Publications by authors named "Arash Meshksar"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

MRI in pelvic inflammatory disease: a pictorial review.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2017 03;42(3):935-950

Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona, 1501 N Campbell Ave., PO Box 245067, Tucson, AZ, 85724, USA.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an ascending infection of the female genital tract caused by the spread of bacteria from the vagina to the pelvic reproductive organs and occasionally the peritoneum. The most common causative organisms are sexually transmitted. PID is a significant source of morbidity among reproductive age women both as a cause of abdominal pain and as a common cause of infertility. Its clinical presentation is often nonspecific, and the correct diagnosis may first come to light based on the results of imaging studies. MRI is well suited for the evaluation of PID and its complications due to its superior soft tissue contrast and high sensitivity for inflammation. MRI findings in acute PID include cervicitis, endometritis, salpingitis/oophoritis, and inflammation in the pelvic soft tissues. Acute complications include pyosalpinx, tuboovarian abscess, peritonitis, and perihepatitis. Hydrosalpinx, pelvic inclusion cysts and ureteral obstruction may develop as chronic sequela of PID. The pathophysiology, classification, treatment, and prognosis of PID are reviewed, followed by case examples of the appearance of acute and subclinical PID on MR images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-016-1004-4DOI Listing
March 2017

Six-minute magnetic resonance imaging protocol for evaluation of acute ischemic stroke: pushing the boundaries.

Stroke 2014 Jul 10;45(7):1985-91. Epub 2014 Jun 10.

From the Departments of Medical Imaging (K.N., R.K., G.C., A.M., C.S.K.) and Neurology (J.T., K.D., B.M.C., C.S.K.), University of Arizona, Tucson; and Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (P.V.).

Background And Purpose: If magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to compete with computed tomography for evaluation of patients with acute ischemic stroke, there is a need for further improvements in acquisition speed.

Methods: Inclusion criteria for this prospective, single institutional study were symptoms of acute ischemic stroke within 24 hours onset, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥3, and absence of MRI contraindications. A combination of echo-planar imaging (EPI) and a parallel acquisition technique were used on a 3T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner to accelerate the acquisition time. Image analysis was performed independently by 2 neuroradiologists.

Results: A total of 62 patients met inclusion criteria. A repeat MRI scan was performed in 22 patients resulting in a total of 84 MRIs available for analysis. Diagnostic image quality was achieved in 100% of diffusion-weighted imaging, 100% EPI-fluid attenuation inversion recovery imaging, 98% EPI-gradient recalled echo, 90% neck MR angiography and 96% of brain MR angiography, and 94% of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion scans with interobserver agreements (k) ranging from 0.64 to 0.84. Fifty-nine patients (95%) had acute infarction. There was good interobserver agreement for EPI-fluid attenuation inversion recovery imaging findings (k=0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.87) and for detection of mismatch classification using dynamic susceptibility contrast-Tmax (k=0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.94). Thirteen acute intracranial hemorrhages were detected on EPI-gradient recalled echo by both observers. A total of 68 and 72 segmental arterial stenoses were detected on contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the neck and brain with k=0.93, 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 0.96 and 0.87, 95% confidence interval, 0.80 to 0.90, respectively.

Conclusions: A 6-minute multimodal MR protocol with good diagnostic quality is feasible for the evaluation of patients with acute ischemic stroke and can result in significant reduction in scan time rivaling that of the multimodal computed tomographic protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005305DOI Listing
July 2014

Quantitative analysis of hypoperfusion in acute stroke: arterial spin labeling versus dynamic susceptibility contrast.

Stroke 2013 Nov 29;44(11):3090-6. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

From the Departments of Medical Imaging (K.N., A.M., E.A.K.) and Neurology (B.M.C.), University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; and the UCLA Stroke Investigators, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.L., J.P.V.).

Background And Purpose: This study compares the concordance between arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) for the identification of regional hypoperfusion and diffusion-perfusion mismatch tissue classification using a quantitative method.

Methods: The inclusion criteria for this retrospective study were as follows: patients with acute ischemic syndrome with symptom onset <24 hours and acquisition of both ASL and DSC MR perfusion. The volumes of infarction and hypoperfused lesions were calculated on ASL and DSC multi-parametric maps. Patients were classified into reperfused, matched, or mismatch groups using time to maximum >6 sec as the reference. In a subset of patients who were successfully recanalized, the identical analysis was performed and the infarction and hypoperfused lesion volumes were used for paired pre- and posttreatment comparisons.

Results: Forty-one patients met our inclusion criteria. Twenty patients underwent successful endovascular revascularization (TICI>2a), resulting in a total of 61 ASL-DSC data pairs for comparison. The hypoperfusion volume on ASL-cerebral blood flow best approximated the DSC-time to peak volume (r=0.83) in pretreatment group and time to maximum (r=0.46) after recanalization. Both ASL-cerebral blood flow and DSC-TTP overestimated the hypoperfusion volume compared with time to maximum volume in pretreatment (F=27.41, P<0.0001) and recanalized patients (F=8.78, P<0.0001).

Conclusions: ASL-cerebral blood flow overestimates the DSC time to maximum hypoperfusion volume and mismatch classification in patients with acute ischemic syndrome. Continued overestimation of hypoperfused volume after recanalization suggests flow pattern and velocity changes in addition to arterial transit delay can affects the performance of ASL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4160882PMC
November 2013

Periprocedural arterial spin labeling and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion in detection of cerebral blood flow in patients with acute ischemic syndrome.

Stroke 2013 Mar 6;44(3):664-70. Epub 2013 Feb 6.

Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona Medical Center, Tucson, AZ 85724-5067, USA.

Background And Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of arterial spin-labeling (ASL) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion in detecting cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes before and after endovascular recanalization in acute ischemic syndrome.

Methods: The inclusion criteria for this retrospective study were patients with acute ischemic syndrome who underwent endovascular recanalization and acquisition of both ASL and DSC before and after revascularization. ASL-CBF and multiparametric DSC maps were evaluated for image quality, location, and type of perfusion abnormality. Relative CBF (rCBF) was calculated in the infarction core and hypoperfused areas using coregistered ASL and DSC. Core and hypoperfused rCBF were used for paired pretreatment and posttreatment comparisons. Interobserver and intermodality agreement were evaluated by κ test, and t test was calculated for ASL and DSC rCBF values.

Results: Twenty-five patients met our inclusion criteria. Five studies were rated nondiagnostic, resulting in 45 pairs of DSC-ASL available for comparison. ASL and DSC agreed on type and location of the perfusion abnormality in 71% and 80% of cases, respectively. The image quality of ASL was lower than DSC, resulting in interobserver variability for the type (κ=0.45) and location (κ=0.56) of perfusion abnormality. ASL was unable to show any type of perfusion abnormality in 11% of patients. In successfully recanalized patients, hyperperfusion (rCBF >1) was detected in 100% on DSC and 47% on ASL.

Conclusions: ASL is less sensitive than DSC for detecting rCBF changes in patients with acute ischemic syndrome, particularly with respect to hyperperfusion after successful recanalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.672956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3584347PMC
March 2013

Bilateral renal lymphangiomatosis: sonographic findings.

J Clin Ultrasound 2009 Feb;37(2):115-8

Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Zand Street, Shiraz, Iran.

Renal lymphangiomatosis is an exceedingly rare disorder characterized by developmental malformation of the lymphatic system surrounding the kidneys. We report a case of bilateral renal lymphangiomatosis in a 21-year-old man who underwent abdominal sonographic examination that revealed numerous cystic areas of various sizes around both kidneys with extension along the renal hilum. Subsequent abdominal CT examination demonstrated bilateral, multilocular, fluid-filled cystic masses with thin walls in the perirenal and peripelvic region. MRI of the patient revealed bilaterally enlarged kidneys with multiple hyperintense lesions in both perirenal spaces and the peripelvic area on T2-weighted images. These cystic spaces appeared hypointense on T1-weighted images with no enhancement in postcontrast images. The diagnosis of renal lymphangiomatosis was made based on typical imaging findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcu.20488DOI Listing
February 2009

Diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery and delayed contrast-enhanced brain MRI in multiple sclerosis.

Acad Radiol 2008 Jan;15(1):15-23

Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Rationale And Objectives: In brain MRI of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, enhancement of the lesions is usually evaluated in early contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1WI). The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity of contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery (CE-FLAIR) and delayed contrast-enhanced MRI in evaluation of MS brain lesions.

Materials And Methods: Brain MRI examination including early and delayed CE-T1WI and early and delayed CE-FLAIR images was performed for 46 patients with clinically definite MS disease. Number, size, location, degree, and pattern of enhancement of the enhanced lesions in each sequence were recorded separately.

Results: A total number of 87 enhanced lesions was detected in 30 patients. Early CE-T1WI could detect only 63 lesions (72.4% of total) in 24 patients, while delayed CE-T1WI and early and delayed CE-FLAIR images showed 85 (97.7%), 84 (96.6%), and 81 (93.1%) lesions in 28, 28, and 26 patients, respectively. A greater degree of enhancement and larger lesion size were observed in the additional sequences compared with the early CE-T1WI.

Conclusions: The sensitivity of early CE-T1WI for the detection of enhanced MS lesions is significantly lower than that for other additional sequences. Delayed CE-FLAIR images could not add significant information to other sequences. Therefore, early CE-FLAIR and delayed CE-T1WI brain MRI can be considered as part of the evaluation of MS patients, especially if, despite clinically suspected active disease, no enhanced lesion is found in the routine CE-T1WI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2007.07.022DOI Listing
January 2008