Publications by authors named "Arati Raziuddin"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cancer and neurologic degeneration in xeroderma pigmentosum: long term follow-up characterises the role of DNA repair.

J Med Genet 2011 Mar 19;48(3):168-76. Epub 2010 Nov 19.

Genetic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4258, USA.

Background: The frequency of cancer, neurologic degeneration and mortality in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients with defective DNA repair was determined in a four decade natural history study.

Methods: All 106 XP patients admitted to the National Institutes of Health from 1971 to 2009 were evaluated from clinical records and follow-up.

Results: In the 65 per cent (n=69) of patients with skin cancer, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) was increased 10,000-fold and melanoma was increased 2000-fold in patients under age 20. The 9 year median age at diagnosis of first non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (n=64) was significantly younger than the 22 year median age at diagnosis of first melanoma (n=38)-a relative age reversal from the general population suggesting different mechanisms of carcinogenesis between NMSC and melanoma. XP patients with pronounced burning on minimal sun exposure (n=65) were less likely to develop skin cancer than those who did not. This may be related to the extreme sun protection they receive from an earlier age, decreasing their total ultraviolet exposure. Progressive neurologic degeneration was present in 24% (n=25) with 16/25 in complementation group XP-D. The most common causes of death were skin cancer (34%, n=10), neurologic degeneration (31%, n=9), and internal cancer (17%, n=5). The median age at death (29 years) in XP patients with neurodegeneration was significantly younger than those XP patients without neurodegeneration (37 years) (p=0.02).

Conclusion: This 39 year follow-up study of XP patients indicates a major role of DNA repair genes in the aetiology of skin cancer and neurologic degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmg.2010.083022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3235003PMC
March 2011

The proteasome inhibitor PS-341 sensitizes neoplastic cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by reducing levels of c-FLIP.

Blood 2003 Jul 13;102(1):303-10. Epub 2003 Mar 13.

Basic Sciences Program, SAIC-Frederick, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute/NIH, Bldg 560, Rm 31-30, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.

Because of the pivotal role the proteasome plays in apoptosis, inhibitors of this enzyme, such as PS-341, provide a great opportunity for exploring synergy between proteasome inhibition and other apoptosis-inducing agents. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells. In overnight assays, combinations of PS-341 and TRAIL were much more effective than either agent alone in promoting apoptosis of a murine myeloid leukemia, C1498, and a murine renal cancer, Renca. For C1498 cells, apoptosis sensitization by PS-341 affected neither the activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) nor the levels of most antiapoptotic proteins. However, reductions in the antiapoptotic protein c-FLIP in response to PS-341 were observed in both C1498 and Renca cells. Treatment of normal bone marrow mixed with C1498 tumor cells for 18 hours with a combination of PS-341 and TRAIL resulted in a specific depletion of the tumor cells. Upon transfer to irradiated syngeneic recipient mice, mixtures treated with the PS-341 plus TRAIL combination resulted in enhanced long-term tumor-free survival of mice. These data therefore support the targeting of apoptotic pathways in tumor cells, using combinations of agents such as PS-341 and TRAIL that interact synergistically to preferentially promote tumor cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-09-2975DOI Listing
July 2003

Increased bone marrow allograft rejection by depletion of NK cells expressing inhibitory Ly49 NK receptors for donor class I antigens.

Blood 2002 Oct;100(8):3026-33

Intramural Research Support Program, SAIC-Frederick and Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Natural killer (NK) cells are the major effectors of acute rejection of incompatible bone marrow cell (BMC) grafts in lethally irradiated mice. The immunogenetics of BMC rejection are largely controlled by the coexpression (or not) of inhibitory and stimulatory Ly49 receptors whose ligands are class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The majority of the BMC rejection studies involved low numbers of BMCs that were resisted by host NK cells. In the present study, larger numbers of BMCs were given in which rejection was not detected and the role of different Ly49 NK subsets not presumably involved in the rejection of a particular BMC haplotype was examined. Surprisingly, the data show that the removal of NK cell subsets expressing Ly49 inhibitory receptors for donor class I antigens, which would be predicted to have no effect on the BMC rejection capability, resulted in the marked rejection of BMCs where no resistance was normally seen. These results extend the "missing self" hypothesis to suggest that NK Ly49 inhibitory receptors can both inhibit activation and killing by those cells, but also can in some way influence the function of NK cells that do not express that inhibitory receptor in a cell-cell interaction. This suggests that caution must be exercised before removal of host NK cell subset is applied clinically because enhanced BMC rejection may result. Altering the balance of Ly49 NK subsets may also affect other in vivo activities of these cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.V100.8.3026DOI Listing
October 2002

NK inhibitory-receptor blockade for purging of leukemia: effects on hematopoietic reconstitution.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2002 ;8(1):17-25

Transplantation Biology Laboratory, Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Maryland, USA.

One of the obstacles of BMT that limits its efficacy is failure to eradicate the original tumor. The incidence of tumor relapse is particularly high after autologous BMT. Natural killer (NK) cells comprise various subsets that can express inhibitory receptors for MHC class I determinants. We have recently demonstrated that blockade of NK-cell inhibitory receptors can augment antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. However, breakdown of tolerance and autoreactivity may occur as a result of the inhibition of NK-cell inactivation to self MHC determinants. We have utilized F(ab')2 fragments of monoclonal antibody, 5E6, against Ly49C/I inhibitory receptors, which are expressed on 35% to 60% of NK cells in H2b strains of mice and are specific for H2Kb, to investigate the effect of inhibitory-receptor blockade on syngeneic bone marrow cell (BMC) and tumor cell growth. We show that treatment of interleukin 2-activated C57BL/6 (B6, H2b) SCID-mouse NK cells with 5E6 F(ab')2 fragments during 48-hour coculture resulted in autoreactivity against syngeneic BMCs as demonstrated by suppression of myeloid reconstitution on day 14 post-BMT. However, this suppressive effect was transient and normalized by day 21 post-BMT. In contrast, blockade of inhibitory receptors during 24-hour coculture had no adverse effects on myeloid reconstitution after BMT. Furthermore, under the same coculture conditions, NK cell-mediated purging of C1498 leukemia cells contaminating syngeneic BMCs was more effective with inhibitory-receptor blockade, leading to a significantly higher proportion of animals with long-term survival compared to the control recipients. These results demonstrate that short-term in vitro blockade of inhibitory receptors can augment antitumor activity without long-term inhibitory effects on BMCs and thus may be of potential use in the purging of contaminating tumor cells prior to autologous BMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/bbmt.2002.v8.pm11846352DOI Listing
July 2003