Publications by authors named "Ariella T Cohain"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

An integrative multiomic network model links lipid metabolism to glucose regulation in coronary artery disease.

Nat Commun 2021 01 22;12(1):547. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Science and Institute for Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Elevated plasma cholesterol and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Individuals treated with cholesterol-lowering statins have increased T2D risk, while individuals with hypercholesterolemia have reduced T2D risk. We explore the relationship between lipid and glucose control by constructing network models from the STARNET study with sequencing data from seven cardiometabolic tissues obtained from CAD patients during coronary artery by-pass grafting surgery. By integrating gene expression, genotype, metabolomic, and clinical data, we identify a glucose and lipid determining (GLD) regulatory network showing inverse relationships with lipid and glucose traits. Master regulators of the GLD network also impact lipid and glucose levels in inverse directions. Experimental inhibition of one of the GLD network master regulators, lanosterol synthase (LSS), in mice confirms the inverse relationships to glucose and lipid levels as predicted by our model and provides mechanistic insights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20750-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822923PMC
January 2021

A Noncoding Variant Near PPP1R3B Promotes Liver Glycogen Storage and MetS, but Protects Against Myocardial Infarction.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 01;106(2):372-387

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Havard University, Boston, MA, USA.

Context: Glycogen storage diseases are rare. Increased glycogen in the liver results in increased attenuation.

Objective: Investigate the association and function of a noncoding region associated with liver attenuation but not histologic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Design: Genetics of Obesity-associated Liver Disease Consortium.

Setting: Population-based.

Main Outcome: Computed tomography measured liver attenuation.

Results: Carriers of rs4841132-A (frequency 2%-19%) do not show increased hepatic steatosis; they have increased liver attenuation indicative of increased glycogen deposition. rs4841132 falls in a noncoding RNA LOC157273 ~190 kb upstream of PPP1R3B. We demonstrate that rs4841132-A increases PPP1R3B through a cis genetic effect. Using CRISPR/Cas9 we engineered a 105-bp deletion including rs4841132-A in human hepatocarcinoma cells that increases PPP1R3B, decreases LOC157273, and increases glycogen perfectly mirroring the human disease. Overexpression of PPP1R3B or knockdown of LOC157273 increased glycogen but did not result in decreased LOC157273 or increased PPP1R3B, respectively, suggesting that the effects may not all occur via affecting RNA levels. Based on electronic health record (EHR) data, rs4841132-A associates with all components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, rs4841132-A associated with decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and risk for myocardial infarction (MI). A metabolic signature for rs4841132-A includes increased glycine, lactate, triglycerides, and decreased acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate.

Conclusions: These results show that rs4841132-A promotes a hepatic glycogen storage disease by increasing PPP1R3B and decreasing LOC157273. rs4841132-A promotes glycogen accumulation and development of MetS but lowers LDL cholesterol and risk for MI. These results suggest that elevated hepatic glycogen is one cause of MetS that does not invariably promote MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823249PMC
January 2021

Multiscale causal networks identify VGF as a key regulator of Alzheimer's disease.

Nat Commun 2020 08 7;11(1):3942. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Though discovered over 100 years ago, the molecular foundation of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive. To better characterize the complex nature of AD, we constructed multiscale causal networks on a large human AD multi-omics dataset, integrating clinical features of AD, DNA variation, and gene- and protein-expression. These probabilistic causal models enabled detection, prioritization and replication of high-confidence master regulators of AD-associated networks, including the top predicted regulator, VGF. Overexpression of neuropeptide precursor VGF in 5xFAD mice partially rescued beta-amyloid-mediated memory impairment and neuropathology. Molecular validation of network predictions downstream of VGF was also achieved in this AD model, with significant enrichment for homologous genes identified as differentially expressed in 5xFAD brains overexpressing VGF. Our findings support a causal role for VGF in protecting against AD pathogenesis and progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17405-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7414858PMC
August 2020

Feasibility of blood testing combined with PET-CT to screen for cancer and guide intervention.

Science 2020 07 28;369(6499). Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Geisinger, 100 N. Academy Avenue Danville, PA 17822, USA.

Cancer treatments are often more successful when the disease is detected early. We evaluated the feasibility and safety of multicancer blood testing coupled with positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging to detect cancer in a prospective, interventional study of 10,006 women not previously known to have cancer. Positive blood tests were independently confirmed by a diagnostic PET-CT, which also localized the cancer. Twenty-six cancers were detected by blood testing. Of these, 15 underwent PET-CT imaging and nine (60%) were surgically excised. Twenty-four additional cancers were detected by standard-of-care screening and 46 by neither approach. One percent of participants underwent PET-CT imaging based on false-positive blood tests, and 0.22% underwent a futile invasive diagnostic procedure. These data demonstrate that multicancer blood testing combined with PET-CT can be safely incorporated into routine clinical care, in some cases leading to surgery with intent to cure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abb9601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509949PMC
July 2020

Dual transcriptomic and epigenomic study of reaction severity in peanut-allergic children.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 04 12;145(4):1219-1230. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Background: Unexpected allergic reactions to peanut are the most common cause of fatal food-related anaphylaxis. Mechanisms underlying the variable severity of peanut-allergic reactions remain unclear.

Objectives: We sought to expand mechanistic understanding of reaction severity in peanut allergy.

Methods: We performed an integrated transcriptomic and epigenomic study of peanut-allergic children as they reacted in vivo during double-blind, placebo-controlled peanut challenges. We integrated whole-blood transcriptome and CD4 T-cell epigenome profiles to identify molecular signatures of reaction severity (ie, how severely a peanut-allergic child reacts when exposed to peanut). A threshold-weighted reaction severity score was calculated for each subject based on symptoms experienced during peanut challenge and the eliciting dose. Through linear mixed effects modeling, network construction, and causal mediation analysis, we identified genes, CpGs, and their interactions that mediate reaction severity. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort.

Results: We identified 318 genes with changes in expression during the course of reaction associated with reaction severity, and 203 CpG sites with differential DNA methylation associated with reaction severity. After replicating these findings in an independent cohort, we constructed interaction networks with the identified peanut severity genes and CpGs. These analyses and leukocyte deconvolution highlighted neutrophil-mediated immunity. We identified NFKBIA and ARG1 as hubs in the networks and 3 groups of interacting key node CpGs and peanut severity genes encompassing immune response, chemotaxis, and regulation of macroautophagy. In addition, we found that gene expression of PHACTR1 and ZNF121 causally mediates the association between methylation at corresponding CpGs and reaction severity, suggesting that methylation may serve as an anchor upon which gene expression modulates reaction severity.

Conclusions: Our findings enhance current mechanistic understanding of the genetic and epigenetic architecture of reaction severity in peanut allergy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.10.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7192362PMC
April 2020

Differential activity of transcribed enhancers in the prefrontal cortex of 537 cases with schizophrenia and controls.

Mol Psychiatry 2019 11 8;24(11):1685-1695. Epub 2018 May 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Transcription at enhancers is a widespread phenomenon which produces so-called enhancer RNA (eRNA) and occurs in an activity-dependent manner. However, the role of eRNA and its utility in exploring disease-associated changes in enhancer function, and the downstream coding transcripts that they regulate, is not well established. We used transcriptomic and epigenomic data to interrogate the relationship of eRNA transcription to disease status and how genetic variants alter enhancer transcriptional activity in the human brain. We combined RNA-seq data from 537 postmortem brain samples from the CommonMind Consortium with cap analysis of gene expression and enhancer identification, using the assay for transposase-accessible chromatin followed by sequencing (ATACseq). We find 118 differentially transcribed eRNAs in schizophrenia and identify schizophrenia-associated gene/eRNA co-expression modules. Perturbations of a key module are associated with the polygenic risk scores. Furthermore, we identify genetic variants affecting expression of 927 enhancers, which we refer to as enhancer expression quantitative loci or eeQTLs. Enhancer expression patterns are consistent across studies, including differentially expressed eRNAs and eeQTLs. Combining eeQTLs with a genome-wide association study of schizophrenia identifies a genetic variant that alters enhancer function and expression of its target gene, GOLPH3L. Our novel approach to analyzing enhancer transcription is adaptable to other large-scale, non-poly-A depleted, RNA-seq studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-018-0059-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6222027PMC
November 2019
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