Publications by authors named "Ariane Marelli"

125 Publications

Hypertensive disorders of pregnant women with heart disease: the ESC EORP ROPAC Registry.

Eur Heart J 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Cardiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rg-435 - P.O. Box: 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands.

Aims: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) occur in 10% of pregnancies in the general population, pre-eclampsia specifically in 3-5%. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy may have a high prevalence in, and be poorly tolerated by, women with heart disease.

Methods And results: The prevalence and outcomes of HDP (chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia) were assessed in the ESC EORP ROPAC (n = 5739), a worldwide prospective registry of pregnancies in women with heart disease.The overall prevalence of HDP was 10.3%, made up of chronic hypertension (5.9%), gestational hypertension (1.3%), and pre-eclampsia (3%), with significant differences between the types of underlying heart disease (P < 0.05). Pre-eclampsia rates were highest in women with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (11.1%), cardiomyopathy (CMP) (7.1%), and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (6.3%). Maternal mortality was 1.4 and 0.6% in women with vs. without HDP (P = 0.04), and even 3.5% in those with pre-eclampsia. All pre-eclampsia-related deaths were post-partum and 50% were due to heart failure. Heart failure occurred in 18.5 vs. 10.6% of women with vs. without HDP (P < 0.001) and in 29.1% of those with pre-eclampsia. Perinatal mortality was 3.1 vs. 1.7% in women with vs. without HDP (P = 0.019) and 4.7% in those with pre-eclampsia.

Conclusion: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and pre-eclampsia rates were higher in women with CMP, IHD, and PAH than in the general population. Adverse outcomes were increased in women with HDP, and maternal mortality was strikingly high in women with pre-eclampsia. The combination of HDP and heart disease should prompt close surveillance in a multidisciplinary context and the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia requires hospital admission and continued monitoring during the post-partum period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehac308DOI Listing
June 2022

Standing on the Shoulders of a Giant: DrGary Douglas Webb, 1943-2021.

Can J Cardiol 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2022.04.016DOI Listing
April 2022

Canadian Cardiovascular Society 2022 Guidelines for Cardiovascular Interventions in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

Can J Cardiol 2022 Apr 20. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Heart Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Interventions in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) focus on surgical and percutaneous interventions in light of rapidly evolving ACHD clinical practice. To bring rigour to our process and amplify the cumulative nature of evidence ACHD care we used the ADAPTE process; we systematically adjudicated, updated, and adapted existing guidelines by Canadian, American, and European cardiac societies from 2010 to 2020. We applied this to interventions related to right and left ventricular outflow obstruction, tetralogy of Fallot, coarctation, aortopathy associated with bicuspid aortic valve, atrioventricular canal defects, Ebstein anomaly, complete and congenitally corrected transposition, and patients with the Fontan operation. In addition to tables indexed to evidence, clinical flow diagrams are included for each lesion to facilitate a practical approach to clinical decision-making. Excluded are recommendations for pacemakers, defibrillators, and arrhythmia-directed interventions covered in separate designated documents. Similarly, where overlap occurs with other guidelines for valvular interventions, reference is made to parallel publications. There is a paucity of high-level quality of evidence in the form of randomized clinical trials to support guidelines in ACHD. We accounted for this in the wording of the strength of recommendations put forth by our national and international experts. As data grow on long-term follow-up, we expect that the evidence driving clinical practice will become increasingly granular. These recommendations are meant to be used to guide dialogue between clinicians, interventional cardiologists, surgeons, and patients making complex decisions relative to ACHD interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2022.03.021DOI Listing
April 2022

A randomized controlled trial of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor management in patients admitted in hospital with COVID-19.

Am Heart J 2022 05 7;247:76-89. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Centre D'Investigation Clinique- Plurithématique Inserm CIC-P 1433, Inserm U1116, CHRU Nancy Hôpitaux de Brabois, F-CRIN INI-CRCT (Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists), Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France; Cardiovascular Research and Development Center, Department of Surgery and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Background: Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) are commonly used among patients hospitalized with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated whether continuation versus discontinuation of RAASi were associated with short term clinical or biochemical outcomes.

Methods: The RAAS-COVID-19 trial was a randomized, open label study in adult patients previously treated with RAASi who are hospitalized with COVID-19 (NCT04508985). Participants were randomized 1:1 to discontinue or continue RAASi. The primary outcome was a global rank score calculated from baseline to day 7 (or discharge) incorporating clinical events and biomarker changes. Global rank scores were compared between groups using the Wilcoxon test statistic and the negative binomial test (using incident rate ratio [IRR]) and the intention-to-treat principle.

Results: Overall, 46 participants were enrolled; 21 participants were randomized to discontinue RAASi and 25 to continue. Patients' mean age was 71.5 years and 43.5% were female. Discontinuation of RAASi, versus continuation, resulted in a non-statistically different mean global rank score (discontinuation 6 [standard deviation [SD] 6.3] vs continuation 3.8 (SD 2.5); P = .60). The negative binomial analysis identified that discontinuation increased the risk of adverse outcomes (IRR 1.67 [95% CI 1.06-2.62]; P = .027); RAASi discontinuation increased brain natriuretic peptide levels (% change from baseline: +16.7% vs -27.5%; P = .024) and the incidence of acute heart failure (33% vs 4.2%, P = .016).

Conclusion: RAASi continuation in participants hospitalized with COVID-19 appears safe; discontinuation increased brain natriuretic peptide levels and may increase risk of acute heart failure; where possible, RAASi should be continued.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2022.01.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8820148PMC
May 2022

Falling Through the Cracks: The Current Gap in the Health Care Transition of Patients With Kawasaki Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 10 11;10(20):e023310. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Background Health care transition (HCT) is a period of high vulnerability for patients with chronic childhood diseases, particularly when patients shift from a pediatric to an adult care setting. An increasing number of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) who develop medium and large coronary artery aneurysms (classified by the American Heart Association according to maximal internal coronary artery diameter Z-scores ≥5 and ≥10, respectively) are becoming adults and thus undergoing an HCT. However, a poor transition to an adult provider represents a risk of loss to follow-up, which can result in increasing morbidity and mortality. Methods and Results This scientific statement provides a summary of available literature and expert opinion pertaining to KD and HCT of children as they reach adulthood. The statement reviews the existing life-long risks for patients with KD, explains current guidelines for long-term care of patients with KD, and offers guidance on assessment and preparation of patients with KD for HCT. The key element to a successful HCT, enabling successful transition outcomes, is having a structured intervention that incorporates the components of planning, transfer, and integration into adult care. This structured intervention can be accomplished by using the Six Core Elements approach that is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the American College of Physicians. Conclusions Formal HCT programs for patients with KD who develop aneurysms should be established to ensure a smooth transition with uninterrupted medical care as these youths become adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.023310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8751858PMC
October 2021

Comparison of Long-term Outcomes of Valve-Sparing and Transannular Patch Procedures for Correction of Tetralogy of Fallot.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 07 1;4(7):e2118141. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.

Importance: The choice of the right surgical technique for correction of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is contentious for patients with a moderate to severe right outflow tract obstruction. The use of a transannular patch (TAP) exposes patients to chronic pulmonary regurgitation, while valve-sparing (VS) procedures may incompletely relieve pulmonary obstruction.

Objective: To compare 30-year outcomes of TOF repair after a VS procedure vs TAP.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted among all patients with TOF born in the province of Quebec, Canada, from 1980 to 2015 who underwent complete surgical repair. Patients who received a TAP or VS procedure were matched using a propensity score based on preoperative factors in a 1:1 ratio. Data were analyzed from March 2020 through April 2021.

Exposures: The study groups were individuals who received TAP and those who received VS. The VS group was further stratified by the presence of residual pulmonary stenosis.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, with 30-year survival evaluated using Cox proportional-hazards models. Secondary outcomes included the cumulative mean number of cardiovascular interventions, pulmonary valve replacements (PVRs), and cardiovascular hospitalizations were evaluated using marginal means/rates regressions.

Results: Among 683 patients with TOF (401 patients who underwent TAP [58.7%] and 282 patients who underwent a VS procedure [41.3%]), adequate propensity score matching was achieved for 528 patients (264 patients who underwent a VS procedure and 264 patients who underwent TAP). Among this study cohort, 307 individuals (58.1%) were men. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up was 16.0 (8.1-25.4) years, for a total of 8881 patient-years, including 63 individuals (11.9%) followed up for more than 30 years. Individuals who received a VS procedure had an increased 30-year survival of 99.1% compared with 90.4% for individuals who received TAP (hazard ratio [HR], 0.09 [95% CI, 0.02-0.41]; P = .002). Patients who underwent TAP had an increased 30-year cumulative mean number of cardiovascular interventions compared with patients who underwent a VS procedure without residual pulmonary stenosis (2.0 interventions [95% CI, 1.5-2.7 interventions] vs 0.7 interventions [95% CI, 0.5-1.1 interventions]; mean ratio [MR], 0.36 [95% CI, 0.25-0.50]; P < .001) and patients who underwent a VS procedure with at least moderate residual stenosis (1.3 interventions [95% CI, 0.9-1.9 interventions]; MR, 0.65 [0.45-0.93]; P = .02). Results were similar for PVR, with a 30-year cumulative mean 0.3 PVRs [95% CI, 0.1-0.7 PVRs] for patients who underwent a VS procedure without residual pulmonary stenosis (MR, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.12-0.43]; P < .001) and 0.6 PVRs (95% CI, 0.2-1.5 PVRs) for patients with at least moderate residual stenosis (MR, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.21-0.93]; P = .03), compared with 1.4 PVRs (95% CI, 0.8-2.5 PVRs) for the TAP group. No statistically significant difference was found for cardiovascular hospitalizations.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study found that patients who underwent a VS procedure had increased 30-year survival, fewer cardiovascular reinterventions, and fewer PVRs compared with individuals who underwent TAP, even in the presence of significant residual pulmonary stenosis. These findings suggest that it is beneficial to perform a VS procedure when possible, even in the presence of moderate residual stenosis, compared with the insertion of a TAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.18141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317016PMC
July 2021

Long COVID-19: A Primer for Cardiovascular Health Professionals, on Behalf of the CCS Rapid Response Team.

Can J Cardiol 2021 08 6;37(8):1260-1262. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Cardiac Sciences Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Electronic address:

It is now widely recognized that COVID-19 illness can be associated with significant intermediate and potentially longer-term physical limitations. The term, "long COVID-19" is used to define any patient with persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19 infection (ie, after 4 weeks). It is postulated that cardiac injury might be linked to symptoms that persist after resolution of acute infection, as part of this syndrome. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Rapid Response Team has generated this document to provide guidance to health care providers on the optimal management of patients with suspected cardiac complications of long COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2021.05.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180343PMC
August 2021

Neurocognitive disorders amongst patients with congenital heart disease undergoing procedures in childhood.

Int J Cardiol 2021 08 18;336:47-53. Epub 2021 May 18.

McGill Adult Unit for Congenital Heart Disease Excellence, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Amongst children with congenital heart disease (CHD), earlier age of repair improves cardiovascular outcomes. The effects of early intervention on neurodevelopment remains unclear. We assessed the association between early life repair, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the incidence of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) amongst CHD patients.

Methods: We created two retrospective cohorts from the Quebec CHD Database; with data from 1988 to 2010. Complexity of reparative procedures for CHD lesions were used as the proxy of CPB exposure with more complex procedure means longer exposure to CPB. Study Population 1 included pediatric patients with a single reparative procedure and compared patients with complex (long CBP) versus isolated shunt (short CBP) lesions. To assess the effects of CPB alone in Study Population 2 we compared patients with isolated atrial septal defects (ASD) who had surgical (short CBP) versus percutaneous (no CBP) repairs. The primary endpoint for both cohorts was development of an NCD.

Results: In Study population 1, 1174 patients underwent complex surgical repair and 1620 had a shunt closure. The incidence of NCDs was 2.45/100 person-years in the complex surgery group, and 2.08/100 person-years in the shunt closure group. The following were associated with increased risk of developing a NCD: surgical complexity (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.20, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.01-1.42), younger age at intervention (AAI) (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.16-1.25), male sex (HR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.61-2.27), and later calendar year at intervention (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04-1.07). Study population 2 had 527 isolated ASD patients; 202 underwent surgical repair and 325 had percutaneous closure. The incidence of NCDs was not statistically different between groups. Male sex (HR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.08-2.89) and younger AAI (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.25) were associated with increased NCD risk.

Conclusion: Increased surgical complexity, male sex and younger AAI were associated with increased risk of NCDs in pediatric CHD patients. Surveillance protocols should be considered to identify NCDs in CHD patients after cardiac intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.05.001DOI Listing
August 2021

Sarcopenia in Fontan patients: a sign of frailty-associated premature ageing?

Cardiol Young 2021 05 6;31(5):696-698. Epub 2021 May 6.

McGill Adult Unit for Congenital Heart Disease Excellence, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951121001748DOI Listing
May 2021

Lifespan Perspective on Congenital Heart Disease Research: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 05;77(17):2219-2235

McGill Adult Unit for Congenital Heart Disease Excellence (MAUDE Unit), Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

More than 90% of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are nowadays surviving to adulthood and adults account for over two-thirds of the contemporary CHD population in Western countries. Although outcomes are improved, surgery does not cure CHD. Decades of longitudinal observational data are currently motivating a paradigm shift toward a lifespan perspective and proactive approach to CHD care. The aim of this review is to operationalize these emerging concepts by presenting new constructs in CHD research. These concepts include long-term trajectories and a life course epidemiology framework. Focusing on a precision health, we propose to integrate our current knowledge on the genome, phenome, and environome across the CHD lifespan. We also summarize the potential of technology, especially machine learning, to facilitate longitudinal research by embracing big data and multicenter lifelong data collection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.03.012DOI Listing
May 2021

Different levels of care for follow-up of adults with congenital heart disease: a cost analysis scrutinizing the impact on medical costs, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits.

Eur J Health Econ 2021 Aug 9;22(6):951-960. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Corneel Heymanslaan 10, Entrance 42, Floor 4, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Aim: To scrutinize the economic impact of different care levels, such as shared care, in the follow-up of adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients.

Methods: The BELgian COngenital heart disease Database combining Administrative and Clinical data (BELCODAC) was analyzed. Patients (N = 6579) were categorized into five care levels based on their cardiac follow-up pattern between 2006 and 2010. Medical costs, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits were measured between 2011 and 2015.

Results: In patients with moderate lesions, highly specialized cardiac care (HSC; exclusive follow-up by ACHD specialists) and shared care with predominantly specialized cardiac care (SC+) were associated with significantly lower medical costs and resource use compared to shared care with predominantly general cardiac care (SC-) and general cardiac care (GCC). In the patient population with mild lesions, HSC was associated with better economic outcomes than SC- and GCC, but SC+ was not. HSC was associated with fewer hospitalizations (- 33%) and less pharmaceutical costs (- 46.3%) compared to SC+. Patients with mild and moderate lesions in the no cardiac care (NCC) group had better economic outcomes than those in the GCC and SC- groups, but post-hoc analysis revealed that they had a different patient profile than patients under cardiac care.

Conclusion: More specialized care levels are associated with better economic outcomes in patients with mild or moderate lesions in cardiac follow-up. Shared care with strong involvement of ACHD specialists might be a management option to consider. Characteristics of patients without cardiac follow-up but good medium-term economic prospects should be further scrutinized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10198-021-01300-5DOI Listing
August 2021

CHILD-BRIGHT READYorNot Brain-Based Disabilities Trial: protocol of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effectiveness of a patient-facing e-health intervention designed to enhance healthcare transition readiness in youth.

BMJ Open 2021 Mar 26;11(3):e048756. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Introduction: Youth with brain-based disabilities (BBDs), as well as their parents/caregivers, often feel ill-prepared for the transfer from paediatric to adult healthcare services. To address this pressing issue, we developed the MyREADY Transition BBD App, a patient-facing e-health intervention. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to determine whether the App will result in greater transition readiness compared with usual care for youth with BBD. Secondary aims included exploring the contextual experiences of youth using the App, as well as the interactive processes of youth, their parents/caregivers and healthcare providers around use of the intervention.

Methods And Analysis: We aimed to randomise 264 youth with BBD between 15 and 17 years of age, to receive existing services/usual care (control group) or to receive usual care along with the App (intervention group). Our recruitment strategy includes remote and virtual options in response to the current requirements for physical distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We will use an embedded experimental model design which involves embedding a qualitative study within a RCT. The Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire will be administered as the primary outcome measure. Analysis of covariance will be used to compare change in the two groups on the primary outcome measure; analysis will be intention-to-treat. Interviews will be conducted with subsets of youth in the intervention group, as well as parents/caregivers and healthcare providers.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study has been approved by the research ethics board of each participating site in four different regions in Canada. We will leverage our patient and family partnerships to find novel dissemination strategies. Study findings will be shared with the academic and stakeholder community, including dissemination of teaching and training tools through patient associations, and patient and family advocacy groups.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03852550.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-048756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006854PMC
March 2021

Reply to "Risk prediction models for heart failure admissions in adults with congenital heart disease: Methodological issues".

Int J Cardiol 2021 06 19;333:96. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

McGill Adult Unit for Congenital Heart Disease Excellence, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Division of Cardiology, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.03.025DOI Listing
June 2021

Discontinuity of Cardiac Follow-Up in Young People With Congenital Heart Disease Transitioning to Adulthood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 03 4;10(6):e019552. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care KU Leuven Belgium.

Background The majority of people born with congenital heart disease require lifelong cardiac follow-up. However, discontinuity of care is a recognized problem and appears to increase around the transition to adulthood. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the proportion of adolescents and emerging adults with congenital heart disease discontinuing cardiac follow-up. In pooled data, we investigated regional differences, disparities by disease complexity, and the impact of transition programs on the discontinuity of care. Methods and Results Searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, and Web of Science. We identified 17 studies, which enrolled 6847 patients. A random effects meta-analysis of single proportions was performed according to the DerSimonian-Laird method. Moderator effects were computed to explore sources for heterogeneity. Discontinuity proportions ranged from 3.6% to 62.7%, with a pooled estimated proportion of 26.1% (95% CI, 19.2%-34.6%). A trend toward more discontinuity was observed in simple heart defects (33.7%; 95% CI, 15.6%-58.3%), compared with moderate (25.7%; 95% CI, 15.2%-40.1%) or complex congenital heart disease (22.3%; 95% CI, 16.5%-29.4%) (=0.2372). Studies from the United States (34.0%; 95% CI, 24.3%-45.4%), Canada (25.7%; 95% CI, 17.0%-36.7%), and Europe (6.5%; 95% CI, 5.3%-7.9%) differed significantly (=0.0004). Transition programs were shown to have the potential to reduce discontinuity of care (12.7%; 95% CI, 2.8%-42.3%) compared with usual care (36.2%; 95% CI, 22.8%-52.2%) (=0.1119). Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that there is a high proportion of discontinuity of care in young people with congenital heart disease. The highest discontinuity proportions were observed in studies from the United States and in patients with simple heart defects. It is suggested that transition programs have a protective effect. Registration URL: www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero. Unique identifier: CRD42020182413.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174191PMC
March 2021

Management of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System blockade in patients admitted to hospital with confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection (The McGill RAAS-COVID- 19): A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Feb 5;22(1):115. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Division of Cardiology, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, 1001 Decarie Blvd, Montreal, Quebec, H4A 3J1, Canada.

Objectives: The aim of the RAAS-COVID-19 randomized control trial is to evaluate whether an upfront strategy of temporary discontinuation of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibition versus continuation of RAAS inhibition among patients admitted with established COVID-19 infection has an impact on short term clinical and biomarker outcomes. We hypothesize that continuation of RAAS inhibition will be superior to temporary discontinuation with regards to the primary endpoint of a global rank sum score. The global rank sum score has been successfully used in previous cardiovascular clinical trials.

Trial Design: This is an open label parallel two arm (1,1 ratio) randomized control superiority trial of approximately 40 COVID-19 patients who are on chronic RAAS inhibitor therapy.

Participants: Adults who are admitted to hospital within the McGill University Health Centre systems (MUHC) including Royal Victoria Hospital (RVH), Montreal General Hospital (MGH) and Jewish General Hospital (JGH) and who are within 96 hours of COVID-19 diagnosis (confirmed via PCR on any biological sample) will be considered for the trial. Of note, the initial protocol to screen and enrol within 48 hours of COVID-19 diagnosis was extended through an amendment, to 96 hours to increase feasibility. Participants have to be 18 years or older and would have to be on RAAS inhibitors for at least a month to be considered eligible for the study. Additionally, RAAS inhibitors should not have been held for more than 48 hours before randomization. A list of inclusion and exclusion criteria can be found in the full protocol document. In order to prevent heart failure exacerbation, patients with reduced ejection fraction were excluded from the trial. Once a patient is admitted on the ward with a diagnosis of COVID-19, we will confirm with the treating physician if the participant is suitable for the RAAS-COVID trial and meets all the inclusion and exclusion criteria. If the patient is eligible and informed consent has been obtained we will collect data on sex, age, ethnicity, past medical history and list of medications (e.g. other anti-hypertensives or anticoagulants), for further analysis.

Intervention And Comparator: All the study participants will be randomized to a strategy of temporarily holding the RAAS inhibitor [intervention] versus continuing the RAAS inhibitor [continued standard of care]. Among participants who are randomized to the intervention arm, alternative guide-line directed anti-hypertensive medication will be provided to the treating physician team (detail in study protocol). In the intervention arm RAAS inhibitor will be withheld for a total of 7 days with the possibility of the withdrawn medication being initiated at any point after day 7 or on the day of discharge. The recommendation for re-initiating the withdrawn medication will be made to the treating physician. The re-initiation of these therapies are according to standard convention and follow-up as per Canadian guidelines. Additionally, the date of restarting the withdrawn medication or whether the medication was re-prescribed on discharge or not, will be collected. This will be used to conduct a sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, biomarkers such as troponin, c-reactive protein (CRP) and lymphocyte count will be assessed during the same time period. Samples will be collected on randomization, day 4 and day 7.

Main Outcomes: PRIMARY ENDPOINT: In this study the primary end point is a global rank score calculated for all participants, regardless of treatment assignment ( score from 0 to 7). Please refer to table 4 in the full protocol. In the context of the current trial, it is estimated that death is the most meaningful endpoint, and therefore has the highest score ( score of 7). This is followed by admission to ICU, the need for mechanical ventilation etc. The lowest scores ( score of 1) are assigned to biomarker changes (e.g. change in troponin, change in CRP). This strategy has been used successfully in cardiovascular disease trials and therefore is applicable to the current trial. The primary endpoint for the present trial is assessed from baseline to day 7 (or discharge). Participants are ranked across the clinical and biomarker domains. Lower values indicate better health (or stability). Participants who died during the 7th day of the study will be ranked based on all events occurring before their death and also including the fatal event in the score. Next, participants who did not die but were transferred to ICU for invasive ventilation will be ranked based on all the events occurring before the ICU entry and also including the ICU admission in the score. Those participants who did not die were not transferred to ICU for invasive ventilation, will be ranked based on the subsequent outcomes. The mean rank score will then be compared between groups. In this scheme, a lower mean rank score indicates greater overall stability for participants. Secondary endpoints : The key secondary endpoints are the individual components of the primary components and include the following: death, transfer to ICU primarily for invasive ventilation, transfer to ICU for other indication, non-fatal MACE ( any of following, MI, stroke, acute HF, new onset Afib), length of stay > 4 days, development of acute kidney injury ( > 40% decline in eGFR or doubling of serum creatinine), urgent intravenous treatment for high blood pressure, 30% increase in baseline high sensitivity troponin, 30% increase in baseline BNP, increase in CRP to > 30% in 48 hours and lymphocyte count drop> 30%. We will also look at the World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale for clinical improvement (in COVID-19) in our data. In this scale death will be assigned the highest score of 8. Patients with no limitation of activity will be assigned a score of 1 which indicates overall more stability (3). Additionally, we will evaluate the potential effects of discontinuing RAAS inhibition on alternative schedules (longer/shorter than 7 days, intermittent discontinuation) using a mechanistic mathematical model of COVID-19 immunopathology calibrated to data collected from our patient cohort. In particular, we will assess the impact of alternative schedules on primary and secondary endpoints including increases to baseline CRP and lymphocyte counts.

Randomization: Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio. Randomization will be performed within an electronic database system at the time of enrolment using a random number generator, an approach that has been successfully used in other clinical trials. Neither participant, study team, or treating team will be blinded to the intervention arm.

Blinding: This is an open label study with no blinding.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): The approximate number of participants required for this trial is 40 patients (randomized 1:1 to continuation versus discontinuation of RAAS inhibitors). This number was calculated based on previous rates of outcomes for COVID-19 in the literature (e.g. death, ICU transfer) and statistical power calculations.

Trial Status: Protocol number: MP-37-2021-6641, Version 4: 01-10-2020. Trial start date September 1 2020 and currently enrolling participants. Estimated end date for recruitment of participants : July 2021. Estimated end date for study completion: September 1 2021.

Trial Registration: Trial registration: ClincalTrials.gov : NCT04508985 , date of registration: August 11 , 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05080-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862851PMC
February 2021

Recurrent disease progression networks for modelling risk trajectory of heart failure.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(1):e0245177. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

School of Computer Science, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Motivation: Recurrent neural networks (RNN) are powerful frameworks to model medical time series records. Recent studies showed improved accuracy of predicting future medical events (e.g., readmission, mortality) by leveraging large amount of high-dimensional data. However, very few studies have explored the ability of RNN in predicting long-term trajectories of recurrent events, which is more informative than predicting one single event in directing medical intervention.

Methods: In this study, we focus on heart failure (HF) which is the leading cause of death among cardiovascular diseases. We present a novel RNN framework named Deep Heart-failure Trajectory Model (DHTM) for modelling the long-term trajectories of recurrent HF. DHTM auto-regressively predicts the future HF onsets of each patient and uses the predicted HF as input to predict the HF event at the next time point. Furthermore, we propose an augmented DHTM named DHTM+C (where "C" stands for co-morbidities), which jointly predicts both the HF and a set of acute co-morbidities diagnoses. To efficiently train the DHTM+C model, we devised a novel RNN architecture to model disease progression implicated in the co-morbidities.

Results: Our deep learning models confers higher prediction accuracy for both the next-step HF prediction and the HF trajectory prediction compared to the baseline non-neural network models and the baseline RNN model. Compared to DHTM, DHTM+C is able to output higher probability of HF for high-risk patients, even in cases where it is only given less than 2 years of data to predict over 5 years of trajectory. We illustrated multiple non-trivial real patient examples of complex HF trajectories, indicating a promising path for creating highly accurate and scalable longitudinal deep learning models for modeling the chronic disease.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245177PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787457PMC
May 2021

Cardiovascular Care Delivery During the Second Wave of COVID-19 in Canada.

Can J Cardiol 2021 05 9;37(5):790-793. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Mazankowski Alberta Hearth Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Hospitals and ambulatory facilities significantly reduced cardiac care delivery in response to the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The deferral of elective cardiovascular procedures led to a marked reduction in health care delivery with a significant impact on optimal cardiovascular care. International and Canadian data have reported dramatically increased wait times for diagnostic tests and cardiovascular procedures, as well as associated increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the wake of the demonstrated ability to rapidly create critical care and hospital ward capacity, we advocate a different approach during the second and possible subsequent COVID-19 pandemic waves. We suggest an approach, informed by local data and experience, that balances the need for an expected rise in demand for health care resources to ensure appropriate COVID-19 surge capacity with continued delivery of essential cardiovascular care. Incorporating cardiovascular care leaders into pandemic planning and operations will help health care systems minimise cardiac care delivery disruptions while maintaining critical care and hospital ward surge capacity and continuing measures to reduce transmission risk in health care settings. Specific recommendations targeting the main pillars of cardiovascular care are presented: ambulatory, inpatient, procedural, diagnostic, surgical, and rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.11.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836859PMC
May 2021

The TRIVIA Cohort for Surgical Management of Tetralogy of Fallot: Merging Population and Clinical Data for Real-World Scientific Evidence.

CJC Open 2020 Nov 22;2(6):663-670. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.

Background: Guidelines for surgical management of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are often based on low-quality evidence due to the many challenges of congenital heart disease: heterogeneous cardiac anatomy, consequences from surgical interventions arising years later, and scarcity of hard outcomes. The overarching goal of the etralogy of Fallot esearch for mprovement of alve replacement ntervention: Bridge Across the Knowledge Gap (TRIVIA) study is to evaluate the long-term impact of the surgical management strategies in TOF. The specific objectives are: (1) to describe the long-term outcomes of TOF according to the native anatomy and the presence of genetic conditions, (2) to evaluate the long-term outcomes of surgical repair according to associated residual lesions, and (3) to evaluate the impact of paediatric pulmonary valve replacements on the long-term outcomes.

Methods: The TRIVIA study is a population-based cohort including all subjects with TOF in the province of Québec between 1980 and 2017. It links patient-level granular clinical data with long-term administrative health care data. We will evaluate mortality, cardiovascular interventions, and hospitalizations for adverse cardiovascular events using survival Cox models and marginal mean/rates models for recurrent events, respectively. Multivariate multilevel models will correct for potential confounders, and risk score matching will mitigate the potential of confounding by indication.

Results: The current TRIVIA cohort includes 1001 eligible subjects with TOF with complete lifelong follow-up for > 98%. The median follow-up is 17.1 years, totalling > 17,000 patient-years.

Conclusions: Universal health insurance data combined with granular clinical data enable the development of population-based cohorts, to which contemporary statistical methods are applied to address important research questions in congenital heart disease research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2020.06.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710944PMC
November 2020

The 30-Year Outcomes of Tetralogy of Fallot According to Native Anatomy and Genetic Conditions.

Can J Cardiol 2021 06 12;37(6):877-886. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada; Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: The reported survival of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is > 97%. Patients with pulmonary atresia and/or genetic conditions have worse outcomes, but long-term estimates of survival and morbidity for these TOF subgroups are scarce. The objective of this study was to describe the 30-year outcomes of TOF according to native anatomy and the coexistence of genetic conditions.

Methods: The TRIVIA (Tetralogy of Fallot Research for Improvement of Valve Replacement Intervention: A Bridge Across the Knowledge Gap) study is a retrospective population-based cohort including all TOF subjects born from 1980 to 2015 in Québec. We evaluated all-cause mortality by means of Cox proportional hazards regression, and cumulative mean number of cardiovascular interventions and unplanned hospitalisations with the use of marginal means/rates models. We computed 30-year estimates of outcomes according to TOF types, ie, classic TOF (cTOF) and TOF with pulmonary atresia (TOF-PA), and the presence of genetic conditions.

Results: We included 960 subjects. The median follow-up was 17 years (interquartile range, 8-27). Nonsyndromic cTOF subjects had a 30-year survival of 95% and had undergone a mean of 2.8 interventions and 0.5 hospitalisations per subject. In comparison, TOF-PA subjects had a lower 30-year survival of 78% and underwent a mean of 8.1 interventions, with 4 times as many hospitalisations. The presence of a genetic condition was associated with lower survival (< 85% for cTOF and < 60% for TOF-PA) but similar numbers of interventions and hospitalisations.

Conclusions: The anatomic types and the presence of genetic conditions strongly influence the long-term outcomes of TOF. We provided robust 30-year estimates for key markers of prognosis that may be used to improve risk stratification and provide more informed counselling to families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.10.002DOI Listing
June 2021

Risk prediction models for heart failure admissions in adults with congenital heart disease.

Int J Cardiol 2021 01 14;322:149-157. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

McGill Adult Unit for Congenital Heart Disease Excellence, Montréal, Québec, Canada; iCACH Net Group (Canadian Adult Congenital Heart Disease Network Investigators' Group), Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of death in adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD). No risk prediction model exists for HF hospitalization (HFH) for ACHD patients. We aimed to develop a clinically relevant one-year risk prediction system to identify ACHD patients at high risk for HFH.

Methods: Data source was the Quebec CHD Database. A retrospective cohort including all ACHD patients aged 18-64 (1995-2010) was constructed for assessing the cumulative risk of HFH adjusting for competing risk of death. To identify one-year predictors of incident HFH, multivariable logistic regressions were employed to a nested case-control sample of all ACHD patients aged 18-64 in 2009. The final model was used to create a risk score system based on adjusted odds ratios.

Results: The cohort included 29,991 ACHD patients followed for 648,457 person-years. The cumulative HFH risk by age 65 was 12.58%. The case-control sample comprised 26,420 subjects, of whom 189 had HFHs. Significant one-year predictors were age ≥ 50, male sex, CHD lesion severity, recent 12-month HFH history, pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, systemic arterial hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. The created risk score ranged from 0 to 19. The corresponding HFH risk rose rapidly beyond a score of 8. The risk scoring system demonstrated excellent prediction performance.

Conclusions: One eighth of ACHD population experienced HFH before age 65. Age, sex, CHD lesion severity, recent 12-month HFH history, and comorbidities constructed a risk prediction model that successfully identified patients at high risk for HFH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.08.039DOI Listing
January 2021

Determinants of Survival in Older Adults With Congenital Heart Disease Newly Hospitalized for Heart Failure.

Circ Heart Fail 2020 08 16;13(8):e006490. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

McGill Adult Unit for Congenital Heart Disease Excellence, Montreal, QC, Canada (F.W., A.L., A.M.).

Background: Nearly 90% of patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) die after the age of 40 years, and heart failure (HF) is the most common cause of death. We aimed to characterize the association between an incident HF hospitalization (HFH) and mortality and to identify the predictors of 1-year postdischarge mortality after incident and repeated HFHs, respectively.

Methods: Patients with ACHD aged ≥40 years between 2000 and 2010 were identified from the Québec CHD database. We conducted a propensity score-matched study to explore the association between an incident HFH and mortality. We performed Bayesian model averaging to identify the predictors of 1-year postdischarge mortality with a posterior probability ≥50% considered to be evidence of a significant association.

Results: The mortality hazard ratio was high at 6.01 (95% CI, 4.02-10.72) within 1-year postdischarge, decreasing significantly but entering an elevated equilibrium until year 4 with a continued 3-fold increase in death. Kidney dysfunction (hazard ratio, 2.28 [95% credible interval, 1.59-3.28], posterior probability, 100.0%) and a history of ≥2 HFHs in the past 12 months (hazard ratio, 1.77 [95% credible interval, 1.18-2.66], posterior probability: 82.2%) were the most robust predictors of 1-year mortality after incident and repeated HFHs, respectively.

Conclusions: In patients with ACHD aged ≥40 years, incident HFH was associated with high mortality risk at 1 year, declining but remaining elevated for 4 years. Kidney dysfunction was a potent predictor of 1-year mortality risk after incident HFHs. Repeated HFHs further increased mortality risk. These observations should inform early risk-tailored health services interventions for monitoring and prevention of HF and its associated complications in older patients with ACHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006490DOI Listing
August 2020

Access and Delivery of Adult Congenital Heart Disease Care in the United States: Quality-Driven Team-Based Care.

Cardiol Clin 2020 Aug 7;38(3):295-304. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Columbus Ohio Adult Congenital Heart Disease Program, Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, The Ohio State University, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 451 West 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

The landscape of congenital heart disease has changed rapidly over the past few decades. The shift from pediatric to adult congenital heart disease care has stretched resources and the ability to provide high-quality access and delivery of care for the more than 1.5 million adults with congenital heart disease in the United States. Meeting the demand for delivering high-quality care requires a team-based approach, with each member highly specialized. This review describes the deficits and deficiencies in providing care for adults with congenital heart disease in the United States and a team-based approach to improving access and delivery of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccl.2020.04.012DOI Listing
August 2020

Adult Congenital Heart Disease-Preparing for the Changing Work Force Demand.

Cardiol Clin 2020 Aug 10;38(3):283-294. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

McGill Adult Unit for Congenital Heart Disease Excellence (MAUDE Unit), Division of Cardiology, McGill University, RVH/Glen Site, D055108, 1001 Decarie Boulevard, Montreal, Quebec H4A3J1, Canada. Electronic address:

This volume is dedicated to advances in the care of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). In this chapter the authors review the data cornerstone to the growing workforce needs.This first chapter serves as a backdrop to the second chapter that applies these observations to the planning of health care services delivery in the United States accounting for the definition and organization of multisystem expertise and centers for adults with CHD at a health systems level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccl.2020.04.011DOI Listing
August 2020

Risk of readmission after heart failure hospitalization in older adults with congenital heart disease.

Int J Cardiol 2020 Dec 21;320:70-76. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Division of Cardiology, McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Hospital readmissions are common in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) with heart failure (HF). We sought to examine the temporal risk of readmissions, the prompting diagnoses and their determinants within one-year after a first HF hospitalization in older CHD patients.

Method: We assembled a cohort from the Quebec CHD database of patients whose first-ever HF hospitalization occurred after age 40. Subjects were followed from the first HF discharge to the earliest of all-cause readmission, death, or one-year post-discharge. The Fine and Gray model was used to measure the weekly readmission risks. The one-year period was categorized into different stages based on readmission risks. A multinomial logistic regression model was adopted to identify the determinants of patients falling in different readmission stages.

Results: The one-year death-adjusted cumulative readmission risk was 48.8%. The absolute weekly risk of readmission was the highest at week 2, declined by 50% at week 8, and reached a plateau at week 27. Three phases-vigilance (1-8 weeks), transition (9-27 weeks), and plateau (28-52 weeks)-were identified, corresponding to high-risk, decreasing-risk, and stable-risk periods. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for 61.7%, 50.3%, and 43.2% of all readmissions during the three phases; systemic diseases accounted for 15.2%, 19.9%, and 31.2%. A history of past-12-month interventional procedures saw significantly decreased readmission risks. Longer hospital stays were associated with lower readmission risks at the vigilance phase only.

Conclusion: Policy makers and caregivers should account for the change in risk over time, and phase-tailored strategies should be planned to effectively reduce readmissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.06.025DOI Listing
December 2020

Cardiac Rehabilitation During the COVID-19 Era: Guidance on Implementing Virtual Care.

Can J Cardiol 2020 08 14;36(8):1317-1321. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Centre for Cardiovascular Innovation, Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Cardiac rehabilitation programs across Canada have suspended in-person services as a result of large-scale physical distancing recommendations designed to flatten the COVID-19 pandemic curve. Virtual cardiac rehabilitation (VCR) offers an alternate mechanism of care delivery, capable of providing similar patient outcomes and safety profiles compared with centre-based programs. To minimize care gaps, all centres should consider developing and implementing a VCR program. The process of this rapid implementation, however, can be daunting. Centres should initially focus on the collation, utilization, and repurposing of existing resources, equipment, and technology. Once established, programs should then focus on ensuring that quality indicators are met and care processes are protocolized. This should be followed by the development of sustainable VCR solutions to account for care gaps that existed before COVID-19, and to improve cardiac rehabilitation delivery, moving forward. This article reviews the potential challenges and obstacles of this process and aims to provide pragmatic guidance to aid clinicians and administrators during this challenging time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.06.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293761PMC
August 2020

Guiding Cardiac Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic: How Ethics Shapes Our Health System Response.

Can J Cardiol 2020 08 4;36(8):1313-1316. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Centre for Cardiovascular Innovation, Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised ethical questions for the cardiovascular leader and practitioner. Attention has been redirected from a system that focuses on individual patient benefit toward one that focuses on protecting society as a whole. Challenging resource allocation questions highlight the need for a clearly articulated ethics framework that integrates principled decision making into how different cardiovascular care services are prioritized. A practical application of the principles of harm minimisation, fairness, proportionality, respect, reciprocity, flexibility, and procedural justice is provided, and a model for prioritisation of the restoration of cardiovascular services is outlined. The prioritisation model may be used to determine how and when cardiovascular services should be continued or restored. There should be a focus on an iterative and responsive approach to broader health care system needs, such as other disease groups and local outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.06.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270812PMC
August 2020

Creating the BELgian COngenital heart disease database combining administrative and clinical data (BELCODAC): Rationale, design and methodology.

Int J Cardiol 2020 10 27;316:72-78. Epub 2020 May 27.

KU Leuven Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Academic Center for Nursing and Midwifery, KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) entails a broad spectrum of malformations with various degrees of severity and prognosis. Consequently, new and specific healthcare needs are emerging, requiring responsive healthcare provision. Research on this matter is predominantly performed on population-based databases, to inform clinicians, researchers and policy-makers on health outcomes and economic burden of CHD. Most databases contain data either from administrative sources or from clinical systems. We describe the methodological design of the BELgian COngenital Heart Disease Database combining Administrative and Clinical data (BELCODAC), to investigate patients with CHD.

Methods: Data on clinical characteristics from three university hospitals in Belgium (Leuven, Ghent and Brussels) were merged with mortality and socio-economic data from the official Belgian statistical office (StatBel), and with healthcare use data from the InterMutualistic Agency, an overarching national organization that collects data from the seven sickness funds for all Belgian citizens. Over 60 variables with multiple entries over time are included in the database.

Results: BELCODAC contains data on 18,510 patients, of which 8926 patients (48%) have a mild, 7490 (41%) a moderately complex and 2094 (11%) a complex anatomical heart defect. The most prevalent diagnosis is Ventricular Septal Defect in 3879 patients (21%), followed by Atrial Septal Defect in 2565 patients (14%).

Conclusions: BELCODAC comprises longitudinal data on patients with CHD in Belgium. This will help build evidence-based provision of care to the changing CHD population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.05.059DOI Listing
October 2020

Inferring multimodal latent topics from electronic health records.

Nat Commun 2020 05 21;11(1):2536. Epub 2020 May 21.

Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 32 Vassar St, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Electronic health records (EHR) are rich heterogeneous collections of patient health information, whose broad adoption provides clinicians and researchers unprecedented opportunities for health informatics, disease-risk prediction, actionable clinical recommendations, and precision medicine. However, EHRs present several modeling challenges, including highly sparse data matrices, noisy irregular clinical notes, arbitrary biases in billing code assignment, diagnosis-driven lab tests, and heterogeneous data types. To address these challenges, we present MixEHR, a multi-view Bayesian topic model. We demonstrate MixEHR on MIMIC-III, Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder, and Quebec Congenital Heart Disease EHR datasets. Qualitatively, MixEHR disease topics reveal meaningful combinations of clinical features across heterogeneous data types. Quantitatively, we observe superior prediction accuracy of diagnostic codes and lab test imputations compared to the state-of-art methods. We leverage the inferred patient topic mixtures to classify target diseases and predict mortality of patients in critical conditions. In all comparison, MixEHR confers competitive performance and reveals meaningful disease-related topics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16378-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242436PMC
May 2020

Eisenmenger Syndrome in Pregnancy: A Management Conundrum.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2020 Oct 6;34(10):2813-2822. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2020.02.053DOI Listing
October 2020
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