an excellent sustainable packaging material due to its effective storage stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13101664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161299PMC
May 2021

Potential compounds from several Indonesian plants to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection: A mini-review of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic targets.

Heliyon 2021 Jan 16;7(1):e06001. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Forestry, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, 20155, Indonesia.

The outbreak of coronaviruses (CoVs) presents an enormous threat to humans. To date, no new therapeutic drugs or vaccines licensed to treat human coronaviruses remain undiscovered. This mini-review briefly reports the number of potential plants widely distributed in Indonesia for further research and development as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents and the critical targets for SARS-CoV-2 therapy, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptor, spike protein, 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL), papain-like protease (PL), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), helicase, and serine protease. Indonesia is rich in medicinal plants (herbal); it also has a long history of using plants to treat various hereditary diseases. However, since SARS-CoV-2 is a new disease, it has no history of plant-based treatment anywhere in the world. This mini-review describes natural products from several Indonesian plants that contain compounds that could potentially prevent or reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection, act as potential targeted therapy, and provide new therapeutic strategies to develop SARS-CoV-2 countermeasures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833933PMC
January 2021

Properties of wood composite plastics made from predominant Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) plastics and their degradability in nature.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(8):e0236406. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

School of Geography, Geology and the Environment, Keele University, Keele, United Kingdom.

To address concerns over plastics in the global environment, this project produced three wood plastics composites (WPCs) which could divert plastics from the waste stream into new materials. The three materials made had a ratio of 85%:15%, 90%:10%, and 95%:5% low density polyethylene (LDPE) to wood powder and were produced using the dissolution method. Physical and mechanical properties of each WPC were evaluated according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908:2003. Their degradation in nature was evaluated through a graveyard test and assay test conducted in Coptotermes curvignathus termites. Results showed that density, moisture content, thickness swelling and water absorption of the WPCs fulfilled the JIS standard. The mechanical properties of these composites also met the JIS standard, particularly their modulus of elasticity (MOE). Modulus of rupture (MOR) and internal bonding (IB) showed in lower values, depending on the proportion of wood filler they contained. Discoloration of the WPCs was observed after burial in the soil with spectra alteration of attenuated transmission reflectance (ATR) in the band of 500-1000 cm-1 which could be assigned to detach the interphase between wood and plastics. As termite bait, the WPCs decreased in weight, even though the mass loss was comparatively small. Micro Confocal Raman Imaging Spectrometer revealed that termite guts from insects feeding on WPCs contained small amounts of LDPE. This indicated termite can consume plastics in the form of WPCs. Thus WPCs made predominantly of plastics can be degraded in nature. While producing WPCs can assist in decreasing plastics litter in the environment, the eventual fate of the LDPE in termites is still unknown.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236406PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398493PMC
September 2020

Anticancer Activity of Polyisoprenoids from Blume. in WiDr Cells.

Iran J Pharm Res 2019 ;18(3):1477-1487

Department of Forestry, Faculty of Forestry, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer world wide and has been occurred more in developing regions. The use of conventional chemotherapy agents may lead to various adverse effects. Therefore, it is required to find the potential drug for anticancer from alternative source of natural product including mangrove plants. The present study was conducted to determine the anticancer activity of polyisoprenoids from Blume. leaves (PAL) in WiDr cells. Cell cycle inhibition, apoptosis activity, and suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also evaluated. The anticancer activity of PAL was determined by observing the activity of these compounds against WiDr cells using the [3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difenil tetrazolium bromida] MTT assay. Inhibition of the cell cycle and increased apoptosis were analysed by flowcytometry. Suppression of COX-2 was analysed using immunocytochemistry. PAL exhibited anticancer activity against WiDr cells with an IC of 173.775 μg/mL. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the inhibition occurred in the G0-G1 phase, and apoptosis occurred in the early apoptosis phase. Furthermore, the result of an analysis of COX-2 expression showed that PAL enabled the suppression of COX-2 expression. PAL can be used as anticancer agents against WiDr colon cancer cells. However, studies is required to confirm the finding of the anticancer activity of polyisoprenoid extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2019.1100719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934958PMC
January 2019

Hydrolysis of particleboard bonded with urea-formaldehyde resin for recycling.

Heliyon 2020 May 16;6(5):e03936. Epub 2020 May 16.

Research Center for Biomaterials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl. Raya Bogor KM 46 Cibinong, 16911, West Java, Indonesia.

In this study, the removal of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin adhesives from waste wood particleboards (PBs) via hydrolysis was discussed, particularly the use of this application to combat environmental issues often encountered in recycling projects. Herein, the conditions required for producing PBs with poor binding properties were examined. Additionally, we determined the appropriate formaldehyde: urea (F/U) mole ratios, namely, 0.95, 1.05, and 1.15, required for generating UF resins that can be characterized and used as PB binders. The resulting values were compared with those obtained for a high mole ratio of UF resin (F/U = 2.0) as well as a commercially available PB sample for binding. Aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions of various concentrations and water were used to leach the adhesive from the wood residues, and the effectiveness of these leaching agents was determined using a combined scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) technique in addition to the Kjeldahl method. Swelling tests were performed on the UF resins to measure the sol fraction (ω) and evaluate the network behavior of the resulting resins. Our results showed that factors, such as solid content, density, viscosity, and gel time, were necessary for generating an effective adhesive; herein, we determined that a solid content between 37.17 and 56.57%, density between 1.45 and 1.54 g/cm, viscosity ranging from 115-444 MPa.s, and gel time between 8.50 and 13.13 min were feasible. Whereas the physical properties of the resulting PB (i.e., the density and moisture content) fulfilled the criteria established by the Japanese Industrial Standard, as laid out in the document entitled JIS A 5908: Particleboards (2003), the mechanical properties failed to pass the aforementioned standard as low bending strength and weak internal bonding were noted for the PBs produced. The use of hydrolyzing agents successfully decomposed the UF resin adhesives by altering their nitrogen (N) content; confirmation of this was obtained through SEM-EDS analysis along with the Kjeldahl method. Swelling tests showed that despite containing a reasonable amount of nitrogen owing to its dissolution in either HCl or water, the ω parameter was heavily influenced by the concentration of the hardener and type of F/U mole ratio adhesive used for the PB under investigation. These results indicate that wood residues can be used as raw materials for recycling PBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232086PMC
May 2020

Enhancement of Oil Palm Waste Nanoparticles on the Properties and Characterization of Hybrid Plywood Biocomposites.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Apr 27;12(5). Epub 2020 Apr 27.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

Using oil palm trunk (OPT) layered with empty fruit bunch (EFB), so-called hybrid plywood enhanced with palm oil ash nanoparticles, with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin as a binder, was produced in this study. The phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins filled with different loading of oil palm ash (OPA) nanoparticles were prepared and used as glue for layers of the oil palm trunk (OPT) veneer and empty fruit bunch fibre mat. The resulting hybrid plywood produced was characterised. The physical, mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of the hybrid plywood panels were investigated. The results obtained showed that the presence of OPA nanoparticles significantly affected the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the plywood panels. Significant improvements in dimension from water absorption and thickness swelling experiments were obtained for the plywood panels with the highest OPA nanoparticles loading in PF resin. The mechanical properties indicated that plywood composites showed improvement in flexural, shear, and impact properties until a certain loading of OPA nanoparticles in PF resin. Fracture surface morphology also showed the effectiveness of OPA nanoparticles in the reduction of layer breakage due to force and stress distribution. The thermal stability performance showed that PF filled OPA nanoparticles contributed to the thermal stability of the plywood panels. Therefore, the results obtained in this study showed that OPA nanoparticles certainly improved the characteristic of the hybrid plywood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12051007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284790PMC
April 2020

The Role of Two-Step Blending in the Properties of Starch/Chitin/Polylactic Acid Biodegradable Composites for Biomedical Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Mar 5;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), University Putra Malaysia, Seri Kembangan 43400, Malaysia.

The current research trend for excellent miscibility in polymer mixing is the use of plasticizers. The use of most plasticizers usually has some negative effects on the mechanical properties of the resulting composite and can sometimes make it toxic, which makes such polymers unsuitable for biomedical applications. This research focuses on the improvement of the miscibility of polymer composites using two-step mixing with a rheomixer and a mix extruder. Polylactic acid (PLA), chitin, and starch were produced after two-step mixing, using a compression molding method with decreasing composition variation (between 8% to 2%) of chitin and increasing starch content. A dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to study the mechanical behavior of the composite at various temperatures. The tensile strength, yield, elastic modulus, impact, morphology, and compatibility properties were also studied. The DMA results showed a glass transition temperature range of 50 °C to 100 °C for all samples, with a distinct peak value for the loss modulus and factor. The single distinct peak value meant the polymer blend was compatible. The storage and loss modulus increased with an increase in blending, while the loss factor decreased, indicating excellent compatibility and miscibility of the composite components. The mechanical properties of the samples improved compared to neat PLA. Small voids and immiscibility were noticed in the scanning electron microscopy images, and this was corroborated by X-ray diffraction graphs that showed an improvement in the crystalline nature of PLA with starch. Bioabsorption and toxicity tests showed compatibility with the rat system, which is similar to the human system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12030592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182811PMC
March 2020

Effect of Salt and Fresh Water Concentration on Polyisoprenoid Content in Seedlings.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Nov 14;7(22):3803-3806. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Forestry, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, 20155, Indonesia.

Background: Mangrove forest is a typical forest found along the coast or river mouth which is affected by tides and salinity. Although polyisoprenoid was widespread in the plant kingdom, the physiological roles of these compounds are not well understood, especially from mangrove plants. It is therefore essential to characterize the polyisoprenoid content under abiotic stress.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of salinity and subsequent fresh water change on polyisoprenoids concentration in .

Methods: planted in a greenhouse for three months under various salinity concentrations. After three months grew under variable salinity, these seedlings were then divided into two treatment groups, and grown for another three months: one continuously in a salt solution and another in fresh water to relieve salt stress. The leaves and roots of seedlings were harvested after six months of cultivation. The leaves and roots of seedlings were extracted for polyisoprenoids content and composition analyzed using two-dimensional thin layer chromatography.

Results: Polyisoprenoids composition under salinity and subsequent fresh water with dominating dolichols (more than 90%) were found in leaves and roots of seedlings referring type I of polyisoprenoid composition. The carbon chain length of dolichols located in the leaves and roots were ranging from C-C and C-C, respectively.

Concluson: Dolichol dominated over polyprenol both in leaves and roots under salinity and subsequent relief supported the previous finding on the predominance dolichols over polyprenols in mangrove plants. The present study suggested the significance of dolichols in the adaptation to cope with salt stress and or water stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048339PMC
November 2019

Prominent Secondary Metabolites from Selected Genus of Leaves.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Nov 14;7(22):3765-3768. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia.

Background: Mangrove plants distributed in the intertidal of the tropical and subtropical region including in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The production of secondary metabolite compounds is well known to mangroves. Characterisation of prominent compounds from mangrove plants such as genus of is required to explore for their biological and pharmacological properties of these compounds.

Aim: The purpose of this research was to analyse the prominent secondary metabolites through the characterisation of phytochemical, physicochemical, and microscopic of the mangrove genus Avicennia leaves, particularly , and .

Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out on spp leaves to the established process. Physicochemical characters of mangrove leaves were investigated by simplicial powder consisting of moisture content, water-soluble, ethanol-soluble, ash content and ash soluble acid according to the WHO formula. Microscopic analysis on the simplicial powder was carried out based on the WHO procedure.

Results: The result showed that physicochemical feature displays diversity among the species and important findings on the water concentration was less than 10% as a prerequisite for the drug. The phytochemical search of simplified grain also depicted divergence among the species, only alkaloid, saponin, and triterpenoid or phytosterol were found entirely in spp leaves. Microscopic search found a similar type of stoma in Avicennia spp leaves, namely diacytic.

Conclusion: The prominent secondary metabolites in spp leaves consisting of alkaloid and saponin in simplicial and triterpenoid/sterol was either in simplicial or hexane extract. The present study may provide significant pharmacological properties from mangrove genus green foliages, which could accelerate another prospect for non-wood mangrove utilisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048347PMC
November 2019

Cytotoxic and Antiproliferative Activity of Polyisoprenoids in Seventeen Mangroves Species Against WiDr Colon Cancer Cells

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Dec 25;19(12):3393-3400. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia. Email:

Background: Secondary metabolites from the group of isoprenoid compounds are widely distributed in mangrove plants. Polyisoprenoids (dolichol and polyprenol) are known to have benefits as anticancer agents. The present study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic potential of polyisoprenoids in leaves from seventeen selected mangrove species against colon cancer (WiDr) cells. Methods: Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by MTT assay in vitro using WiDr human colon cancer cells and 3T3 fibroblasts from Swiss albino mouse embryo tissue as controls. Mechanisms of action were approached by assessing apoptosis and the cell cycle using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy with annexin V-FITC, as well as expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 by immunocytochemistry. Results: Polyisoprenoids from N. fruticans leaves demonstrated the highest anticancer activity, with an IC50 of 180.2 μg/mL, as compared to 397.7 μg/mL against 3T3 normal cells. Significant decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 was also noted, facilitating apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle in the G0-G1 phase in WiDr cells. The present study showed for the first time that polyisoprenoids from N. fruticans exhibit concrete anticancer activity in vitro, decreasing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Conclusions: Polyisoprenoids isolated from N. fruticans leaves may have promise as a source of anticancer agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2018.19.12.3393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428521PMC
December 2018

A novel approach for FE-SEM imaging of wood-matrix polymer interface in a biocomposite.

Micron 2013 Nov-Dec;54-55:87-90. Epub 2013 Sep 9.

Department of Wood Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyug-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701, South Korea; Scion, 49 Sala Street, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Understanding the interface between polymer and biomass in composite products is important for developing high performance products, as the quality of adhesion at the interface determines composite properties. For example, with greater stiffness compared to polymer matrix, such as that of high density polyethylene, the wood component enhances stiffness of wood-polymer composites, provided there is good adhesion between composite components. However, in composites made from wood flour (wood particles) and synthetic resins it is often difficult to clearly resolve particle-matrix interfaces in the conventionally employed microscopy method that involves SEM examination of fractured faces of composites. We developed a novel approach, where composites made from high density polyethylene and wood flour were examined and imaged with a FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscope) in transverse sections cut through the composites. Improved definition of the interface was achieved using this approach, which enabled a more thorough comparison to be made of the features of the interface between wood particles and the matrix in composites with and without a coupling agent, as it was possible to clearly resolve the interfaces for particles of all sizes, from large particles consisting of many cells down to tiny cell wall fragments, particularly in composites that did not incorporate the coupling agent used to enhance particle adhesion with the matrix polymer. The method developed would be suitable particularly for high definition SEM imaging of a wide range of composites made combining wood and agricultural residues with synthetic polymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2013.08.011DOI Listing
May 2014

MRT letter: high resolution SEM imaging of nano-architecture of cured urea-formaldehyde resin using plasma coating of osmium.

Microsc Res Tech 2013 Nov 7;76(11):1108-11. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Department of Wood Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-Ro, Buk-gu, Daegu, 702-701, Republic of Korea.

Nanoarchitecture of cured urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins was examined with a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) after coating samples with osmium, which is considered to produce particles of considerably smaller size compared to other metal coatings used in SEM studies. This method enabled comparison of the nanoarchitecture of UF resins of low (1.0) and high (1.6) formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratios to be made, based on imaging of extremely small size particles as part of UF resin architecture, not described before. Imaging revealed presence of relatively large globular particles (148.084-703.983 nm size range) as well as smaller substructures (28.004-39.604 nm size range) as part of the architecture of 1.0-mole UF resin. Globular particles were also present in 1.6 mole UF resin, but of considerably smaller size (14.760-50.269 nm). The work presented demonstrates usefulness of osmium coating in unraveling the intricacies of the nanostructural organization of cured UF resins, prompting wider application of this immensely useful but grossly underutilized metal coating type in high resolution SEM examination of biological and materials samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22272DOI Listing
November 2013
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