Publications by authors named "Arash Khaki"

35 Publications

Eugenol improves tissue damage and oxidative stress in adult female rats after ovarian torsion/detorsion.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Aug 4;41(6):933-938. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

The current study was designed to investigate the effect of eugenol on histopathological changes and oxidative stress caused by torsion/detorsion in the ovary of adult female rats. In this study, forty-eight female Wistar rats were classified into six groups; Sham and 2 healthy group receiving 30, 60 mg/kg eugenol; ovarian torsion/detorsion; and 2 experimental groups receiving 30, 60 mg/kg eugenol. After ten days, the plasma levels of oestrogen, testosterone, and some oxidative stress markers were assessed. also, the histomorphometric study was performed. A marked degenerative changes in the TD group was observed ( < .001). The oestrogen, GPX, and SOD levels were remarkably declined in the G2 group, while they were reversed to the baseline values in groups receiving eugenol. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was remarkably increased during the ischaemia ( < .001). The treatment with eugenol significantly diminished MDA levels in different groups ( < .001). Our finding indicated that eugenol could protect the ovarian tissue against oxidative stress and tissue injury induced by torsion/detorsion.IMPACT STATEMENT Ovarian torsion is one of the commonest gynecological emergencies in all age groups of the female gender. Timely diagnosis and management of ovarian torsion are crucial, especially for women of reproductive age. Detorsion is one of the interventions used for the prevention of ovarian tissue damage. Ovarian ischaemia/reperfusion is a pathophysiological condition in which decreased blood flow, and oxygen deficiency (ischaemia) are observed in ovarian tissues as a result of ovarian torsion. Following torsion, the inflammatory response induced by detorsion (reperfusion) leads to vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and microcirculation abnormalities, which are responsible for the cause of ovarian tissue damage. This study found that eugenol, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, could be used experimentally to diminish the I/R damage in the ovary through the attenuation of detrimental histological events, decreasing the serum level of MDA and testosterone, and increasing the level of SOD and GPX enzymes. To date, there is no report on the application of eugenol for diminishing T/D-induced oxidative stress in the ovary. Eugenol has been shown to possess therapeutic properties in patients with ovarian torsion. Further clinical studies are necessary to prove the beneficial effect of eugenol on the prevention of I/R-induced ovarian damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2020.1816938DOI Listing
August 2021

The effect of clomiphene citrate, herbal mixture, and herbal mixture along with clomiphene citrate on clinical and para-clinical parameters in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Arch Med Sci 2020 25;16(6):1304-1318. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Introduction: To evaluate the effect of a herbal mixture (i.e., ) alone and in combination with clomiphene citrate (CC) compared to CC on the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Material And Methods: This single-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 infertile participants with PCOS who were randomly divided into three groups. After spontaneous or progestin-induced withdrawal bleeding, group 1 ( = 20) received routine treatment with CC (50-150 mg) for three menstrual cycles from the 3 to 5 day of menstruation for 5 days while group 2 ( = 20) and group 3 (n = 20) received herbal mixture capsules 700 mg/day and the herbal mixture along with CC for 3 months, respectively. Finally, several related parameters were measured, including the level of sex steroids, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile (primary outcomes), thyroid hormones, and clinical features. The analysis was based on intention-to-treat analysis.

Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of socio-demographic characteristics. However, after adjustment for baseline, luteinizing hormone (aMD = 4.9; 95% CI: 3.7-6.2), luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (aMD = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.7-1.2), total testosterone (aMD = -0.12; 95% CI: -0.2 to -0.01) in group 2 and free testosterone (aMD = -6.0; 95% CI: -9.7 to -2.3) in group 3 revealed a significant difference compared to group 1. In addition, HOMA-IR in group 2 (aMD = -1.3; 95% CI: -2.4 to -0.2) decreased significantly compared to group 1. Further, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly in group 2 (aMD = -21.8; 95% CI: -31.5 to -12.1; aMD = -29.9; 95% CI: -47.9 to -12.0; aMD = -21.2; 95% CI: -31.3 to -11.1; aMD = -5.1; 95% CI: -7.5 to -2.7) and group 3 (aMD = -18.3; 95% CI: -27.4 to -9.2; aMD = -26.9; 95% CI: -43.8 to -9.9; aMD = -21.4; 95% CI: -31.1 to -11.7; aMD = -5.9; 95% CI: -8.3 to -3.6) compared to group 1, respectively. However, high-density lipoproteins cholesterol in group 2 (aMD = 6.8; 95% CI: 2.9-10.7) and group 3 (aMD = 10.7; 95% CI: 7.2-14.7) increased remarkably compared to group 1. Overall, clinical outcomes improved significantly in all groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: In general, the herbal mixture along with CC was found to improve free testosterone, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, and clinical features of PCOS women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2020.93271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7667414PMC
February 2020

The Effectiveness of Herbal Mixture Supplements with and without Clomiphene Citrate in Comparison to Clomiphene Citrate on Serum Antioxidants and Glycemic Biomarkers in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Willing to be Pregnant: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Biomolecules 2019 06 3;9(6). Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 5138665793, Iran.

This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of herbal mixture (, , , and ) only and along with clomiphene citrate (CC) compared to CC on serum antioxidants, glycemic status, menstrual regulation, and rate of pregnancy. This single-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 60 infertile participants with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) willing to be pregnant. They were randomly allocated into group 1 ( = 20) who received routine dose of CC pills (50-150 mg) for three menstrual cycles from the fifth day of menstruation for five days; group 2 ( = 20) who consumed herbal mixture daily (700 mg); and group 3 ( = 20) who used up herbal mixture along with CC for 3 months. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured in their blood samples. No statistically significant differences were observed between the three groups in terms of socio-demographic characteristics. After intervention, however, the levels of CAT in group 2 (adjusted mean difference (aMD): = 9.0; confidence interval (CI) 95% = 1.1-16.9) and group 3 (aMD = 12.2; CI 95% = 4.5-19.9), GPx in group 2 (aMD = 986.1; CI 95% = 141.1-1831.1) and group 3 (aMD = 1781.2; CI 95% = 960.7-2601.8), and SOD in group 2 (aMD = 55.1; CI 95% = 26.0-84.2) increased. While FBS in group 3 (aMD = -8.7; CI 95% = -14.7 to -2.7), insulin in group 2 (aMD = -5.6; CI 95% = -10.8 to -0.4), and HOMA-IR in group 2 (aMD = -1.3; CI 95% = -2.4 to -0.2) significantly decreased compared to the group 1. To summarize, herbal mixture supplements along with CC have beneficial effects on serum antioxidant levels, as well as glycemic biomarkers of infertile PCOS, menstrual regulation, and pregnancy rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom9060215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6628289PMC
June 2019

ginseng Extract Improves Follicular Development after Mouse Preantral Follicle 3D Culture.

Cell J 2019 Jul 20;21(2):210-219. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objective: is a popular traditional herb that has been used in complementary and alternative medicine in eastern Asia, and it possesses pharmacologically active compounds like ginsenosides (GSs). This study aimed to investigate the impact of ginseng extract (PGE) at different concentrations on in vitro follicular function and development in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system fabricated using sodium alginate after 12 days of culture.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, preantral follicles (n=661) were mechanically isolated from the ovaries of 14-day-old female NMRI mice using 29-gauge insulin syringes. Follicles were individually capsulated within sodium alginate, and divided into four groups including control and experimental groups 1, 2, and 3. Then, they were cultured for 12 days in the medium supplemented with different concentrations of PGE (0, 50, 100, and 500 μg/ mL, for control groups and groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively). At the end of the culture period, the mean diameter and maturation of follicles, follicular steroid production, mRNA expression level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen () and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in collected metaphase-II (MII) oocytes were determined.

Results: The mean diameter of follicles in group 2 was significantly increased as compared to other groups (P<0.001). The percentages of the survival and maturation rate and levels of secreted hormones were higher in group 2 than the other groups (P<0.05). Follicles cultured in the presence of PGE 100 μg/mL had higher levels of proliferation cell nuclear antigen () and follicle stimulating hormone receptor () mRNA expression in comparison to other groups (P<0.05). Moreover, oocytes collected from groups 2 and 3 had lower levels of ROS as compared to other groups (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that PGE at the concentration of 100 μg/mL induces higher follicular function and development in the 3D culture system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2019.5733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397605PMC
July 2019

The ameliorative effect of carvacrol on oxidative stress and germ cell apoptosis in testicular tissue of adult diabetic rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Mar 29;111:568-578. Epub 2018 Dec 29.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Diabetes is one of the most chronic and widespread diseases causing the damages to the male reproductive system. Nowadays, several studies have been performed to show the role of phenolic compounds in reducing the complications of diabetes. Carvacrol is a phenolic monoterpene which has been shown to have much therapeutic efficacy in various diseases.

Methods: Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats (n = 8 in each group) were used in this experimental study. The induction of diabetes was performed using a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). Rats were assigned into the following groups: control group, diabetic group, diabetic group daily fed with carvacrol at a dose of 75 mg/kg for 8 weeks, and the control group daily fed with carvacrol at a dose of 75 mg/kg for 8 weeks.

Results: Treatment with carvacrol significantly improved the histological morphology of the testis, reduced the tissue activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes, and diminished the elevated levels of tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) (p < 0.05). Moreover, our results showed that carvacrol significantly decreased Bax and increased Bcl-2 at the levels of gene and protein expression. It also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the rate of germ cell apoptosis.

Conclusion: It seems that the treatment with carvacrol mitigates testicular tissue damage in diabetic rats possibly through its antioxidant properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.12.054DOI Listing
March 2019

Protective Effects of Matricaria chamomilla Extract on Torsion/ Detorsion-Induced Tissue Damage and Oxidative Stress in Adult Rat Testis.

Int J Fertil Steril 2018 Jun 20;12(3):242-248. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Bachground: There is some evidence indicating that Matricaria chamomile (MC) had protective effects on ischemiareperfusion. In the present study, a rat model was used to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of MC on torsion/detorsion-induced testis tissue damage.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 28 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: G1, Sham operated; G2, testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D); G3, rats with testicular torsion/detorsion that received 300 mg/kg of MC extracts 30 minutes before detorsion (T/DMC); and G4, healthy rats that received 300 mg/kg of MC extracts (MC). Also, the reperfusion period was 24 hours. After blood sampling, the oxidative stress marker [e.g. superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels], blood levels of testosterone, and anti-oxidant enzyme levels [e.g. glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] were assessed by ELISA methods. Serum activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) was evaluated by spectrophotometry. Another assessment was carried out by histomorphometry, 24-hour post-procedure. The histological parameters investigated by Johnson's scores (JS), also the seminiferous tubule diameter (STD) and the height of the germinal epithelium (HE) measured using the linear eyepiece grids using light microscopy.

Results: Histological features significantly differed between sham and the other groups. The levels of SOD, GPx, and testosterone hormone were significantly decreased in T/D group as compared to sham group, while these parameters increased in T/DMC group as compared to T/D group. During ischemia, the MDA levels increased; however, treatment with MC extract decreased the MDA levels in G3 and G4 groups.

Conclusion: Results of the present study demonstrated that MC can protect the testis tissue against torsion/detorsioninduced damages by suppressing superoxide production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/ijfs.2018.5324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6018175PMC
June 2018

Effects of Extract on Growth and Maturation of Isolated Mouse Ovarian Follicles in a Three-dimensional Culture System.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Jan;131(2):218-225

Department of Biology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to design and assess the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Matricaria chamomilla (MC) on preantral follicle culture of mouse ovaries in a three-dimensional culture system.

Methods: Isolated preantral follicles were randomly divided into three main groups: the control group containing 10% fetal bovine serum without MC extract (G1), the first experimental group supplemented with 25 μg/ml hydroalcoholic extract of chamomile (G2), and the second experimental group supplemented with 50 μg/ml hydroalcoholic extract of chamomile (G3).

Results: After 12 days of culture, the survival rate (P < 0.05), antrum formation (P < 0.01), metaphase two oocytes (P < 0.01), and the expression of PCNA (P < 0.05) and FSHR (P < 0.05) genes significantly decreased in G3 as compared with G1. On the other hand, at the last day of culture (day 12), the mean diameter of follicles cultured in the medium which was supplemented with 50 μg/ml hydroalcoholic extract of chamomile significantly decreased as compared with the G1 (P < 0.05). In addition, the levels of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone hormones significantly increased in the medium of G3 relative to G1 (P < 0.01), while in the medium of G1, the level of 17β-estradiol was significantly higher than that of other groups (P < 0.01). Reactive oxygen species levels of metaphase II oocytes were significantly decreased in G2 as compared with G1 (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Adding chamomile extract to culture media appeared to decrease follicular function and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.222324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5776854PMC
January 2018

Side Effects of Pyrethroid and Supporting Role of Onion in the Male Rat's Spermatogenesis.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 12;130(24):3015-3016

Department of Anatomical Science, Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.220297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5742937PMC
December 2017

Combined postconditioning with ischemia and cyclosporine-A restore oxidative stress and histopathological changes in reperfusion injury of diabetic myocardium.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2017 Oct;20(10):1079-1087

Molecular Medicine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objectives: Chronic diabetes impedes cardioprotection in reperfusion injury and hence protecting the diabetic heart would have important outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether combined postconditioning with ischemia and cyclosporine-A can restore oxidative stress and histopathological changes in reperfusion injury of the diabetic myocardium.

Materials And Methods: Streptozocin-induced diabetic hearts and nondiabetic controls in eight subgroups (with or without receiving ischemic-postconditioning (IPostC), cyclosporine-A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, or both of them) suffered from 30 min regional ischemia followed by 45 min reperfusion on an isolated-heart Langendorff system. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the coronary effluent, and the levels of oxidative stress markers including 8-isoprostane, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in myocardial supernatant prepared from the ischemic zone were measured using specific kits, spectrophotometrically. Histopathological studies were performed -eosin staining method.

Results: Administration of IPostC and cyclosporine-A (alone or together) in nondiabetic hearts potentially reduced the severity of histological changes and level of LDH release as compared with untreated-controls (P<0.05). of any procedures in diabetic hearts did not show significant cardioprotective effects (P>0.1). However, the combined postconditioning with ischemia and CsA exerted significant protective effects in diabetic hearts (P<0.05).

Conclusion: By augmenting the protective effects of IPostC and CsA through their combined application, reperfusion injury and related oxidative stress are reduced in diabetic hearts similar to non-diabetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5673691PMC
October 2017

Protective effects of melatonin and ghrelin on spermatogenesis: A narrative review of the literature.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2017 May;15(5):265-272

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Iran.

Spermatocytogenesis starts from lumens of seminiferous cords and after migration to the basal membrane ends to the lumens again. We attempt to review the protective effects of melatonin and ghrelin on Spermatocytogenesis and in particular on spermatogonial stem cells, as two rather newly-discovered hormones. Testicular freezing prior to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is one of the ways of preserving fertility in children with cancer. The freezing has two methods of slow-freezing (cryopreservation) and rapid-freezing (vitrification). Administration of melatonin can maintain the quality of the germ cells underwent such processes, as well as ghrelin, can protect germ cells from the toxicities secondary to ischemic injuries, and pathologic apoptosis. This review indicates that in vitro or in vivo administration of melatonin or ghrelin, could be effective to preserve fertilization and also they can be used in assisted reproductive technologies to improve the quality of sperms. Future original studies should be propelled toward human studies, of course with observing the ethics.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5510579PMC
May 2017

A review on Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the reproductive system.

Electron Physician 2016 Jul 25;8(7):2655-62. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Ph.D. of Pathobiological Sciences, Women Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Environmental factors, such as electromagnetic waves, induce biological and genetic effects. One of the most important physiological systems involved with electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is the genital system. This paper reviews the effects of EMFs on human reproductive organs, female animals, fetus development and the importance of two types of natural antioxidants, i.e., vitamin E and fennel. The studies presented in this review referred to the effects of different exposures to EMFs on the reproductive system, and we tried to show the role of natural antioxidants in reducing the effects of the exposures. Many studies have been done on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic waves on the cell line of spermatogenesis, sexual hormones, and the structure of the testes. Also, about the hormonal cycle, folliculogenesis and female infertility related to EMF have been given more consideration. In particular, attention is directed to pregnant women due to the importance of their fetuses. However, in addition to the studies conducted on animals, further epidemiological research should be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/2655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5014506PMC
July 2016

Attenuated Lead Induced Apoptosis in Rat Hepatocytes in the Presence of Lycopersicon Esculentum.

Acta Med Iran 2016 Apr;54(4):240-4

Cosmetic Products Research Center, Iran Food and Drug Adminstration, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran. AND Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Lead (Pb), has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems. In the present study, the damage of Pb on the Liver tissue apoptosis was investigated, and Lycopersicon esculentum as an antioxidants source was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. Eighteen Wistar rats, randomized into three groups (n=6), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1%Lead acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml/day of Lycopersicon esculentum. Treatments were for three months. The obtained results showed that lead acetate caused significant reductions in the liver weight, plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration but Lycopersicon esculentum have an inhibitory effect on LA liver adverse effect. So, it can be concluded that Lycopersicon esculentum have a significant protective effect on liver lead acetate adverse effects as well as, lead acetate-induced oxidative stress.
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April 2016

The effect of Non- ionizing electromagnetic field with a frequency of 50 Hz in Rat ovary: A transmission electron microscopy study.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2016 Feb;14(2):125-32

Tabriz Health Services Management Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Recently, there are increasing concerns and interests about the potential effects of Electromagnetic Field (EMF) on both human and animal health.

Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the harmful effects of 50 Hz non-ionizing EMF on rat oocytes.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study 30 rats were randomly taken from laboratory animals and their ags and weights were determined. These 3 month's old rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. The control group consisted of 10 rats without receiving any treatment and kept under normal conditions. Experimental group 1 (10 rats) received EMF for 8 weeks (3 weeks intrauterine +5 weeks after births) and experimental group 2 (10 rats) received EMF for 13 weeks (3 weeks intrauterine +10 weeks after birth). After removing the ovaries and isolating follicles, granulosa cells were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the traumatic effects of EMF on follicles.

Results: In control group nucleus membrane and mitochondria in follicle's cytoplasm seemed normal in appearance. Theca layer of primary follicles in experimental group was separated clearly, zona layer demonstrated trot with irregular thickness and ovarian stroma seemed isolated with dilated vessels showing infiltration.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that EMF has harmful effects on the ovarian follicles.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869155PMC
February 2016

Effect of Baseline Red Blood Cell Distribution Width on Short- and Intermediate-term Mortality of Patients Under Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Survival Analysis.

Crit Pathw Cardiol 2016 06;15(2):69-74

From the *Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; and †School of medicine, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran.

Objective: Considering the limited studies specifically evaluating the role of Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we aimed to investigate the role of baseline RDW in short- and intermediate-term cardiovascular events in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients under primary PCI.

Methods: This is a historical cohort registry analysis of 1161 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction under primary PCI. According to inclusion criteria, 838 patients were allocated for analysis. Patients with RDW levels of 13.6% or higher were considered as high RDW group (third tertile). All the individuals were followed up for in-hospital and 6-month mortality along with readmission and composite major adverse cardiac events.

Results: In-hospital deaths occurred in 53 (6.3%) patients and at 6-month follow-up 79 (9.4%) cases of mortality were documented. In-hospital and 6-month mortalities showed a significant trend in favor of high RDW group (13.3% vs. 5.9%, P = 0.003; 19.7% vs. 7.9%, P < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that high RDW was significantly and independently associated with higher rates of 6-month mortality (hazard ratio: 2.909; 95% confidence interval: 1.166-7.257; P = 0.022). RDW was also a significant predictor for 6-month mortality independent of anemia (hazard ratio: 2.811; 95% confidence interval: 1.047-7.551; P = 0.040).

Conclusions: We found a significant association between high RDW and in-hospital and 6-month mortality as well as the occurrence of major adverse cardiac event. Meanwhile RDW was found to be a significant predictor for 6-month mortality independent of anemia. Thus, it would be beneficial to use RDW as a risk stratification index to identify high risk intent-to-treat patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HPC.0000000000000063DOI Listing
June 2016

Effect of non-ionizing electromagnetic field on the alteration of ovarian follicles in rats.

Electron Physician 2016 Mar 25;8(3):2168-74. Epub 2016 Mar 25.

M.Sc. of Anatomy, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Introduction: In recent years, there has been an increase in the attention paid to safety effects, environmental and society's health, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF), and radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The aim of this research was to determine the effect of EMF on the alteration of ovarian follicles.

Methods: In this experimental study at Tabriz Medical University in 2015, we did EMF exposures and assessed the alteration of rats' ovarian follicles. Thirty three-month old rats were selected randomly from laboratory animals, and, after their ages and weights were determined, they were divided randomly into three groups. The control group consisted of 10 rats without any treatment, and they were kept in normal conditions. The second group of rats was influenced by a magnetic field of 50 Hz for eight weeks (three weeks intrauterine and five weeks ectopic). The third group of rats was influenced by a magnetic field of 50 Hz for 13 weeks (three weeks intrauterine and ten weeks ectopic). Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and cleared with Xylol and embedded in paraffin. After sectioning and staining, samples were studied by optic microscopy. Finally, SPSS version 17, were used for data analysis.

Results: EMF radiation increased the harmful effects on the formation of ovarian follicles and oocytes implantation. Studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields on ovarian follicles have shown that the nuclei of the oocytes become smaller and change shape. There were significant, harmful changes in the groups affected by electromagnetic waves. Atresia of ovarian follicles was significantly significant in both study groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Exposure to electromagnetic fields during embryonic development can cause morphological changes in oocytes and affect the differentiation of oocytes and folliculogenesis, resulting in decreased ovarian reserve leading to infertility or reduced fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/2168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844484PMC
March 2016

Assessment on the adverse effects of Aminoglycosides and Flouroquinolone on sperm parameters and male reproductive tissue: A systematic review.

Authors:
Arash Khaki

Iran J Reprod Med 2015 Mar;13(3):125-34

Department of Pathology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Antibiotic therapies used in treatment of many diseases have adverse effects on fertility. This review analyzes previous comparative studies that surveyed the effects of two common groups of antibiotics on male fertility.

Objective: To evaluate histo-pathological effects of fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides on sperm parameters and male reproductive tissue.

Materials And Methods: Articles about the effects of aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones on male infertility, sperm parameters, male reproductive tissue, and spermatogenesis in English and Persian languages published on Google Scholar and PubMed databases from January 2000 to December 2013 were assessed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of aminoglycosides or fluoroquinolones on sperm parameters, artificial insemination, and male reproductive tract or RCTs comparing aminoglycosides vs. fluoroquinolones were eligible for inclusion. For ascertaining the reliability of study, data were extracted independently and in duplicate by two investigators.

Results: Sperm viability was decreased significantly with streptomycin, gentamicin, and neomycin (p<0.001). Sperm motility was decreased significantly with gentamicin and neomycin (p<0.05). Total sperm count was significantly decreased with ofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and neomycin (p<0.022). There was significant decrease in post-thawing motility with low dose and high dose of ciprofloxacin. Testis weight was decreased with gentamicin and ofloxacin significantly (p<0.011). There was significant decrease in seminal vesicle weight with gentamicin, neomycin, and ofloxacin (p<0.022). Furthermore, changes in epididymis weight, percentage of total apoptotic cells, and diameter of seminiferous tubule were significant with all drugs including streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, and ofloxacin (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Streptomycin has less negative effects on cell's apoptosis and sperm parameters as compared to other drugs. Gentamicin has more detrimental effects so lesser dosage and duration is recommended. Fluoroquinolones showed negative effects on testis tissue and sperm parameters. Ciprofloxacin has less adverse effects than gentamicin in artificial insemination.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4426151PMC
March 2015

Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicumon on Spermatogenesis.

Authors:
Arash Khaki

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015 Feb 21;17(2):e18668. Epub 2015 Feb 21.

Department of Pathology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: In modern countries today, herbal medicines are known to help in the treatment of various diseases, as rich sources of antioxidants and minerals.

Objectives: To study the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) on spermatogenesis in rats.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, Wistar male rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and a Cinnamomum zeylanicum group (n = 10). The subjects in the cinnamon group received 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon by gavage for 28 days, while the controls received an equal volume of distilled water daily. Animals were kept in standardized conditions. On day 28, a 5 mL blood sample from each rat was taken from tail area to measure testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Testes were collected and were then prepared for sperm analysis by the WHO method.

Results: Sperm quality parameters, total serum testosterone, SOD, CAT, and GPX levels were significantly increased in the cinnamon group in comparison to controls (P < 0.05). Also, rats in the cinnamon group showed a significant decrease in the level of plasma MDA (P < 0.05) in comparison to controls. There were no significant differences between the groups in testis weight (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: The administration of 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon significantly increased the sperm population, motility and viability, which supports the theory that in mammalians, cinnamon has a beneficial effect on spermatogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.18668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376985PMC
February 2015

The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis dys-function of diabetes rats.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2014 4;11(4):1-8. Epub 2014 Jun 4.

Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Diabetes rats have been linked to reproductive dysfunction and plant medicine has been shown to be effective in its treatment. Antioxidants have distinctive effects on spermatogenesis, sperm biology and oxidative stress, and changes in anti-oxidant capacity are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats.

Materials And Methods: Animals (n = 80) were allocated randomly into eight groups, 10 each: Group 1: Control rats given only 5cc Normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily;Group2: rats received ginger (100mg/kg/rat) daily; Group 3: rats received cinnamon (75mg/kg) daily; Group 4: rats received ginger and cinnamon, (100mg/kg/rat ginger and 75mg/kg cinnamon) daily; Group 5: Diabetic control rats received only normal saline. Group 6: Diabetic rats received 100mg/kg/day ginger; Group 7: Diabetic rats received 75mg /kg/ day cinnamon; Group 8: Diabetic rats received ginger and cinnamon (100mg/kg/day and 75mg/kg /day). Diabetes was induced with 55 mg/kg, single intra-peritoneal injection of STZ in all groups. At the end of the experiment (56th day), blood samples were taken for determination of testosterone, LH,FSH, total anti-oxidant capacity, and levels of malondialdehyde, SOD, Catalase and GPX. All rats were euthanized, testes were dissected out and spermatozoa were collected from the epididymis for analysis.

Results: Sperm numbers, percentages of sperm viability and motility, and total serum testosterone increased in ginger and cinnamon and combined ginger and cinnamon treated diabetic rats compared with control groups. Serum testosterone, LH and FSH were higher compared to control group and also serum anti-oxidants (TAC, SOD, GPX and catalase) all were increased at the end of treatment. Combined ginger and cinnamon showed more intense increase in all parameters compare to ginger and cinnamon alone. Most of the results were significant (P<0.05).

Conclusion: We concluded that combined ginger and cinnamon have significant beneficial effects on the sperm viability, motility, and serum total testosterone, LH,FSH and serum anti-oxidants' level and could be effective for maintaining healthy sperm parameters and male reproductive function in diabetics.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4202389PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v11i4.1DOI Listing
June 2015

Effect of Sub hypnotic Doses of Propofol and Midazolam for Nausea and Vomiting During Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section.

Anesth Pain Med 2014 Oct 16;4(4):e19384. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Spinal anesthesia has been associated with intraoperative nausea and vomiting (IONV), especially during cesarean section, which is attributed to several mechanisms.

Objectives: In the present study, therapeutic and preventive properties of sub hypnotic dose midazolam and propofol and their effects on the occurrence and severity of intraoperative nausea and vomiting during elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were evaluated.

Patients And Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial, 90 parturients, ASA class I and II, aged 20-30 years, who undergone spinal anesthesia for cesarean section were randomly allocated to one of three groups receiving midazolam (1 mg bolus and 0.1 mg/kg/hr, n=30), propofol (20 mg bolus and 0.1 mg/kg/hr, n = 30), and placebo (saline, n=30) intravenously (IV) immediately after umbilical cord clamping. Bupivacaine hydrochloride (10 mg) was used for induction of the anesthesia. Patients' hemodynamics was monitored at 3-minute intervals. Furthermore, intraoperative and post-delivery emetic episodes, severity of emesis, scores of sedation and ephedrine consumption were recorded.

Results: The incidence of nausea, retching, and vomiting was significantly higher in the control group compared to propofol and midazolam groups. Overall, PONV (postoperative nausea and vomiting) in midazolam group was as low as propofol group without any significant hemodynamic changes as seen in placebo group or even with propofol group.

Conclusions: Subhypnotic doses of midazolam or propofol are effective in the prevention of nausea and vomiting during and after cesarean section with spinal anesthesia and does not significantly influence hemodynamic of the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.19384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4205801PMC
October 2014

Hormonal and metabolic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3) on polycystic ovary syndrome induced rats under diet.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2014 Feb;17(2):123-7

Department of Pathology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

Objective(s): PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) produces symptoms in approximately 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age (12-45 years old). It is thought to be one of the leading causes of female subfertility. This study aimed to confirm the role of nutrition containing omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acid) on control of experimental PCO induced by estradiol-valerat in rats.

Materials And Methods:  Wistar female rats (n=40) were allocated into control (n=10) and test groups (n= 30), test group was subdivided into 3 groups: G1, received omega-3 (240 mg/kg/orally/daily); G2 and G3 groups were induced PCO by single injection of estradiol-valerate (16 mg/kg/IM). Group 3 received omega-3 (240 mg/kg/orally/daily) and low carbohydrate feeding for 60 subsequent days; on sixtieth day 5 ml blood samples and ovarian tissues of all rats in the group were removed and prepared for biochemical and hormonal analysis.

Results:  Catalase, GPX (Glutathione peroxidase), SOD (Superoxide dismutase) in groups that received omega-3 showed higher levels, but MDA (malondialdehyde) level was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in comparison with other experimental groups. Ovarian weights in both experimental and control groups were similar (P<0.05). Level of serum FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) was decreased, but level of testosterone was significantly increased (P<0.05) in PCO group in comparison with control and omega-3 groups.

Conclusion: RESULTS revealed that administration of omega-3 plus lower carbohydrate food significantly controlled   PCO syndrome and balanced FSH and testosterone.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3976750PMC
February 2014

The role of milk thistle extract in breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) apoptosis with doxorubicin.

Acta Med Iran 2013 ;51(9):591-8

Food and Drug Research Center, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed invasive malignancy and first leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Iranian women. Based on silymarin's unique characteristics, its application in chemotherapy combined with doxorubicin can be effective to enhance the efficacy together with a reduced toxicity on normal tissues. The present study focus on evaluate the efficacy of silymarin in combination with doxorubicin, on viability and apoptosis of estrogen-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). After being cultured, MCF-7 cells were divided into 8 groups and treated as follows: 1st group received 75 μg silymarin, groups 2, 3, and 4 were treated with 10, 25, and 50 nM doxorubicin, respectively, and groups 5, 6, and 7 respectively received 10, 25, and 50 nM doxorubicin as well as 75 μg silymarin. Viability percentage and apoptosis of the cells were assessed with Trypan Blue staining after 16, 24, and 48 hours. Silymarin has a synergistic effect on the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin. Use of silymarin in combination with doxorubicin can be more effective on the therapeutic potential of doxorubicin and decreases its dose-limiting side effects.
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July 2014

Hypoglycemic Activity of Fumaria parviflora in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

Adv Pharm Bull 2013 7;3(1):207-10. Epub 2013 Feb 7.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Purpose: Fumaria parviflora Lam (Fumariaceae) has been used in traditional medicine in the treatment of several diseases such as diabetes. The present work was designed to evaluate the hypoglycaemic effects of methanolic extract (ME) of F. parviflora in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Methods: The rats used were allocated in six (I, II, III, IV, V and VI) experimental groups (n=5). Group I rats served as 'normal control' animals received distilled water and group II rats served as 'diabetic control' animals. Diabetes mellitus was induced in groups II, V and VI rats by intraperitoneal single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg kg-1). Group V and VI rats were addi-tionally treated with ME (150 mg kg-1 day-1 and 250 mg kg-1 day-1, i.p. respectively) 24 hour post STZ injection, for seven consecutive days. Groups III and IV rats received only ME 150 mg kg-1 day-1 and 250 mg kg-1 day-1, i.p. respectively for seven days. The levels of blood glucose were determined using a Glucometer.

Results: Administra-tion of F. parviflora extract showed a potent glucose lowering effect only on streptozo-tocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats below 100 mg/dl (P<0.001). However, no significant differences in the blood glucose levels were recorded between diabetic rats received 125 or 250 mg/kg of plant extracts.

Conclusion: The findings of the study indicated that F. parviflora has significant hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats with no effects on blood glucose levels of normal rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5681/apb.2013.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3846040PMC
December 2013

Effect of rosmarinic acid on sertoli cells apoptosis and serum antioxidant levels in rats after exposure to electromagnetic fields.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2013 3;10(6):477-80. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

Department of food and Nutrition, San Jose State University, USA.

Rosmarinic acid belongs to the group of polyphenols; it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities and help to prevent cell damage caused by free radicals. The objective was to study the effect of Rosmarinic acid on sertolli cells apoptosis and serum antioxidant levels in rats after they were exposed to electromagnetic fields. Male Wistar rats (n=40) were allocated into three groups: control group (n=10) that received 5 cc normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily by gavage method, Rosmarinic acid group that received 5mg/rat (gavage) (n=10), electromagnetic fields (EMF) group that had exposure with 50 hz (n=20) which was subdivided to two groups of 10; EMF group and treatment group. Treatment group received 5mg/rat (gavage) Rosmarinic acid daily for 6 weeks, respectively. However, the control group just received an equal volume of distilled water daily (gavage). On the 42nd day of research, 5 cc blood was collected to measure testosterone hormones, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), levels from whole group's analysis. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and sertoli cells apoptosis significantly decreased in the group that received 5mg/rat of Rosmarinic acid (P<0.05) in comparison with experimental groups. Level of testosterone, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), significantly increased in groups that received Rosmarinic acid (P<0.05). Since in our study 5mg/rat of Rosmarinic acid showed significantly preventive effect on cell damages especial sertoli cells apoptosis that caused with EMF, it seems that using Rosmarinic acid as food additive can be effective for supporting people living under EMF environmental pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i6.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3847387PMC
August 2014

Using Fresh and Frozen Testicular Sperm Samples in Couples Undergoing ICSI-MicroTESE Treatment.

J Reprod Infertil 2013 Apr;14(2):79-84

Reproductive Medicine Unit, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck, Germany.

Background: We performed this study to evaluate use of fresh and frozen sperm samples in non-obstructive azoospermia microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE-ICSI) treatment.

Methods: We performed a total of 82 consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles at Fertijin IVF Center in Istanbul, Turkey from January 2010 to March 2012. In 43 participants we used fresh sperm and frozen sperm in the remaining 39 cases. We used fresh and frozen thawed micro surgical testicular sperm extraction (micro TESE) sperm for ICSI with metaphase II (MII) oocytes.

Results: Frozen microTESE sperm was used in 39 cycles, while 43 ICSI cycles were performed using fresh microTESE. Neither the age of male partners (38.33±5.93 and 38.13±8.28) nor that of the female participants (33.16±6.38 and 33.33±6.97) showed significant difference between fresh versus the microTESE and frozen treatment groups, respectively. FSH concentrations were (14.66±13.93 mIU/ml) in fresh TESE group and (17.91±16.29 mIU/ml) in frozen group with no correlations or differences between the two groups. The average number of mature oocytes injected with sperm was 9.23±3.77, versus 9.26±5.26 in cycles using fresh and frozen microTESE sperm, respectively. Fertilization rate was not significantly different in the fresh microTESE (44.79%) than frozen TESE sperm group (46.76%). The average number of transferred embryos was 1.60±0.49 in fresh sperm group and 1.59±0.50 in frozen sperm group. All embryo transfers were performed on day 3.

Conclusion: Cryopreservation of testicular sperm tissues is more suitable and of great benefite if carried out before ovulation induction and not after, especially in cases with non-obstructive azoospermia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3719314PMC
April 2013

Anti-oxidative role of quercetin derived from Allium cepa on aldehyde oxidase (OX-LDL) and hepatocytes apoptosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012 Jul;2(7):528-31

Member of Medicine Scientific Association, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Iran.

Objective: To study the role of Quercetin in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

Methods: Wistar male rat (n=40) were allocated into three groups, control group (n=10) and Quercetin (QR) group received 15 mg/kg (IP) QR, (n=10), and diabetic group that received 55 mg/kg (IP) streptozotocin (STZ) (n=20) which was subdivided to two groups of 10; STZ group and treatment group. Treatment group received 55 mg/kg (IP) STZ plus 15 mg/kg QR, daily for 4 weeks, respectively; however, the control group just received an equal volume of distilled water daily (IP). Diabetes was induced by a single (IP) injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Animals were kept in standard condition. Twenty-eight days after inducing diabetic, 5 mL blood were collected for TAC, MDA and Ox-LDL levels and liver tissues of rat in whole groups were removed then prepared for apoptosis analysis by Tunel method.

Results: Apoptotic cells significantly decreased in group that has received 15 mg/kg (IP) Quercetin (P<0.05) in comparison to experimental groups (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Since in our study 15 mg/kg (IP) Quercetin have significantly Preventive effect on liver cells damages by reducing number of apoptotic cells in Liver, so it seems that using it can be effective for treatment in diabetic rat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60090-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3609339PMC
July 2012

Treatment Effects of Onion (Allium cepa) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Sexual Behavior of Rat after Inducing an Antiepileptic Drug (lamotrigine).

Balkan Med J 2012 Sep 1;29(3):236-42. Epub 2012 Sep 1.

Women's Reproductive Health Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial degree of sexual behavior in male rats after inducement of onion and ginger in lamotrigine receiving groups.

Material And Methods: Wistar rats (n=70) (male=35, female=35) were allocated so that males were divided into seven groups: control (n=5) and test groups (n=35). Control group used normal Saline (3 cc for each rat). Lamotrigine group were given Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg). Onion group used onion fresh juice (3 cc for each rat/daily). Ginger group was fed on ginger powder (100 mg/kg/daily). Onion & Lamotrigine group used both onion juice (3 cc fresh onion juice for each rat/day) and Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg). Ginger & Lamotrigine group used both ginger powder (100 mg/kg/day) and Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg/day). Onion, ginger & Lamortigine group jointly used ginger powder (100 mg/kg/day) and onion juice (3 cc juice for each rat) and Lamotrigine (10 mg/kg/day). All groups were given treatments orally. For sexual behaviors, Estradiolbenzoate (50 microgram) and 6 hours before test (500 microgram) progesterone was injected to the female rats subcutaneously. Then rats were viewed for erection, ejaculation and cup.

Results: There was maximum Serum total testosterone level in the onion group, there was maximum malondialdehyde (MDA) in the Lamotrigine group and there was maximum total antioxidant capacity in both the onion group and ginger group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Results revealed that administration of (100 mg/kg/day) of ginger powder, and freshly prepared onion juice (3 cc for each rat), significantly lowered the adverse effects of lamotrigine, and can have beneficial effects on sexual behavior in male rat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/balkanmedj.2012.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4115837PMC
September 2012

Clinical value of DNA fragmentation evaluation tests under ART treatments.

J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc 2012 1;13(4):270-4. Epub 2012 Dec 1.

Reproductive Medicine Unit, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck, Germany.

Male reproductive health has been under scrutiny recently. Many studies in the literature have concluded that semen quality is declining and that the incidence of testicular cancers is increasing. The reason for this change has been attributed to damage in sperm chromatin. During in vivo reproduction, the natural selection process ensures that only a spermatozoon with normal genomic material can fertilize an oocyte. However, the assisted reproduction technique (ART) is our selection process, leading to the possibility that abnormal spermatozoa could be used to fertilize an oocyte. We could avoid this by quantifying the amount and type of genomic damage in sperm using well-accepted laboratory methods. The sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity is important for success of natural or assisted fertilization as well as normal development of the embryo, fetus and child. Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is bypassing natural sperm selection mechanisms, which increases the risk of transmitting damaged DNA. The significance of required investigations and multiple techniques is that they could evaluate DNA defects in human spermatozoa. The ability of these techniques to accurately estimate sperm DNA damage depends on many technical and biological aspects. The aim of this review is to evaluate the most commonly used methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/jtgga.2012.44DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3881710PMC
June 2014

Protective effect of ginger on gentamicin-induced apoptosis in testis of rats.

Adv Pharm Bull 2012 15;2(2):197-200. Epub 2012 Aug 15.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran.

Purpose: Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is one of the most widely used spices for various foods and as an herbal medicine in Asian countries. It has been shown that ginger has antioxidant power. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a very broad spectrum against microbial pathogens, especially the gram-negative. Many studies revealed that gentamicin induces an oxidative stress-status in the testis by increasing free radical formation and lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate on the effects of Ginger as a natural anioxidant on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin in rats.

Methods: In order to study the recovery effects of ginger on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin 40 adult Wistar male rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Normal salin control (group I) (n=10), gentamicin control (group II), ginger control (group III) and gentamicin + ginger (group IV) each 10 rats. There was observation of negative effect of Gentamicin on testis histology in rats.

Results: The results revealed that there was a significant increase in apoptosis in group III when compared with other groups (P<0.05).However, ginger could decrease apoptosis in group IV that received 100mg/kg/rat of Ginger.

Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5681/apb.2012.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3845986PMC
December 2013

Modulating effect of Allium cepa on kidney apoptosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

Adv Pharm Bull 2012 15;2(1):1-6. Epub 2012 Feb 15.

Department of Parisitology,Tabriz Branch,Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

Purpose: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects a broad range of warm blooded animals as well as humans. The present study was investigated to evaluate the effects of allium cepa on renal failur in male rats which experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii, RH strain.

Methods: Wistar male rat (n=40) were allocated into four groups, group one that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip) (n=10), group two that received tachyzoites of T. gondii (ip), plus fresh onion juice by gavages method (n=10), group three received just fresh onion juice by gavages method (n=10) and control group (n=10) that received nothing. Animals were kept in standard condition. In 30 day after inducing Toxoplasma infection, 5cc blood was collected for serum protein and TAC levels. Kidney tissues of Rat in whole groups were removed and prepared for apopetosis analysis.

Results: Serum protein and kidneys weights were significantly decreased in groups that were infected with T. gondii, in comparison to control and onions groups. Kidneys Apopetosis in toxoplasma group significantly increased in comparison to control group (P<0.05).level of TAC was significantly increased in groups that received onio juice (P<0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed that T. gondii have significantly effect on serum protein and TAC, apopetosis and fresh onion juice returned and treated this harmful effect, so it is suggested that eating of onion is useful in toxoplasma infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5681/apb.2012.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3846023PMC
December 2013

A rare case report of subscapular artery.

Ital J Anat Embryol 2011 ;116(1):56-9

Department of Anatomy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and National Health Management Center [NPMC], Tabriz, Iran.

Axillary artery is one of the most important arteries of the upper limb, which is a continua- tion of the subclavian artery. It begins at the lateral border of the first rib and ends at the inferior border of the teres major where it becomes the brachial artery. Axillary artery has six important branches included: 1) Superior thoracic artery 2) Thoracoacromial artery 3) Lateral thoracic artery 4) Subscapular artery 5) Posterior circumflex humeral artery 6) Anterior circumflex humeral artery. Subscapular artery arises from the third part of axillary artery normally and then divides into cir- cumflex scapular artery that extremely enters the triangular space. The other branch of subscapular artery, the thoracodorsal artery, accompanies thracodorsal nerve to lateral border of scapula and supplies and innervates that region. In this case the subscapular artery was absent in both sides and instead of that the circumflex scapular artery was directly derived from axillary artery and the thoracodorsal artery is separated from circumflex scapular artery as a thin and short branch, too. It seemed that the lateral thoracic artery, which was thicker than its normal condition, supplied the muscles of the lateral part of scapula and the thoracodorsal muscle. Other branches of the axillary artery demonstrated without any abnormally. Since axillary artery has the highest rate of rapture and damage coming after the popliteal artery, knowing the variations is important and essential for surgeons, radiologist and anatomist.
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October 2011
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