Publications by authors named "Archana V Boopathy"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Rapid Germinal Center and Antibody Responses in Non-human Primates after a Single Nanoparticle Vaccine Immunization.

Cell Rep 2019 11;29(7):1756-1766.e8

Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI), La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Development, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92103, USA. Electronic address:

The first immunization in a protein prime-boost vaccination is likely to be critical for how the immune response unfolds. Using fine needle aspirates (FNAs) of draining lymph nodes (LNs), we tracked the kinetics of the primary immune response in rhesus monkeys immunized intramuscularly (IM) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with an eOD-GT8 60-mer nanoparticle immunogen to facilitate clinical trial design. Significant numbers of germinal center B (B) cells and antigen-specific CD4 T cells were detectable in the draining LN as early as 7 days post-immunization and peaked near day 21. Strikingly, s.c. immunization results in 10-fold larger antigen-specific B cell responses compared to IM immunization. Lymphatic drainage studies revealed that s.c. immunization resulted in faster and more consistent axillary LN drainage than IM immunization. These data indicate robust antigen-specific germinal center responses can occur rapidly to a single immunization with a nanoparticle immunogen and vaccine drainage substantially impacts immune responses in local LNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6905039PMC
November 2019

Enhancing humoral immunity via sustained-release implantable microneedle patch vaccination.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 08 29;116(33):16473-16478. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139;

Sustained exposure of lymphoid tissues to vaccine antigens promotes humoral immunity, but traditional bolus immunizations lead to rapid antigen clearance. We describe a technology to tailor vaccine kinetics in a needle-free platform translatable to human immunization. Solid pyramidal microneedle (MN) arrays were fabricated with silk fibroin protein tips encapsulating a stabilized HIV envelope trimer immunogen and adjuvant, supported on a dissolving polymer base. Upon brief skin application, vaccine-loaded silk tips are implanted in the epidermis/upper dermis where they release vaccine over a time period determined by the crystallinity of the silk matrix. Following MN immunization in mice, Env trimer was released over 2 wk in the skin, correlating with increased germinal center (GC) B cell responses, a ∼1,300-fold increase in serum IgG titers and a 16-fold increase in bone marrow (BM) plasma cells compared with bolus immunization. Thus, implantable MNs provide a practical means to substantially enhance humoral immunity to subunit vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1902179116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6697788PMC
August 2019

Cell and fluid sampling microneedle patches for monitoring skin-resident immunity.

Sci Transl Med 2018 11;10(467)

Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Important cell populations reside within tissues and are not accessed by traditional blood draws used to monitor the immune system. To address this issue at an essential barrier tissue, the skin, we created a microneedle-based technology for longitudinal sampling of cells and interstitial fluid, enabling minimally invasive parallel monitoring of immune responses. Solid microneedle projections were coated by a cross-linked biocompatible polymer, which swells upon skin insertion, forming a porous matrix for local leukocyte infiltration. By embedding molecular adjuvants and specific antigens encapsulated in nanocapsules within the hydrogel coating, antigen-specific lymphocytes can be enriched in the recovered cell population, allowing for subsequent detailed phenotypic and functional analysis. We demonstrate this approach in mice immunized with a model protein antigen or infected in the skin with vaccinia virus. After vaccination or infection, sampling microneedles allowed tissue-resident memory T cells (Ts) to be longitudinally monitored in the skin for many months, during which time the antigen-specific T cell population in systemic circulation contracted to low or undetectable counts. Sampling microneedles did not change the immune status of naïve or antigen-exposed animals. We also validated the ability of cell sampling using human skin samples. This approach may be useful in vaccines and immunotherapies to temporally query T populations or as a diagnostic platform to sample for biomarkers in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, allowing information previously accessible only via invasive biopsies to be obtained in a minimally invasive manner from the skin or other mucosal tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aar2227DOI Listing
November 2018

Elicitation of Robust Tier 2 Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Nonhuman Primates by HIV Envelope Trimer Immunization Using Optimized Approaches.

Immunity 2017 06;46(6):1073-1088.e6

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center and the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:

The development of stabilized recombinant HIV envelope trimers that mimic the virion surface molecule has increased enthusiasm for a neutralizing antibody (nAb)-based HIV vaccine. However, there is limited experience with recombinant trimers as immunogens in nonhuman primates, which are typically used as a model for humans. Here, we tested multiple immunogens and immunization strategies head-to-head to determine their impact on the quantity, quality, and kinetics of autologous tier 2 nAb development. A bilateral, adjuvanted, subcutaneous immunization protocol induced reproducible tier 2 nAb responses after only two immunizations 8 weeks apart, and these were further enhanced by a third immunization with BG505 SOSIP trimer. We identified immunogens that minimized non-neutralizing V3 responses and demonstrated that continuous immunogen delivery could enhance nAb responses. nAb responses were strongly associated with germinal center reactions, as assessed by lymph node fine needle aspiration. This study provides a framework for preclinical and clinical vaccine studies targeting nAb elicitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2017.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5483234PMC
June 2017

Age-Dependent Effect of Pediatric Cardiac Progenitor Cells After Juvenile Heart Failure.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2016 Jul 5;5(7):883-92. Epub 2016 May 5.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Unlabelled: Children with congenital heart diseases have increased morbidity and mortality, despite various surgical treatments, therefore warranting better treatment strategies. Here we investigate the role of age of human pediatric cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) on ventricular remodeling in a model of juvenile heart failure. hCPCs isolated from children undergoing reconstructive surgeries were divided into 3 groups based on age: neonate (1 day to 1 month), infant (1 month to 1 year), and child (1 to 5 years). Adolescent athymic rats were subjected to sham or pulmonary artery banding surgery to generate a model of right ventricular (RV) heart failure. Two weeks after surgery, hCPCs were injected in RV musculature noninvasively. Analysis of cardiac function 4 weeks post-transplantation demonstrated significantly increased tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and RV ejection fraction and significantly decreased wall thickness and fibrosis in rats transplanted with neonatal hCPCs compared with saline-injected rats. Computational modeling and systems biology analysis were performed on arrays and gave insights into potential mechanisms at the microRNA and gene level. Mechanisms including migration and proliferation assays, as suggested by computational modeling, showed improved chemotactic and proliferative capacity of neonatal hCPCs compared with infant/child hCPCs. In vivo immunostaining further suggested increased recruitment of stem cell antigen 1-positive cells in the right ventricle. This is the first study to assess the role of hCPC age in juvenile RV heart failure. Interestingly, the reparative potential of hCPCs is age-dependent, with neonatal hCPCs exerting the maximum beneficial effect compared with infant and child hCPCs.

Significance: Stem cell therapy for children with congenital heart defects is moving forward, with several completed and ongoing clinical trials. Although there are studies showing how children differ from adults, few focus on the differences among children. This study using human cardiac progenitor cells shows age-related changes in the reparative ability of cells in a model of pediatric heart failure and uses computational and systems biology to elucidate potential mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5966/sctm.2015-0241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4922847PMC
July 2016

Intramyocardial Delivery of Notch Ligand-Containing Hydrogels Improves Cardiac Function and Angiogenesis Following Infarction.

Tissue Eng Part A 2015 Sep 13;21(17-18):2315-22. Epub 2015 Jul 13.

1 Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology , Atlanta, Georgia .

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Notch1 signaling plays a critical role in cardiac development, in survival, cardiogenic lineage commitment, differentiation of cardiac stem/progenitor cells, and in regenerative responses following myocardial injury. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the therapeutic effect of delivering the Notch ligand-containing hydrogels in a rat model of MI. Self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogels were functionalized with a peptide mimic of the Notch1 ligand Jagged1 (RJ). In rats subjected to experimental MI, delivery of RJ-containing hydrogel to the infarcted heart resulted in improvement in cardiac function back to sham-operated levels. A significant decrease in fibrosis and an increase in the endothelial vessel area and Ki67 expression were also observed in rats treated with the RJ hydrogels compared to untreated rats or rats treated with unmodified or scrambled peptide hydrogels. This study demonstrates the functional benefit of Notch1-activating peptide delivered in SAP hydrogels for cardiac repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEA.2014.0622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4555480PMC
September 2015

The modulation of cardiac progenitor cell function by hydrogel-dependent Notch1 activation.

Biomaterials 2014 Sep 25;35(28):8103-12. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Interdisciplinary BioEngineering Program, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA; Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA; Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Emory+Children's Center for Cardiovascular Biology, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:

Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death worldwide and phase I clinical trials utilizing cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have shown promising outcomes. Notch1 signaling plays a critical role in cardiac development and in the survival, cardiogenic lineage commitment, and differentiation of cardiac stem/progenitor cells. In this study, we functionalized self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogels with a peptide mimic of the Notch1 ligand Jagged1 (RJ) to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of CPC delivery in the hydrogels in a rat model of myocardial infarction. The behavior of CPCs cultured in the 3D hydrogels in vitro including gene expression, proliferation, and growth factor production was evaluated. Interestingly, we observed Notch1 activation to be dependent on hydrogel polymer density/stiffness with synergistic increase in presence of RJ. Our results show that RJ mediated Notch1 activation depending on hydrogel concentration differentially regulated cardiogenic gene expression, proliferation, and growth factor production in CPCs in vitro. In rats subjected to experimental myocardial infarction, improvement in acute retention and cardiac function was observed following cell therapy in RJ hydrogels compared to unmodified or scrambled peptide containing hydrogels. This study demonstrates the potential therapeutic benefit of functionalizing SAP hydrogels with RJ for CPC based cardiac repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.05.082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4150689PMC
September 2014

Dysregulation of catalase activity in newborn myocytes during hypoxia is mediated by c-Abl tyrosine kinase.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2015 Jan 15;20(1):93-103. Epub 2014 May 15.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Emory+Children's Center for Cardiovascular Biology, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA

In the adult heart, catalase (CAT) activity increases appropriately with increasing levels of hydrogen peroxide, conferring cardioprotection. This mechanism is absent in the newborn for unknown reasons. In the present study, we examined how the posttranslational modification of CAT contributes to its activation during hypoxia/ischemia and the role of c-Abl tyrosine kinase in this process. Hypoxia studies were carried out using primary cardiomyocytes from adult (>8 weeks) and newborn rats. Following hypoxia, the ratio of phosphorylated to total CAT and c-Abl in isolated newborn rat myocytes did not increase and were significantly lower (1.3- and 4.2-fold, respectively; P < .05) than their adult counterparts. Similarly, there was a significant association (P < .0005) between c-Abl and CAT in adult cells following hypoxia (30.9 ± 8.2 to 70.7 ± 13.1 au) that was absent in newborn myocytes. Although ubiquitination of CAT was higher in newborns compared to adults following hypoxia, inhibition of this did not improve CAT activity. When a c-Abl activator (5-(1,3-diaryl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)hydantoin [DPH], 200 µmol/L) was administered prior to hypoxia, not only CAT activity was significantly increased (P < .05) but also phosphorylation levels were also significantly improved (P < .01) in these newborn myocytes. Additionally, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) studies were performed using newborn (4-5 days) rabbit hearts perfused in a Langendorff method. The DPH given as an intracardiac injection into the right ventricle of newborn rabbit resulted in a significant improvement (P < .002) in the recovery of developed pressure after IR, a key indicator of cardiac function (from 74.6% ± 6.6% to 118.7% ± 10.9%). In addition, CAT activity was increased 3.92-fold (P < .02) in the same DPH-treated hearts. Addition of DPH to adult rabbits in contrast had no significant effect (from 71.3% ± 10.7% to 59.4% ± 12.1%). Therefore, in the newborn, decreased phosphorylation of CAT by c-Abl potentially mediates IR-induced dysfunction, and activation of c-Abl may be a strategy to prevent ischemic injury associated with surgical procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1074248414533746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4237687PMC
January 2015

Self-assembling peptide-based delivery of therapeutics for myocardial infarction.

Methods Mol Biol 2014 ;1141:159-64

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Drug and cell delivery systems could be modulated to serve as instructive microenvironments in regenerative medicine. Towards this end, several synthetic biomaterials have been developed to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) for therapeutic use. These include synthetic polymers, decellularized ECM, self-assembling polymers, and cell-responsive hydrogels with varied applications. Here, we describe the development of a self-assembling peptide hydrogel and its potential use as a cell and growth factor delivery vehicle to the infarcted heart in a rodent model of myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0363-4_10DOI Listing
May 2015

Delivery of Nox2-NADPH oxidase siRNA with polyketal nanoparticles for improving cardiac function following myocardial infarction.

Biomaterials 2013 Oct 13;34(31):7790-8. Epub 2013 Jul 13.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most common cause of heart failure (HF), the leading cause of death in the developed world. Oxidative stress due to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling leading to HF. NADPH oxidase with Nox2 as the catalytic subunit is a major source for cardiac ROS production. Nox2-NADPH expression is significantly increased in the infarcted myocardium, primarily in neutrophils, macrophages and myocytes. Moreover, mice lacking the Nox2 gene are protected from ischemic injury, implicating Nox2 as a potential therapeutic target. RNAi-mediated gene silencing holds great promise as a therapeutic owing to its high specificity and potency. However, in vivo delivery hurdles have limited its effective clinical use. Here, we demonstrate acid-degradable polyketal particles as delivery vehicles for Nox2-siRNA to the post-MI heart. In vitro, Nox2-siRNA particles are effectively taken up by macrophages and significantly knockdown Nox2 expression and activity. Following in vivo intramyocardial injection in experimental mice models of MI, Nox2-siRNA particles prevent upregulation of Nox2 and significantly recovered cardiac function. This study highlights the potential of polyketals as siRNA delivery vehicles to the MI heart and represents a viable therapeutic approach for targeting oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.06.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3766948PMC
October 2013

Oxidative stress-induced Notch1 signaling promotes cardiogenic gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2013 Apr 18;4(2):43. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Introduction: Administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after myocardial infarction (MI) results in modest functional improvements. However; the effect of microenvironment changes after MI, such as elevated levels of oxidative stress on cardiogenic gene expression of MSCs, remains unclear.

Methods: MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of adult rats and treated for 1 week with H2O2 (0.1 to 100 μM) or 48 hours with glucose oxidase (GOX; 0 to 5 mU/ml) to mimic long-term pulsed or short-term continuous levels of H2O2, respectively.

Results: In 100 μM H2O2 or 5 mU/ml GOX-treated MSCs, mRNA expression of selected endothelial genes (Flt1, vWF, PECAM1), and early cardiac marker (nkx2-5, αMHC) increased significantly, whereas early smooth muscle markers (smooth muscle α-actin and sm22α) and fibroblast marker vimentin decreased, as measured with real-time PCR. Interestingly, mRNA expression and activity of the cell-surface receptor Notch1 were significantly increased, as were its downstream targets, Hes5 and Hey1. Co-treatment of MSCs with 100 μM H2O2 and a γ-secretase inhibitor that prevents Notch signaling abrogated the increase in cardiac and endothelial genes, while augmenting the decrease in smooth muscle markers. Further, on GOX treatment, a significant increase in Wnt11, a downstream target of Notch1, was observed. Similar results were obtained with adult rat cardiac-derived progenitor cells.

Conclusions: These data suggest that H2O2- or GOX-mediated oxidative stress upregulates Notch1 signaling, which promotes cardiogenic gene expression in adult stem/progenitor cells, possibly involving Wnt11. Modulating the balance between Notch activation and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress may lead to improved adult stem cell-based therapies for cardiac repair and regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/scrt190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3706823PMC
April 2013

Acute preconditioning of cardiac progenitor cells with hydrogen peroxide enhances angiogenic pathways following ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Stem Cells Dev 2013 Sep 25;22(17):2414-24. Epub 2013 May 25.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.

There are a limited number of therapies available to prevent heart failure following myocardial infarction. One novel therapy that is currently being pursued is the implantation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs); however, their responses to oxidative stress during differentiation have yet to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment on CPC differentiation in vitro, as well as the effect of H2O2 preconditioning before implantation following ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. CPCs were isolated and cloned from adult rat hearts, and then cultured in the absence or presence of H2O2 for 2 or 5 days. CPC survival was assessed with Annexin V, and cellular differentiation was evaluated through mRNA expression for cardiogenic genes. We found that 100 μM H2O2 decreased serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis by at least 45% following both 2 and 5 days of treatment. Moreover, 100 μM H2O2 treatment for 2 days significantly increased endothelial and smooth muscle markers compared to time-matched untreated CPCs. However, continued H2O2 treatment significantly decreased these markers. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed 28 days after I/R and I/R with the implantation of Luciferase/GFP(+) CPCs, which were preconditioned with 100 μM H2O2 for 2 days. Hearts implanted with Luciferase/GFP(+) CPCs had significant improvement in both positive and negative dP/dT over I/R. Furthermore, cardiac fibrosis was significantly decreased in the preconditioned cells versus both I/R alone and I/R with control cells. We also observed a significant increase in endothelial cell density in the preconditioned CPC hearts compared to untreated CPC hearts, which also coincided with a higher density of Luciferase(+) vessels. These findings suggest that preconditioning of CPCs with H2O2 for 2 days stimulates neoangiogenesis in the peri-infarct area following I/R injury and could be a viable therapeutic option to prevent heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2012.0673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3749704PMC
September 2013

Dual delivery of hepatocyte and vascular endothelial growth factors via a protease-degradable hydrogel improves cardiac function in rats.

PLoS One 2012 30;7(11):e50980. Epub 2012 Nov 30.

Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) caused by ischemia and reperfusion (IR) is the most common cause of cardiac dysfunction due to local cell death and a temporally regulated inflammatory response. Current therapeutics are limited by delivery vehicles that do not address spatial and temporal aspects of healing. The aim of this study was to engineer biotherapeutic delivery materials to harness endogenous cell repair to enhance myocardial repair and function. We have previously engineered poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels to present cell adhesive motifs and deliver VEGF to promote vascularization in vivo. In the current study, bioactive hydrogels with a protease-degradable crosslinker were loaded with hepatocyte and vascular endothelial growth factors (HGF and VEGF, respectively) and delivered to the infarcted myocardium of rats. Release of both growth factors was accelerated in the presence of collagenase due to hydrogel degradation. When delivered to the border zones following ischemia-reperfusion injury, there was no acute effect on cardiac function as measured by echocardiography. Over time there was a significant increase in angiogenesis, stem cell recruitment, and a decrease in fibrosis in the dual growth factor delivery group that was significant compared with single growth factor therapy. This led to an improvement in chronic function as measured by both invasive hemodynamics and echocardiography. These data demonstrate that dual growth factor release of HGF and VEGF from a bioactive hydrogel has the capacity to significantly improve cardiac remodeling and function following IR injury.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3511447PMC
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0050980PLOS
May 2013

A naturally derived cardiac extracellular matrix enhances cardiac progenitor cell behavior in vitro.

Acta Biomater 2012 Dec 27;8(12):4357-64. Epub 2012 Jul 27.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Myocardial infarction (MI) produces a collagen scar, altering the local microenvironment and impeding cardiac function. Cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option to replace the billions of myocytes lost following MI. Despite early successes, chronic function remains impaired and is likely a result of poor cellular retention, proliferation, and differentiation/maturation. While some efforts to deliver cells with scaffolds have attempted to address these shortcomings, they lack the natural cues required for optimal cell function. The goal of this study was to determine whether a naturally derived cardiac extracellular matrix (cECM) could enhance cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) function in vitro. CPCs were isolated via magnetic sorting of c-kit(+) cells and were grown on plates coated with either cECM or collagen I (Col). Our results show an increase in early cardiomyocyte markers on cECM compared with Col, as well as corresponding protein expression at a later time. CPCs show stronger serum-induced proliferation on cECM compared with Col, as well as increased resistance to apoptosis following serum starvation. Finally, a microfluidic adhesion assay demonstrated stronger adhesion of CPCs to cECM compared with Col. These data suggest that cECM may be optimal for CPC therapeutic delivery, as well as providing potential mechanisms to overcome the shortcomings of naked cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2012.07.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3488121PMC
December 2012

Characterization of superoxide dismutases in cardiac progenitor cells demonstrates a critical role for manganese superoxide dismutase.

Stem Cells Dev 2012 Nov 1;21(17):3136-46. Epub 2012 Aug 1.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Transplantation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) is currently in early clinical testing as a potential therapeutic strategy. Superoxide is increased in the ischemic myocardium and poor survival of cells is one of the major limitations of cell transplantation therapy. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were analyzed in c-kit-positive CPCs isolated from rat myocardium to identify their roles in protection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in vitro. CPCs were subjected to oxidative stress using xanthine/xanthine oxidase (XXO) and little apoptosis was detected. CPCs contained significantly higher levels of SOD1 and SOD2 as compared with adult cardiac cell types, both at the protein and activity levels. Both SOD1 and SOD2 were increased by XXO at the mRNA and protein level, suggesting compensatory adaptation. Only knockdown of SOD2 and not SOD1 with siRNA sensitized the cells to XXO-apoptosis, despite only accounting for 10% of total SOD levels. Finally, we found XXO activated Akt within 10 min, and this regulated both SOD2 gene expression and protection against apoptosis. Rat CPCs are resistant to superoxide-induced cell death, primarily through higher levels of SOD2 compared to adult cardiac-derived cells. Exposure to superoxide increases expression of SOD2 in an Akt-dependent manner and regulates CPC survival during oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2012.0191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3495122PMC
November 2012