Publications by authors named "Ara Nazarian"

153 Publications

The effect of surgeon-controlled variables on construct stiffness in lateral locked plating of distal femoral fractures.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jun 4;22(1):512. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Musculoskeletal Translational Innovation Initiative, Carl J. Shapiro Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Beth Isreal Deconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave, MA, 02215, Boston, USA.

Background: Nonunion following treatment of supracondylar femur fractures with lateral locked plates (LLP) has been reported to be as high as 21 %. Implant related and surgeon-controlled variables have been postulated to contribute to nonunion by modulating fracture-fixation construct stiffness. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of surgeon-controlled factors on stiffness when treating supracondylar femur fractures with LLPs: 1. Does plate length affect construct stiffness given the same plate material, fracture working length and type of screws? 2. Does screw type (bicortical locking versus bicortical nonlocking or unicortical locking) and number of screws affect construct stiffness given the same material, fracture working length, and plate length? 3. Does fracture working length affect construct stiffness given the same plate material, length and type of screws? 4. Does plate material (titanium versus stainless steel) affect construct stiffness given the same fracture working length, plate length, type and number of screws?

Methods: Mechanical study of simulated supracondylar femur fractures treated with LLPs of varying lengths, screw types, fractureworking lenghts, and plate/screw material. Overall construct stiffness was evaluated using an Instron hydraulic testing apparatus.

Results: Stiffness was 15 % higher comparing 13-hole to the 5-hole plates (995 N/mm849N vs. /mm, p = 0.003). The use of bicortical nonlocking screws decreased overall construct stiffness by 18 % compared to bicortical locking screws (808 N/mm vs. 995 N/mm, p = 0.0001). The type of screw (unicortical locking vs. bicortical locking) and the number of screws in the diaphysis (3 vs. 10) did not appear to significantly influence construct stiffness (p = 0.76, p = 0.24). Similarly, fracture working length (5.4 cm vs. 9.4 cm, p = 0.24), and implant type (titanium vs. stainless steel, p = 0.12) did also not appear to effect stiffness.

Discussion: Using shorter plates and using bicortical nonlocking screws (vs. bicortical locking screws) reduced overall construct stiffness. Using more screws, using unicortical locking screws, increasing fracture working length and varying plate material (titanium vs. stainless steel) does not appear to significantly alter construct stiffness. Surgeons can adjust plate length and screw types to affect overall fracture-fixation construct stiffness; however, the optimal stiffness to promote healing remains unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04341-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176588PMC
June 2021

Modifiable lifestyle factors associated with fragility hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Bone Miner Metab 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Musculoskeletal Translational Innovation Initiative, Carl J. Shapiro Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, RN115, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Introduction: Among the various hip fracture predictors explored to date, modifiable risk factors warrant special consideration, since they present promising targets for preventative measures. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess various modifiable risk factors.

Material And Methods: We searched four online databases in September 2017. We included studies that reported on modifiable lifestyle risk factors for sustaining fragility hip fractures. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The inclusion criteria consisted of (1) adult patients with osteoporotic hip fracture, (2) original study, (3) availability of full text articles in English, and (4) report of a modifiable lifestyle risk factor.

Results: Thirty-five studies, containing 1,508,366 subjects in total, were included in this study. The modifiable risk factors that were significantly associated with an increased risk of hip fracture were the following: weight < 58 kg (128 lbs) (pooled OR 4.01, 95% CI 1.62-9.90), underweight body mass index (BMI) (< 18.5) (pooled OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.82-4.39), consumption of ≥ 3 cups of coffee daily (pooled OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.04-4.97), inactivity (pooled OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.21-3.77), weight loss (pooled OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.32-2.68), consumption of ≥ 27 g (approx. > 2 standard drinks) alcohol per day (pooled OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.12-2.13), and being a current smoker (pooled OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.22-1.85). Conversely, two factors were significantly associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture: obese BMI (> 30) (pooled OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.99) and habitual tea drinking (pooled OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66-0.80).

Conclusion: Modifiable factors may be utilized clinically to provide more effective lifestyle interventions for at risk populations. We found that low weight and underweight BMI carried the highest risk, followed by high coffee consumption, inactivity, weight loss, and high daily alcohol consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00774-021-01230-5DOI Listing
May 2021

3D Bioprinted Bacteriostatic Hyperelastic Bone Scaffold for Damage-Specific Bone Regeneration.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 30;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Current strategies for regeneration of large bone fractures yield limited clinical success mainly due to poor integration and healing. Multidisciplinary approaches in design and development of functional tissue engineered scaffolds are required to overcome these translational challenges. Here, a new generation of hyperelastic bone (HB) implants, loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), are 3D bioprinted and their regenerative effect on large non-healing bone fractures is studied. Scaffolds are bioprinted with the geometry that closely correspond to that of the bone defect, using an osteoconductive, highly elastic, surgically friendly bioink mainly composed of hydroxyapatite. Incorporation of SPIONs into HB bioink results in enhanced bacteriostatic properties of bone grafts while exhibiting no cytotoxicity. In vitro culture of mouse embryonic cells and human osteoblast-like cells remain viable and functional up to 14 days on printed HB scaffolds. Implantation of damage-specific bioprinted constructs into a rat model of femoral bone defect demonstrates significant regenerative effect over the 2-week time course. While no infection, immune rejection, or fibrotic encapsulation is observed, HB grafts show rapid integration with host tissue, ossification, and growth of new bone. These results suggest a great translational potential for 3D bioprinted HB scaffolds, laden with functional nanoparticles, for hard tissue engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13071099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036866PMC
March 2021

Contamination of the Mini C-Arm During Foot and Ankle Surgery.

Foot Ankle Int 2021 Mar 31:10711007211001032. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Carl J. Shapiro Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Many orthopedic surgeries utilize intraoperative fluoroscopy. The mini C-arm is an advantageous device as it can be easily used without the need for a dedicated radiology technician. However, there are concerns that the mini C-arm may represent a potential source of contamination and subsequent postoperative infection. Previous investigations of standard C-arm drapes have shown high rates of contamination. Similar contamination rates would be even more concerning for the mini C-arm as it requires physically maneuvering the machine. This study aimed to determine the rate of mini C-arm drape contamination and identify high-risk areas.

Methods: Fifty foot and ankle surgeries requiring the use of mini C-arm fluoroscopy were included. Eight locations on the mini C-arm drape were sampled at the conclusion of each procedure. Culture Q-swabs were used for sampling defined locations. Swab samples were then assessed for bacterial growth on a 5% blood agar plate using a semiquantitative technique.

Results: In 70% of surgical cases, contamination was observed in at least 1 location. Six of the 8 evaluated locations were found to have significantly higher contamination in comparison with their corresponding negative controls (Mann-Whitney test, < .05). The "outer portion of the upper arm" (location 1) exhibited bacteria growth in 26% ( < .0001) of cases. The "superior portion of the x-ray source" (location 2) exhibited growth in 30% ( .0001) of cases. These were the highest-risk areas for contamination and were both significantly more likely to be involved than the "inferior portion of the x-ray source" and "superior portion of the beam receiver," locations 4 and 5, respectively. Fourteen percent (7/50) C-arm cases and 1.72% (1/58) Achilles tendon surgery control cases developed surgical site infection ( = .0234; OR, 9.27).

Conclusion: Bacterial contamination of the mini C-arm drape was found to be common after foot and ankle procedures. Contamination was more prevalent on the outer ring areas of the C-arm, both at the emitter and receiver.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10711007211001032DOI Listing
March 2021

Association between hospital surgical volume and complications after total hip arthroplasty in femoral neck fracture: A propensity score-matched cohort study.

Injury 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: For displaced femoral neck fractures (FNF), total hip arthroplasty (THA) or hemiarthroplasty (HA) is preferred rather than fracture fixation. THA for patients with FNF requires skilled operators since patient with FNF likely to have osteoporosis and a higher risk of complications. Several reports suggest that higher hospital surgical volume was associated with a lower risk of complications after THA for osteoarthritis. However, little is known concerning this association with THA for FNF. Herein, we investigated the association between THA and complication and the recovery of physical function after THA to optimize the quality of FNF.

Methods: A nationwide retrospective cohort study of elderly undergoing THA between April 1, 2011, to March 31, 2018 was performed. The association between hospital surgical volume and complication after THA for FNF was visually described with the restricted cubic spline regression analysis. Then the risk of complications was quantified with propensity score matching analysis based on the cutoff point identified by the restricted cubic spline curve. Primary outcome was secondary revision surgery, and the secondary outcomes included surgical and systemic complications, and the recovery of physical function at hospital discharge.

Results: By visualization of the spline curve, we identified 20 cases per year as cutoff point of low hospital surgical volume. Following 1,396 patients' propensity score-match analysis (mean age 75.2 [SD] 8.8, female 80.4%), the risk of secondary revision surgery was significantly higher among the low hospital surgical volume group (absolute risk difference (RD), 2.44%; p = 0.011). Also, the incidence of blood transfusion was higher in the low hospital surgical volume group (RD, 4.01%; p = 0.049). However, there was no significant difference in the recovery of the transferring and walking ability at discharge between high and low hospital surgical volume groups (63.5% vs 62.6%, 58.5% vs 57.5%; p = 0.74, 0.71, respectively).

Conclusion: Our research demonstrated that an increase in hospital surgical volume significantly reduced the incidence of secondary revision surgery after a certain inflection point, but not significantly improved short-term physical functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2021.02.092DOI Listing
March 2021

Multivitamins and risk of fragility hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Osteoporos 2021 02 11;16(1):29. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Musculoskeletal Translational Innovation Initiative, Carl J. Shapiro Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, RN115, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Purpose: Hip fracture is a severe complication of osteoporosis and is associated with a significant healthcare burden worldwide. This meta-analysis explores the association between combined multivitamin use and hip fracture risk. Our results provide more patient-centered insight into the impact of supplement use on osteoporosis outcomes.

Methods: We searched three online databases in August 2019 and included studies that reported on multivitamin use in patients with osteoporotic hip fractures. The inclusion criteria were (1) adult patients with osteoporotic hip fractures, (2) availability of full-text articles in English, and (3) at least 1 year of follow-up. No suitable randomized controlled trials could be identified for inclusion in the analysis. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS).

Results: Eight studies containing 80,148 subjects in total were included in this study. Among these, 4237 cases of fragility hip fracture were reported. The average age was 69±5.3 years, and 21% of subjects were male. Multivitamin use was found to be significantly associated with a lower risk of sustaining a fragility hip fracture (OR 0.49, 95%CI: 0.32-0.77). The Begg and Mazumdar test and funnel plot indicated that no significant publication bias was present.

Conclusion: Combined multivitamins are amongst the most widely used supplements and are often preferred over single vitamins. Our meta-analysis indicates that multivitamin use is significantly protective against osteoporotic hip fracture. In the future, randomized controlled trials should be performed to establish multivitamins as effective preventative measures for this injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-021-00893-xDOI Listing
February 2021

3D printing-assisted fabrication of patient-specific antibacterial radial head prosthesis with high periprosthetic bone preservation.

Biomed Mater 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Clinical Research Unit, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, 00000, Iran (the Islamic Republic of).

We present a novel fabrication and surgical approach for anatomical reconstruction of a fractured radial head using patient-specific radial head prosthesis made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. To this end, the use of PMMA bone cement for prosthesis fabrication was initially investigated using computational modeling and experimental methods. The radial head prosthesis was fabricated through casting of PMMA bone cement in silicone mold in the operation room before implantation. To enhance the precision of bony preparation for replacement of the radial head, patient-specific surgical guide for accurate resection of the radial neck with the desired length was developed. Post-surgical clinical examinations revealed biomechanical restoration of elbow function, owing to the use of patient-specific radial head prosthesis and surgical guide. Importantly, follow-up radiographs after a mean follow-up of 18 months revealed bone preservation at the bone-prosthesis interface without any signs of erosion of the capitellum. Taken together, our method demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the PMMA radial head prosthesis in restoring elbow biomechanics. This also provides a very safe and cost-effective method for making various patient-specific prostheses with localized antibacterial delivery and close mechanical properties to native bone for improved periprosthetic bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/abe217DOI Listing
February 2021

Substance-Related Found-Down Compartment Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

J Orthop Trauma 2021 Jul;35(7):e247-e253

Harvard Orthopaedic Trauma Initiative, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Objective: To characterize the patient population with substance-related found-down extremity compartment syndrome (FDECS) and report on their treatment and outcome.

Data Source: This systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Articles in English language were identified by searching 3 online databases, EMBASE, PubMed Publisher, and Cochrane Central, in September 2019.

Study Selection: Studies involving substance-related FDECS were included. Exclusion criteria were as follows: patient age <18 years, not original studies, no full text available, technical reports, traumatic acute extremity compartment syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, and vascular acute extremity compartment syndrome.

Data Extraction: There were 61 studies included with 166 cases of FDECS. Two investigators screened and extracted data independently according to a standardized template. Disagreements were addressed by an attempt to reach a consensus, and involvement of a third reviewer. Studies were quality assessed with "Quality Assessment tool for Case Series Studies."

Data Synthesis: Descriptive statistics were reported using Excel.

Conclusion: Substance-related FDECS is often occurring in young adults. Data from this review found that most of the patients were already diagnosed with substance use disorders and/or psychiatric disorders. There should be a high index of suspicion of FDECS in patients presenting after prolonged immobilization.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0000000000002001DOI Listing
July 2021

Seasonal impact on surgical site infections in hip fracture surgery: Analysis of 330,803 cases using a nationwide inpatient database.

Injury 2021 Apr 13;52(4):898-904. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Global Health Promotion, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: As the aging population progresses, the number of elderly hip fracture patients is increasing. Elderly patients with hip fractures have a high risk of perioperative complications. One of the major complications after surgery is surgical site infection (SSI), which requires additional surgical interventions and is associated with increased mortality. Previous literature has shown that the risk of SSI is higher during the summer season in orthopedic surgery. However, little is known about the seasonal differences in the risk of SSI after hip fracture surgery. In this study, we aimed to identify the association between seasonality and SSI.

Methods: We enrolled a total of 330,803 patients undergoing hip fracture surgery (65 years or older) using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. The study period was from April 1, 2011, to March 31, 2016. The data were analyzed to determine the association between seasonality and the incidence of SSI, debridement procedure. The primary outcome was the incidence of SSI and debridement. Other risk factors of SSI and debridement were investigated including seasons and confounders such as sex, age, BMI, smoking status, anticoagulant intake, comorbidities, surgical procedure based on medical diagnosis, waiting times for the surgery, and hospital surgical volume based on the previous literature, the risk of SSI and debridement.

Results: Hip fracture surgeries performed in summer showed the highest risk for SSI and debridement. The risk for SSI was significantly associated with spring, and summer compared to winter (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; p, 0.016; OR, 1.19; p, 0.012, respectively). The incidence of debridement procedures after the initial surgery was also associated with spring, summer, and fall: the risk was the highest in summer (OR, 1.34; p, <0.001). Obesity, smoking history, number of comorbidities, anticoagulant intake before surgery, longer waiting time for surgery, and small hospital surgical volume were significantly associated with the risk of SSI.

Conclusions: We found a significant association between SSI after surgery for hip fractures and seasonality. Surgeries performed in summer had the highest risk for SSI and subsequent debridement procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2020.10.058DOI Listing
April 2021

Association between Hemiarthroplasty vs Total Hip Arthroplasty and Major Surgical Complications among Patients with Femoral Neck Fracture.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 3;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Global Health Promotion, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan.

Previous studies have shown better clinical outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA) compared to hemiarthroplasty (HA) for displaced femoral neck fracture. However, few studies have focused on the surgical risks of the two procedures. Therefore, we investigated the perioperative complications of HA and THA in femoral neck fracture, using a large nationwide inpatient database. A total of 286,269 patients (281,140 patients with HA and 5129 with THA) with a mean age of 81.7 were enrolled and HA and THA patients were matched by a propensity score to adjust for patient and hospital characteristics. Patients in a matched cohort were analyzed to compare complications and mortality. The systemic complication rate was not significantly different after a propensity score matching of 4967 pairs of patients. However, the incidence of both hip dislocation and revision surgery was more frequent in the THA group (Risk difference (RD), 2.74; 95%Confidence interval(CI), 2.21-3.27; < 0.001; RD, 2.82; 95%CI, 2.27-3.37; < 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in 30 day in-hospital mortality among the two groups. The risk of dislocation and reoperation was higher for THA than for HA in elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture in this retrospective study using a nationwide database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601407PMC
October 2020

A Historical Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials in Rotator Cuff Tears.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 20;17(18). Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Trigoria, 00128 Rome, Italy.

Our research aimed to evaluate the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) linked to rotator cuff (RC) tears. The present study analyzed factors connected to the quality of the RCTs and trends in the quality of reporting through time. The online databases used to search all RCTs on the topic of RC surgery completed until March 2020 were PubMed and Ovid (MEDLINE). The quality of reporting was evaluated using the modified Coleman methodology score (MCMS) and the consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORT). The online search found 957 articles. Finally, 183 studies were included in the quantitative synthesis. A total of 97 (53%) of 183 studies had a level of evidence I and 86 (47%) of 183 studies had a level of evidence II, according to the Oxford Center of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM). A statistically significant difference in MCMS between articles written before 2010 and articles written after 2010 was found. Articles written after 2010 had, on average, the highest Coleman score. The average number of CONSORT checklist items for each article across all analyzed RCTs was 21.67. The 37 studies completed up to 2010 averaged a number of checklist items of 19.97 and the studies completed between 2011 and 2019 averaged a number of checklist items of 22.10. A statistically significant difference in the number of checklist items between articles written before 2010 and articles written after 2010 was found. Articles written after 2010 had on average more checklist items. However, low correlation (0.26) between the number of checklist items for each article and the respective Coleman score was found. On the other hand, articles with the CONSORT diagram had a significantly high Coleman score. An improvement in the quantity and quality of RCTs relating to RC surgery over the analyzed period was found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558823PMC
September 2020

Anatomic Structures at Risk During Posterior to Anterior Percutaneous Screw Fixation of Posterior Malleolar Fractures: A Cadaveric Study.

Foot Ankle Spec 2020 Jul 22:1938640020943004. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

New York Medical College, New York, New York (NC).

There are no established guidelines for fixation of posterior malleolus fractures (PMFs). However, fixation of PMFs appears to be increasing with growing evidence demonstrating benefits for stability, alignment, and early functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk to anatomic structures utilizing a percutaneous technique for posterior to anterior (PA) screw fixation of PMFs. Percutaneous PA screw placement was carried out on 10 fresh frozen cadaveric ankles followed by dissection to identify soft tissue and neurovascular structures at risk. The distance from the guidewire to each anatomic structure of interest was measured. The correlation between the mean distances from the guidewire to each structure was calculated. The sural nerve was directly transected in 1/10 specimens (10%) and in contact with the wire in a second specimen (10%). There was a significant correlation between the proximity of the guidewire to the apex of Volkmann's tubercle and its proximity to the sural nerve. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscle belly was perforated by the guidewire 40% of the time but was not tethered or entrapped by the screw. Percutaneous PA screw placement is a safe technique which can be improved with several modifications. A mini-open technique is recommended to protect the sural nerve. There may be potential for tethering of the FHL with use of a washer or large screw head. Risk to the anterior and posterior neurovascular bundles is minimal.Levels of Evidence: .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1938640020943004DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinical Management of Arthrofibrosis: State of the Art and Therapeutic Outlook.

JBJS Rev 2020 07;8(7):e1900223

Harvard Medical School Orthopedic Trauma Initiative, Boston, Massachusetts.

* Arthrofibrosis is a pathologic condition that is characterized by excessive periarticular scar-tissue formation. Arthrofibrosis may occur secondary to injury, surgical trauma, hemarthrosis, or infection, or it may occur idiopathically.* The pathogenesis of arthrofibrosis is incompletely understood but involves the dysregulation of normal reparative pathways, with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-[beta]) as a principal mediator.* Current treatment options for arthrofibrosis primarily involve physiotherapy, operative manipulation, and surgical debridement, all with imperfect results.* Currently, there are no pharmacologic treatment options for arthrofibrosis. This has prompted increased investigational interest in the development of antifibrotic intra-articular therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.RVW.19.00223DOI Listing
July 2020

Comparison of Patellofemoral Kinematics and Stability After Medial Patellofemoral Ligament and Medial Quadriceps Tendon-Femoral Ligament Reconstruction.

Am J Sports Med 2020 07 18;48(9):2252-2259. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Carl J. Shapiro Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: There is a lack of evidence regarding the optimum extensor-sided fixation method for medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. There is increased interest in avoiding patellar drilling via soft tissue-only fixation to the distal quadriceps, thus reconstructing the medial quadriceps tendon-femoral ligament (MQTFL). The biomechanical implications of differing extensor-sided fixation constructs remain unknown.

Hypothesis: The null hypothesis was there would be no differences between traditional MPFL reconstruction and MQTFL reconstruction with respect to resistance to lateral translation, patellar position, or patellofemoral contact pressures.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: Nine adult knee specimens were mounted on a jig that applied static, physiologic loads to the quadriceps tendons. Patellar position and orientation, knee flexion angle, and patellofemoral pressure were recorded at 8 different flexion angles between 0° and 110°. Additionally, a lateral patellar excursion test was conducted wherein a load was applied directly to the patella in the lateral direction with the knee at 30° of flexion and subjected to 2-N quadriceps loads. Testing was conducted under 4 conditions: intact, transected MPFL, MQTFL reconstruction, and MPFL reconstruction. For MQTFL reconstruction, the surgical technique established by Fulkerson was employed. For MPFL reconstruction, a traditional technique was utilized.

Results: The patellar excursion test showed no significant difference between the MQTFL and intact states with respect to lateral translation. MPFL reconstruction led to significantly less lateral translation ( < .05) than all other states. There were no significant differences between MPFL and MQTFL reconstructions with respect to peak patellofemoral contact pressure. MPFL and MQTFL reconstructions both resulted in increased internal rotation of the patella with the knee in full extension.

Conclusion: Soft tissue-only extensor-sided fixation to the distal quadriceps (MQTFL) during patella stabilization appears to re-create native stability in this time 0 cadaver model. Fixation to the patella (MPFL) was associated with increased resistance to lateral translation.

Clinical Relevance: Evolving anatomic knowledge and concern for patellar fracture has led to increased interest in MQTFL reconstruction. Both MQTFL and MPFL reconstructions restored patellofemoral stability to lateral translation without increasing contact pressures under appropriate graft tensioning, with MQTFL more closely restoring native resistance to lateral translation at the time of surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520930703DOI Listing
July 2020

Erratum: Longo, U.G., et al. Scapular Dyskinesis: From Basic Science to Ultimate Treatment. 2020, , 2974.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 27;17(11). Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, 00128 Trigoria, Rome, Italy.

The authors would like to correct the names and surnames of the following authors of their previous paper [...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312209PMC
May 2020

Effect of rotator cuff muscle activation on glenohumeral kinematics: A cadaveric study.

J Biomech 2020 05 18;105:109798. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Carl J. Shapiro Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yerevan State Medical University, Yerevan, Armenia. Electronic address:

Healthy shoulder function requires the coordination of the rotator cuff muscles to maintain the humeral head's position in the glenoid. While glenohumeral stability has been studied in various settings, few studies have characterized the effect of dynamic rotator cuff muscle loading on glenohumeral translation during shoulder motion. We hypothesize that dynamic rotator cuff muscle activation decreases joint translation during continuous passive abduction of the humerus in a cadaveric model of scapular plane glenohumeral abduction. The effect of different rotator cuff muscle activity on glenohumeral translation was assessed using a validated shoulder testing system. The Dynamic Load profile is a novel approach, based on musculoskeletal modeling of human subject motion. Passive humeral elevation in the scapular plane was applied via the testing system arm, while the rotator cuff muscles were activated according to the specified force profiles using stepper motors and a proportional control feedback loop. Glenohumeral translation was defined according to the International Society of Biomechanics. The Dynamic load profile minimized superior translation of the humeral head relative to the conventional loading profiles. The total magnitude of translation was not significantly different (0.805) among the loading profiles suggesting that the compressive forces from the rotator cuff primarily alter the direction of humeral head translation, not the magnitude. Rotator cuff muscle loading is an important element of cadaveric shoulder studies that must be considered to accurately simulate glenohumeral motion. A rotator cuff muscle activity profile based on human subject muscle activity reduces superior glenohumeral translation when compared to previous RC loading profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2020.109798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075063PMC
May 2020

Evaluation of musculoskeletal phenotype of the G608G progeria mouse model with lonafarnib, pravastatin, and zoledronic acid as treatment groups.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 06 13;117(22):12029-12040. Epub 2020 May 13.

Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215;

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a uniformly fatal condition that is especially prevalent in skin, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems. A wide gap exists between our knowledge of the disease and a promising treatment or cure. The aim of this study was to first characterize the musculoskeletal phenotype of the homozygous G608G BAC-transgenic progeria mouse model, and to determine the phenotype changes of HGPS mice after a five-arm preclinical trial of different treatment combinations with lonafarnib, pravastatin, and zoledronic acid. Microcomputed tomography and CT-based rigidity analyses were performed to assess cortical and trabecular bone structure, density, and rigidity. Bones were loaded to failure with three-point bending to assess strength. Contrast-enhanced µCT imaging of mouse femurs was performed to measure glycosaminoglycan content, thickness, and volume of the femoral head articular cartilage. Advanced glycation end products were assessed with a fluorometric assay. The changes demonstrated in the cortical bone structure, rigidity, stiffness, and modulus of the HGPS G608G mouse model may increase the risk for bending and deformation, which could result in the skeletal dysplasia characteristic of HGPS. Cartilage abnormalities seen in this HGPS model resemble changes observed in the age-matched WT controls, including early loss of glycosaminoglycans, and decreased cartilage thickness and volume. Such changes might mimic prevalent degenerative joint diseases in the elderly. Lonafarnib monotherapy did not improve bone or cartilage parameters, but treatment combinations with pravastatin and zoledronic acid significantly improved bone structure and mechanical properties and cartilage structural parameters, which ameliorate the musculoskeletal phenotype of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1906713117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275760PMC
June 2020

Scapular Dyskinesis: From Basic Science to Ultimate Treatment.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 04 24;17(8). Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, Trigoria 200, 00128 Rome, Italy.

: This study intends to summarize the causes, clinical examination, and treatments of scapular dyskinesis (SD) and to briefly investigate whether alteration can be managed by a precision rehabilitation protocol planned on the basis of features derived from clinical tests. : We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL and EMBASE databases using various combinations of the keywords "Rotator cuff", "Scapula", "Scapular Dyskinesis", "Shoulder", "Biomechanics" and "Arthroscopy". : SD incidence is growing in patients with shoulder pathologies, even if it is not a specific injury or directly related to a particular injury. SD can be caused by multiple factors or can be the trigger of shoulder-degenerative pathologies. In both cases, SD results in a protracted scapula with the arm at rest or in motion. : A clinical evaluation of altered shoulder kinematics is still complicated. Limitations in observing scapular motion are mainly related to the anatomical position and function of the scapula itself and the absence of a tool for quantitative SD clinical assessment. High-quality clinical trials are needed to establish whether there is a possible correlation between SD patterns and the specific findings of shoulder pathologies with altered scapular kinematics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7215460PMC
April 2020

Cost-Effectiveness of Supervised versus Unsupervised Rehabilitation for Rotator-Cuff Repair: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 04 21;17(8). Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, Trigoria, 00128 Rome, Italy.

Background: The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy between supervised and unsupervised rehabilitation after rotator-cuff (RC) repair in terms of clinical outcomes, visual-analog-scale (VAS) score, range of motion (ROM), and risk of retear.

Material: a comprehensive search of Pubmed, CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Ovid, and Google Scholar databases through a combination of the following keywords with logical Boolean operators: "informed", "uninformed", "unsupervised", "supervised", "rehabilitation", "physical therapy", "physical therapies", "postoperative period", "physical-therapy techniques", "physical-therapy technique", "exercise", "exercise therapy", "rotator cuff", "rotator-cuff tear", and "rotator-cuff repair". For each article included in the study, the following data were extracted: authors, year, study design, sample size and demographic features, RC tear characteristics, clinical outcomes, ROM, VAS score, retear rate, and time of follow-up. Meta-analysis was performed in terms of VAS score.

Results: Four randomized control trials with 132 patients were included. One study demonstrated significant improvement in VAS, active ROM, and the activity of the muscle's motor units at stop and during maximal effort in supervised patients. Another one showed lower retear rates in the supervised group. The remaining two randomized controlled trials did not reveal any significant differences between supervised and unsupervised rehabilitation in terms of clinical outcomes. Moreover, higher costs were described for supervised rehabilitation. The VAS was not significantly different in the two groups (9.9 compared with 8.25, p = 0.23).

Conclusions: although several publications address the problem of RC lacerations, there is a paucity of evidence in the literature regarding the effectiveness of supervised and unsupervised rehabilitation protocols. This systematic review and meta-analysis showed no significant differences between the two types of rehabilitation in terms of VAS scores, while outlining the pros and cons of each protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216111PMC
April 2020

Comparison of surgical and non-surgical treatments for 3- and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: A network meta-analysis.

Shoulder Elbow 2020 Apr 28;12(2):99-108. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Harvard Medical School Orthopedic Trauma Initiative, Brigham and Women's Hospital; Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

Introduction: Common treatment strategies for proximal humerus fractures include non-surgical treatment, open reduction internal fixation, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. There is currently no consensus regarding the superiority of any one surgical strategy. We used network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine the most successful treatment for proximal humerus fractures.

Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing 3- and 4-part proximal humerus fracture treatments. Data extraction included the mean and standard deviation of clinical outcomes (Constant, DASH), adverse events, and additional surgery rates. Standard Mean Difference was used to compare clinical outcome scores, and pooled risk ratios were used to compare adverse events and additional surgeries.

Results: Eight randomized controlled trials were included for network meta-analysis. Non-surgical treatment was associated with a lower rate of additional surgery and adverse events compared to open reduction internal fixation. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty resulted in fewer adverse events and a better clinical outcome score than hemiarthroplasty. Non-surgical treatment produced similar clinical scores, adverse event rates, and additional surgery rates to hemiarthroplasty and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

Conclusion: Non-surgical treatment results in fewer complications and additional surgeries compared to open reduction internal fixation. Preliminary data supports reverse total shoulder arthroplasty over hemiarthroplasty, but more evidence is needed to strengthen this conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758573219831506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7153210PMC
April 2020

Medications as a Risk Factor for Fragility Hip Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Calcif Tissue Int 2020 07 7;107(1):1-9. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Fragility hip fractures and their associated morbidity and mortality pose a global healthcare problem. Several pharmaceutical products have been postulated to alter bone architecture and contribute to fragility hip fractures. We searched four electronic databases from inception to September 2017. Inclusion criteria were the following: (1) adult patients with fragility hip fractures, (2) full text in English, (3) minimum one-year follow-up, and (4) reporting of at least one risk factor. To minimize heterogeneity among the studies, we performed subgroup analyses. Whenever heterogeneity remained significant, we employed random effect meta-analysis for data pooling. Thirty-eight studies were included, containing 1,244,155 subjects and 188,966 cases of fragility hip fractures. Following medications were significantly associated with fragility hip fractures: Antidepressants (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.98-2.17), antiparkinsonian drugs (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.24), antipsychotic drugs (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.50-2.66), anxiolytic drugs (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.75), benzodiazepines (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.26-2.69), sedatives (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.54), systemic corticosteroids (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.37-1.99), H antagonists (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.18-1.24), proton pump inhibitors (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.16-1.71), and thyroid hormone (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.13-1.47). Hormone replacement therapy with estrogen (HRT) was associated with decreased risk of hip fracture (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98). There are several medications associated with sustaining a fragility hip fracture. Medical interventions should be considered for patients on these medications, including information about osteoporosis and fracture prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-020-00688-1DOI Listing
July 2020

Risk factors for developing acute compartment syndrome in the pediatric population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2020 Jul 27;30(5):839-844. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is often difficult to diagnose in pediatric patients due to their erratic symptomatology. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify at-risk patients to facilitate a prompt diagnosis. This study aims to identify risk factors for the development of ACS in the pediatric population.

Methods: We included studies comprised of pediatric patients with traumatic ACS. We excluded studies evaluating compartment syndrome secondary to exertion, vascular insult, abdominal processes, burns, and snake bites. Heterogeneity was addressed by subgroup analysis, and whenever it remained significant, we utilized a random-effects meta-analysis for data pooling. The protocol has been registered at PROSPERO (ID = CRD42019126603).

Results: We included nine studies with 380,411 patients, of which 1144 patients were diagnosed with traumatic ACS. The average age was 10 years old, and 67% of patients were male. Factors that were significantly associated with ACS were: open radius/ulna fractures (OR 3.56 CI 1.52-8.33, p = 0.003), high-energy trauma (OR 3.51 CI 1.71-7.21, p = 0.001), humerus fractures occurring concurrently with forearm fractures (OR 3.49 CI 1.87-6.52, p < 0.001), open tibia fractures (OR 2.29 CI 1.47-3.55, p < 0.001), and male gender (OR 2.06 CI 1.70-2.51, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: In the present study, open fractures, high-energy trauma, concurrent humerus and forearm fractures, and male gender significantly increased the risk of developing ACS in the pediatric population. Clinicians should raise their suspicion for ACS when one or multiple of these factors are present in the right clinical context.

Type Of Study: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-020-02643-0DOI Listing
July 2020

Concept of a Radiofrequency Device for Osteopenia/Osteoporosis Screening.

Sci Rep 2020 02 26;10(1):3540. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Osteoporosis represents a major health problem, resulting in substantial increases in health care costs. There is an unmet need for a cost-effective technique that can measure bone properties without the use of ionizing radiation. The present study reports design, construction, and testing of a safe, and easy to use radiofrequency device to detect osteoporotic bone conditions. The device uses novel on-body antennas contacting the human wrist under an applied, operator-controlled pressure. For the dichotomous diagnostic test, we selected 60 study participants (23-94 years old, 48 female, 12 male) who could be positively differentiated between healthy and osteopenic/osteoporotic states. The band-limited integral of the transmission coefficient averaged for both wrists, multiplied by age, and divided by BMI has been used as an index. For a 100 MHz frequency band centered about 890-920 MHz, the maximum Youden's J index is 81.5%. Both the sensitivity and specificity simultaneously reach 87% given the calibration device threshold tolerance of ±3%. Our approach correlates well with the available DXA measurements and has the potential for screening patients at risk for fragility fractures, given the ease of implementation and low costs associated with both the technique and the equipment. The inclusion of radiofrequency transmission data does add supplementary useful information to the available clinical risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60173-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044313PMC
February 2020

Post-traumatic elbow stiffness: Pathogenesis and current treatments.

Shoulder Elbow 2020 Feb 8;12(1):38-45. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), Boston, MA, USA.

Post-traumatic elbow stiffness is a major cause of functional impairment after elbow trauma. A stiff elbow limits patients' ability to position their hand in space for optimal use of their upper extremities, and as such, is a frequent indication for reoperation. This article reviews current concepts on the pathogenesis of post-traumatic elbow stiffness. Current nonoperative treatment options include therapy, bracing, and manipulation under anesthesia, while operative treatment options include arthroscopic and open arthrolysis. The pros and cons of various treatment options are discussed, with a focus on the evidence supporting their use, the expected functional gains, and associated complications. Future directions in post-traumatic elbow stiffness are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758573218793903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974890PMC
February 2020

Biomechanical properties of an intramedullary suture anchor fixation compared to tension band wiring in osteoporotic olecranon fractures- A cadaveric study.

J Orthop 2020 Jan-Feb;17:144-149. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: The aim of the study is to compare three different fixation techniques for transverse olecranon repair in cadaveric osteoporotic bone: (1) current recommended AO tension band technique with K-wire fixation; (2) Suture anchor fixation and (3) Polyester suture fixation.

Methods: Evaluated with bone densitometry, 7 osteoporotic human elbow specimens were included in the study. A transverse olecranon fracture was reduced anatomically and were fixated first using a K-wire tension band technique, second using two suture anchors, and third using polyester suture. Static simulations of the kinetics associated with active range of motion (AROM) and push up from a chair exercises were performed with cyclic loading using Instron hydraulic testing apparatus. Fracture displacement was measured using videographic analysis. Failure was defined as 2 mm fracture displacement.

Results: The biomechanical analysis found no statistical difference in displacements between the three fixation methods when testing AROM. In simulated push-up exercises, polyester suture fixation failed after 17 cycles and had significantly higher displacement compared to the other two methods. No difference between the K-Wire fixation versus Suture anchor fixation was observed, p = 0.162.

Conclusion: Suture anchor fixation might be a viable surgical treatment option for osteoporotic transverse elbow fractures in geriatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jor.2019.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6919365PMC
August 2019

Thermoplastic moulding of regenerated silk.

Nat Mater 2020 01 16;19(1):102-108. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.

Early insights into the unique structure and properties of native silk suggested that β-sheet nanocrystallites in silk would degrade prior to melting when subjected to thermal processing. Since then, canonical approaches for fabricating silk-based materials typically involve solution-derived processing methods, which have inherent limitations with respect to silk protein solubility and stability in solution, and time and cost efficiency. Here we report a thermal processing method for the direct solid-state moulding of regenerated silk into bulk 'parts' or devices with tunable mechanical properties. At elevated temperature and pressure, regenerated amorphous silk nanomaterials with ultralow β-sheet content undergo thermal fusion via molecular rearrangement and self-assembly assisted by bound water to form a robust bulk material that retains biocompatibility, degradability and machinability. This technique reverses presumptions about the limitations of direct thermal processing of silk into a wide range of new material formats and composite materials with tailored properties and functionalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-019-0560-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6986341PMC
January 2020

Predicting factors of muscle necrosis in acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity.

Injury 2020 Feb 16;51(2):522-526. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; Harvard Orthopaedic Trauma Initiative, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: Acute physiologic compartment syndrome (ACS) is a disorder of increased intra-compartmental pressure leading to decreased tissue perfusion and muscle necrosis. Tissue ischemia can result in irreversible muscle and nerve injury and requires urgent fasciotomy. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with the presence of necrotic muscle in patients undergoing leg fasciotomy.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing fasciotomies for ACS of the leg at two level 1 trauma centers from 2000 to 2015. We found 1,028 patients who underwent leg fasciotomies. We excluded ACS at other sites than the leg, the index fasciotomy performed at an outside institution, prophylactic fasciotomy with no clinical signs of ACS, and patients with inadequate medical records. A total of 357 patients were included in the final analysis. We used bivariate analysis to assess which explanatory variables are associated with the main outcome measure, the presence of necrotic muscle at fasciotomy. We used multivariable regression analysis to determine association accounting for any confounding.

Results: Of 357 cases of ACS of the leg, 14.6% of patients presented with an open fracture and 21.3% of patients were multiply injured. Overall, 14.3% of cases had muscle necrosis at the time of fasciotomy. Fifty-nine percent of patients with necrotic muscle required more than 3 debridements. Open fracture was the only statistically significant predictor of muscle necrosis (OR=2.8). Crush injury (OR=3.1) and soft tissue injuries (OR=2.8) were at an increased odds of necrotic muscle, but only marginally significant.

Conclusion: ACS is a potentially limb threatening condition often associated with poor outcomes, particularly when the diagnosis is delayed. Patients with open fracture have a three-fold increase in odds of necrotic muscle at the time of fasciotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2019.11.022DOI Listing
February 2020

Computational modeling of human bone fracture healing affected by different conditions of initial healing stage.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2019 Nov 25;20(1):562. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, RN115, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Background: Bone healing process includes four phases: inflammatory response, soft callus formation, hard callus development, and remodeling. Mechanobiological models have been used to investigate the role of various mechanical and biological factors on bone healing. However, the effects of initial healing phase, which includes the inflammatory stage, the granulation tissue formation, and the initial callus formation during the first few days post-fracture, are generally neglected in such studies.

Methods: In this study, we developed a finite-element-based model to simulate different levels of diffusion coefficient for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) migration, Young's modulus of granulation tissue, callus thickness and interfragmentary gap size to understand the modulatory effects of these initial phase parameters on bone healing.

Results: The results quantified how faster MSC migration, stiffer granulation tissue, thicker callus, and smaller interfragmentary gap enhanced healing to some extent. However, after a certain threshold, a state of saturation was reached for MSC migration rate, granulation tissue stiffness, and callus thickness. Therefore, a parametric study was performed to verify that the callus formed at the initial phase, in agreement with experimental observations, has an ideal range of geometry and material properties to have the most efficient healing time.

Conclusions: Findings from this paper quantified the effects of the initial healing phase on healing outcome to better understand the biological and mechanobiological mechanisms and their utilization in the design and optimization of treatment strategies. It is also demonstrated through a simulation that for fractures, where bone segments are in close proximity, callus development is not required. This finding is consistent with the concepts of primary and secondary bone healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-019-2854-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6878676PMC
November 2019

Consideration of medial anatomical structures at risk when placing quadricortical syndesmotic fixation: A cadaveric study.

Injury 2020 Feb 4;51(2):527-531. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Surgical fixation of syndesmotic instability using quadricortical fixation, whether screws or suture-button devices, places structures on the medial side of the tibia at iatrogenic risk. This study aims to radiographically map the anatomic course of structures on the medial aspect of the distal tibia to be able to at-risk zones (ARZs) for syndesmotic fixation.

Methods: Eighteen fresh-frozen cadaveric ankle specimens were dissected. The saphenous neurovascular bundle (SNVB) and the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) were identified and marked with copper wiring. Standardized and calibrated lateral radiographs of the distal tibia and fibula were analyzed using a grid system consisting of 3 columnar zones from anterior to posterior and five 1-cm rows to chart the anatomic course of the SNVB and the PTT.

Results: The SNVB was located in the more anterior zones (1, 2, or anterior to Zone 1) in 97.3% of specimens. The SNVB traversed from posterior to anterior as it descended proximal to distal. The PTT was found in Zone 3 (most posterior zone) for all specimens. The PTT was noted to pass behind (radiographically overlap) the tibia in 83.3% (15 of 18) of specimens between 1 and 3 cm above the tibiotalar joint.

Conclusions: Placement of quadricortical syndesmotic fixation places structures on the medial ankle at risk. The SNVB is at considerable risk along the anterior course of the distal tibial while the PTT is only at risk in zone 3 at the distal extent of the tibia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2019.10.009DOI Listing
February 2020