Publications by authors named "Arang Samim"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Myocardial viability assessment and utility in contemporary management of ischemic cardiomyopathy.

Clin Cardiol 2022 Jan 25. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

VA CCHCS UCSF, Fresno, California, USA.

Background: In clinical practice, we encounter ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) with underlying viable, dysfunctional myocardium on a regular basis. Evidence from the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart failure (STICH) and its Extension Study is supportive of improved outcomes with coronary revascularization, irrespective of myocardial viable status. However, Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), used in STICH to assess myocardial viability may fail to distinguish hibernating myocardium from scar due to suboptimal image resolution and poor tissue characterization.

Hypothesis: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) can precisely quantify myocardial scar and identify metabolically active, viable myocardium respectively. Unlike DSE and SPECT, CMR and PET allow examining myocardial status as a contiguous spectrum from viable to partially viable myocardium with varying degrees of subendocardial scar and nonviable myocardium with predominantly transmural scar, the therapeutic and prognostic determinants of ICM.

Methods: Under the guidance of CMR and PET imaging, myocardium can be distinguished viable from partially viable with subendocardial scar and predominantly transmural scar. In ICM, optimal medical therapy and coronary revascularization of viable/partially viable myocardium but not transmural scar may improve outcomes in patients with acceptable procedural risk.

Results: Coronary revascularization of partially viable and viable myocardial territory may improve clinical outcomes by preventing future ischemic, infarct events and further worsening of left ventricular remodeling and function.

Conclusions: When deciding if coronary revascularization is appropriate in a patient with ICM, it is essential to take a patient-tailored, comprehensive approach incorporating myocardial viability, ischemia, and scar data with others such as procedural risk, and patient's comorbidities.
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January 2022

Increased E/A Ratio is a Risk Factor for the Formation of Pleural Effusion in Heart Failure.

Lung 2020 02 18;198(1):229-233. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

VA Medical Center, UCSF Fresno, 2615 E. Clinton Ave, Fresno, CA, 9370-2223, USA.

Purpose: Pleural effusion is a common finding in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). The pathogenesis of pleural effusion in heart failure is multifactorial. However, the role of right and left ventricular function assessed by ECHO cardiogram has not been studied. Therefore, we explored the association between right and left ventricular parameters on echocardiogram in patients with heart failure with and without pleural effusion diagnosed using CT scan of chest.

Methods: A case-control study was utilized to explore the objectives. Using strict exclusion criteria, patients admitted with a single diagnosis of acute CHF were stratified into those with and without pleural effusion using CT scan of chest done at admission. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant factors associated with pleural effusion.

Results: Among the 70 patients, 36 (51%) had pleural effusions. The mean E/A ratio in patients with effusion (2.53 ± 1.1) was significantly higher than in patients without effusion (1.15 ± 0.9), p < 0.01. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that elevated E/A ratio was significantly associated with pleural effusion, OR 3.26 (95% CI 1.57-6.77, p < 0.009). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), septal E', lateral E', and medial E/E' ratio were not significantly different in patients with and without pleural effusion.

Conclusion: Elevated E/A ratio is a risk factor for the formation of pleural effusion in patients with heart failure.
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February 2020

A Case of Iatrogenic Aortic Intramural Hematoma.

Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 2017 Jan-Mar;13(1):37-38

University of California San Francisco, Fresno Campus, Fresno, California.

Iatrogenic aortic dissection during percutaneous coronary intervention is a rare but serious complication. Both conservative and surgical approaches have been proposed as management strategies. We describe a case of an 87-year-old female who presented with an acute coronary syndrome complicated by the development of an ascending aortic dissection during percutaneous intervention, and we provide a brief review of the literature.
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September 2017

Left Atrial Area and Right Ventricle Dimensions in Non-gated Axial Chest CT can Differentiate Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease from Other Causes.

J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 2016 May-Jun;10(3):246-50. Epub 2016 Jan 30.

UCSF Fresno, Cardiovascular Division, 2823 Fresno St, Fresno, CA 93721, USA.

Background: It is unknown whether axial non-gated CT can distinguish World Health Organization Group 2 pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease) from non-Group 2 pulmonary hypertension.

Objective: The study was performed to identity imaging parameters in non-gated chest CT that differentiate Group 2 from non-Group 2 pulmonary hypertension.

Methods: Among 158 patients who underwent right heart catheterization for evaluation of pulmonary hypertension, 112 had sufficient data and chest CT for review. Invasive hemodynamic data and numerous variables obtained from axial CT images (maximum diameters of main, right, left pulmonary arteries, ascending aorta, main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameter ratio, right atrial diameter, left atrial area and right ventricular size) were collected. CT variables were validated against hemodynamic data to identify parameters that would allow to differentiate pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (Group 2) from non-Group 2 pulmonary hypertension.

Results: Based on right heart catheterization data, we identified 53 patients with Group 2 pulmonary hypertension, 50 patients with non-Group 2 pulmonary hypertension, and 9 subjects with no pulmonary hypertension. In patients with a dilated pulmonary artery (n = 84), the ROC curve for left atrial area (area under the ROC curve 0.76 ± 0.06) independently distinguished patients with Group 2 pulmonary hypertension (n = 42) from patients with non-Group 2 pulmonary hypertension (n = 42). A dilated left atrium (>20 mm(2)) in combination with a normal right ventriuclar size had a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 94% for Group 2 pulmonary hypertension.

Conclusions: In patients with a dilated pulmonary artery on chest CT, left atrial area and right ventricular dimensions may aid to diagnose pulmonary hypertension and to distinguish underlying cardiac disease from other causes.
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April 2017

Comparison of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of in-office cup forcep biopsies versus operating room biopsies for laryngopharyngeal tumors.

J Voice 2012 Sep 20;26(5):604-6. Epub 2012 Apr 20.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic yield, safety, and cost of biopsies of laryngopharyngeal tumor performed in an office setting with those performed in the operating room (OR) under general anesthesia.

Study Design: This was a retrospective review of patients' records at Boston Medical Center from 2006 to 2008.

Methods: In-office biopsies were performed using flexible digital videolaryngoscopy with cup forcep biopsies taken via the working channel in patients in whom cancer was strongly suspected. Patients whose in-office biopsies were nondiagnostic or suspected to be falsely negative were taken to the OR for biopsy under general anesthesia and served as the control group.

Results: Twelve patients fit the selection criteria and had in-office biopsies attempted. One patient could not tolerate the in-office biopsy. Seven of the 11 in-office biopsies performed were diagnostic for squamous cell carcinoma. The average cost (facility and professional otolaryngology charges) for an in-office biopsy was $2053.91. Five of these patients required further biopsy in the OR at an average cost (charges for surgeon, OR, anesthesia, and recovery room) of $9024.47. There were no significant complications reported for any of the procedures.

Conclusions: In patients with strongly suspected laryngopharyngeal cancer, in-office cup forcep biopsies were 64% diagnostic. When compared with the OR, in-office cup biopsies of laryngopharyngeal tumor are safe and considerably more cost-effective. Although 36% of patients required operative biopsies, the cost would have been considerably higher in this cohort if all patients had gone to the OR for biopsies.
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September 2012

Treatment of angina and microvascular coronary dysfunction.

Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 2010 Aug;12(4):355-64

Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, 444 South San Vicente Boulevard, Suite 600, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.

Opinion Statement: Microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD) is an increasingly recognized cause of cardiac ischemia and angina that is diagnosed more commonly in women. Patients with MCD present with the triad of persistent chest pain, ischemic changes on stress testing, and no obstructive coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization. Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study show that the diagnosis of MCD is not benign, with a 2.5% annual risk of adverse cardiac events including myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, and death. The gold standard diagnostic test for MCD is the invasive coronary reactivity test (CRT), which uses acetylcholine, adenosine, and nitroglycerin to test endothelial-dependent and -independent microvascular and macrovascular coronary function. The CRT allows for diagnostic and treatment options as well as further risk stratification of patients for future cardiovascular events. Treatment of angina and MCD should be aimed at ischemia disease management to reduce the risk of adverse cardiac events, ameliorate symptoms to improve quality of life, and decrease morbidity from unnecessary and repeated cardiac catheterization in patients with open coronary arteries. A comprehensive treatment approach aimed at risk factor management, including lifestyle counseling regarding smoking cessation, nutrition, and physical activity, should be initiated. Current pharmacotherapy for MCD may include treatment of microvascular endothelial dysfunction (with statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or low-dose aspirin), as well as treatment for angina and myocardial ischemia (with β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, nitrates, or ranolazine). Additional symptom management techniques may include tricyclic medication, enhanced external counterpulsation, hypnosis, and spinal cord stimulation. Although our current therapies are effective in treating angina and MCD, large randomized outcome trials are needed to optimize strategies to improve morbidity and mortality.
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August 2010