Publications by authors named "Apar Gupta"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cost-Effectiveness of Adjuvant Treatment for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 21;39(21):2386-2396. Epub 2021 May 21.

Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Purpose: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) accounts for 20% of breast cancer cases in the United States and is potentially overtreated, leading to high expenditures and low-value care. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis evaluating all adjuvant treatment strategies for DCIS.

Methods: A Markov model was created with six competing treatment strategies: observation, tamoxifen (TAM) alone, aromatase inhibitor (AI) alone, radiation treatment (RT) alone, RT + TAM, and RT + AI. Baseline recurrence rates were modeled using the NSABP B17 and RTOG 9804 trials for standard-risk and good-risk DCIS, respectively. Relative risk reductions and adverse event rates for each treatment strategy were derived from meta-analyses of large randomized trials. We used a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 in US dollars/quality-adjusted life-year and a lifetime horizon for two cohorts of women, age 40 and 60 years. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses evaluated the robustness of base-case results.

Results: RT alone was cost-effective for patients with standard-risk DCIS, and observation was cost-effective for patients with good-risk DCIS, across both age groups. Strategies including TAM or AI resulted in fewer quality-adjusted life-years than observation, because of the prolonged decrement in quality of life outweighing the modest benefit in ipsilateral risk reduction. In sensitivity analysis, RT alone was cost-effective for age 40, good-risk patients when ipsilateral risk reduction matched that of the RTOG 9804 trial, there was minimal increased risk of contralateral breast secondary malignancy, or there was strong patient willingness to pursue RT.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that cost-effective and clinically optimal treatment strategies are RT alone for standard-risk DCIS and observation for good-risk DCIS, with personalization on the basis of patient age and preference for RT. Hormonal therapy is likely suboptimal for most patients with DCIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00831DOI Listing
July 2021

Risk of symptomatic radiation necrosis in patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases.

Neurocirugia (Astur : Engl Ed) 2020 Oct 17. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University, School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Introductio: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a treatment option in the initial management of patients with brain metastases. While its efficacy has been demonstrated in several prior studies, treatment-related complications, particularly symptomatic radiation necrosis (RN), remains as an obstacle for wider implementation of this treatment modality. We thus examined risk factors associated with the development of symptomatic RN in patients treated with SRS for brain metastases.

Patients And Methods: We performed a retrospective review of our institutional database to identify patients with brain metastases treated with SRS. Diagnosis of symptomatic RN was determined by appearance on serial MRIs, MR spectroscopy, requirement of therapy, and the development of new neurological complaints without evidence of disease progression.

Results: We identified 323 brain metastases treated with SRS in 170 patients from 2009 to 2018. Thirteen patients (4%) experienced symptomatic RN after treatment of 23 (7%) lesions. After SRS, the median time to symptomatic RN was 8.3 months. Patients with symptomatic RN had a larger mean target volume (p<0.0001), and thus larger V100% (p<0.0001), V50% (p<0.0001), V12Gy (p<0.0001), and V10Gy (p=0.0002), compared to the rest of the cohort. Single-fraction treatment (p=0.0025) and diabetes (p=0.019) were also significantly associated with symptomatic RN.

Conclusion: SRS is an effective treatment option for patients with brain metastases; however, a subset of patients may develop symptomatic RN. We found that patients with larger tumor size, larger plan V100%, V50%, V12Gy, or V10Gy, who received single-fraction SRS, or who had diabetes were all at higher risk of symptomatic RN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucir.2020.08.009DOI Listing
October 2020

The Impact of Formal Mentorship Programs on Mentorship Experience Among Radiation Oncology Residents From the Northeast.

Front Oncol 2019 4;9:1369. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, United States.

Strong mentorship has been shown to improve mentee productivity, clinical skills, medical knowledge, and career preparation. We conducted a survey to evaluate resident satisfaction with mentorship within their radiation oncology residency programs. In January 2019, 126 radiation oncology residents training at programs in the northeastern United States were asked to anonymously complete the validated Munich Evaluation of Mentoring Questionnaire (MEMeQ). Results of residents with a formal mentoring program were compared to those without a formal program. Overall response rate was 42%( = 53). Participants were 25% post-graduate year two (PGY-2), 21% PGY-3, 26% PGY-4, and 28% PGY-5. Only 38% of residents reported participation in a formal mentoring program, while 62% had no formal program, and 13% reported having no mentor at all. Residents participating in a formal mentoring program reported strikingly higher rates of overall satisfaction with mentoring compared to those who were not (90% vs. 9%, < 0.001). Overall, 38% of residents were either satisfied/very satisfied with their mentoring experience, while 49% of residents were unsatisfied/very unsatisfied. Residents participating in a formal mentorship program are significantly more likely to be satisfied with their mentoring experience than those who are not. Our results suggest that radiation oncology residency programs should strongly consider implementing formal mentorship programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6904328PMC
December 2019

Current treatment strategies in malignant pleural mesothelioma with a treatment algorithm.

Adv Respir Med 2019 ;87(5):289-297

Department of Radiation Oncology, Mehmet Ali Aydınlar Acıbadem University, School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is arare disease with apoor prognosis. The main therapeutic options for MPM include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy (RT). Although multimodality therapy has been reported to improve survival, not every medically operable patient is able to undergo all recommended therapy. With improvements in surgical techniques and systemic therapies, as well as advancements in RT, there has been apotential new paradigm in the management of this disease. In this review, we discuss the current literature on MPM management and propose afunctional treatment algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/ARM.2019.0051DOI Listing
April 2020

Acute Cardiotoxicity With Concurrent Trastuzumab and Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients.

Front Oncol 2019 1;9:970. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, United States.

Radiotherapy for patients with non-metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer is commonly administered concurrently with adjuvant trastuzumab. However, there is limited data on the use of concurrent trastuzumab and hypofractionated radiotherapy (Hypo-RT), which is now standard of care for the majority of women receiving whole breast irradiation. In this study, we compared acute cardiotoxicity rates in HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with concurrent trastuzumab and Hypo-RT or conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (Conv-RT). We performed a review of our institutional database to identify HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab and Hypo-RT or Conv-RT from 2005 to 2018 who underwent serial cardiac Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) evaluation. Decrease in LVEF was assessed by either echocardiography (ECHO) or multiple gated acquisition (MUGA) scan performed at baseline and every 3 months during trastuzumab therapy. Significant LVEF decline was defined as an absolute decrease in LVEF of ≥10% below the lower limit of normal or ≥16% from baseline value. We identified 41 patients treated with Hypo-RT and 100 patients treated with Conv-RT. Median follow-up was 32 months (range, 13-90 months). Baseline median LVEF was 62% (range, 50-81%) in Hypo-RT group and 64% (range, 51-76%) in Conv-RT group ( = 0.893). Final median LVEF was 60% (range, 50-75%) in both groups. Three patients (7%) in Hypo-RT and five (5%) in Conv-RT group developed significant asymptomatic LVEF decline ( = 0.203). There was no significant difference in mean heart dose in patients who developed significant asymptomatic LVEF decline vs. those who did not in Hypo-RT ( = 0.427) and Conv-RT ( = 0.354) groups. No symptomatic congestive heart failure was reported in either group. The rate of asymptomatic LVEF decline in patients receiving concurrent trastuzumab and Hypo-RT was low (7%) and was similar to the rate observed in patients receiving Conv-RT. Longer follow-up is warranted to assess late cardiotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779787PMC
October 2019

Relationship of Cancer to Brain Aging Markers of Alzheimer's Disease: The Framingham Heart Study.

Adv Geriatr Med Res 2019 4;1. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

New England Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130 USA.

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated a strong inverse association between cancer and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to further investigate this association by examining measures of cognitive performance and neuroimaging.

Methods: Neuropsychological (NP) test batteries consisting of quantitative measures of memory and executive function and volumetric brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans measuring brain and white-matter hyperintensity volumes were administered to 2,043 dementia-free participants (54% women) in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Offspring cohort from 1999-2005. History of cancer was assessed at examination visits and through hospital records. Linear regression was used to examine the association between cancer history and NP/MRI variables.

Results: There were 252 and 1,791 participants with and without a previous history of cancer, respectively. Cancer survivors had an average time between diagnosis and NP/MRI exam of 9.8 years. History of any invasive cancer was associated with better executive function (Beta=0.16, p=0.04) but not memory function. Non-invasive cancer was not associated with any change in cognitive performance. Patients with prostate cancer had larger frontal brain volumes (Beta=4.13, p=0.03). Cancer history was not associated with any other MRI measure.

Conclusions: We did not find any strong evidence linking cancer to cognitive or neuroimaging biomarkers that would explain a lower risk of subsequent AD, although a previous FHS study demonstrated a strong inverse association between cancer and risk of AD. Future work should examine the association between cancer and other biomarkers of AD as well as more sensitive metrics of AD-related brain aging markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20900/agmr20190006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6659723PMC
July 2019

5-Year Results of a Prospective Phase 2 Trial Evaluating 3-Week Hypofractionated Whole Breast Radiation Therapy Inclusive of a Sequential Boost.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 10 5;105(2):267-274. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Electronic address:

Purpose: To report 5-year outcomes of a phase 2 trial of hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (HF-WBI) completed in 3 weeks, inclusive of a sequential boost.

Methods And Materials: Women with stage 0-IIIA breast cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ through T2N2a) were enrolled on a prospective, phase 2 trial of accelerated HF-WBI. We delivered a whole breast dose of 36.63 Gy in 11 fractions of 3.33 Gy, with an equivalent dose to the regional nodes when indicated, followed by a tumor bed boost of 13.32 Gy in 4 fractions of 3.33 Gy over a total of 15 treatment days. The primary endpoint was locoregional control; secondary endpoints included acute/late toxicity and physician-assessed and patient-reported breast cosmesis.

Results: Between 2009 and 2017, we enrolled 150 patients, of whom 146 received the protocol treatment. Median age was 54 years (range, 33-82) and median follow-up was 62 months. Patients with higher-risk disease comprised 59% of the cohort, including features such as young age (33% ≤50 years), positive nodes (13%), triple-negative disease (11%), and treatment with regional nodal irradiation (11%) and/or neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy (36%). Five-year estimated locoregional and distant control were 97.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.0%-99.3%) and 97.9% (95% CI, 93.6%-99.3%), respectively. Five-year breast cancer-specific and overall survival were 99.2% (95% CI, 94.6%-99.9%) and 97.3% (95% CI, 91.9%-99.1%), respectively. Acute/late grade 2 and 3 toxicities were observed in 30%/10% and 1%/3% of patients, respectively. There were no grade 4 or 5 toxicities. Physicians assessed breast cosmesis as good or excellent in 95% of patients; 85% of patients self-reported slight to no difference between the treated and untreated breast.

Conclusions: Our phase 2 trial offers one of the shortest courses of HF-WBI; at 5 years of follow-up there continues to be excellent locoregional control and low toxicity with favorable cosmetic outcomes in a heterogeneous cohort of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.05.063DOI Listing
October 2019

Insurance Approval for Proton Beam Therapy and its Impact on Delays in Treatment.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 07 14;104(4):714-723. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Electronic address:

Purpose: Prior authorization (PA) has been widely implemented for proton beam therapy (PBT). We sought to determine the association between PA determination and patient characteristics, practice guidelines, and potential treatment delays.

Methods And Materials: A single-institution retrospective analysis was performed of all patients considered for PBT between 2015 and 2018 at a National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. Differences in treatment start times and denial rates over time were compared, and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of initial denial.

Results: A total of 444 patients were considered for PBT, including 396 adult and 48 pediatric patients. The American Society for Radiation Oncology model policy supported PBT coverage for 77% of the cohort. Of adult patients requiring PA, 64% were initially denied and 32% remained denied after appeal. In patients considered for reirradiation or randomized phase 3 trial enrollment, initial denial rates were 57% and 64%, respectively. Insurance coverage was not related to diagnosis, reirradiation, trial enrollment, or the American Society for Radiation Oncology model policy guidelines, but it was related to insurance category on multivariable analysis (P < .001). Over a 3-year timespan, initial denial rates increased from 55% to 74% (P = .034). PA delayed treatment start by an average of 3 weeks (and up to 4 months) for those requiring appeal (P < .001) and resulted in 19% of denied patients abandoning radiation treatment altogether. Of pediatric patients, 9% were initially denied, all of whom were approved after appeal, and PA requirement did not delay treatment start (P = .47).

Conclusions: PA requirements in adults represent a significant burden in initiating PBT and cause significant delays in patient care. Insurance approval is arbitrary and has become more restrictive over time, discordant with national clinical practice guidelines. Payors and providers should seek to streamline coverage policies in alignment with established guidelines to ensure appropriate and timely patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.12.021DOI Listing
July 2019

Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation is cost-effective-but is that enough to change practice?

Transl Cancer Res 2018 Apr;7(Suppl 4):S469-S472

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tcr.2018.03.20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6097715PMC
April 2018

Risk factors involved in treatment delays and differences in treatment type for patients with prostate cancer by risk category in an academic safety net hospital.

Adv Radiat Oncol 2018 Apr-Jun;3(2):181-189. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objectives: Understanding the drivers of delays from diagnosis to treatment can elucidate how to reduce the time to treatment (TTT) in patients with prostate cancer. In addition, the available treatments depending on the stage of cancer can vary widely for many reasons. This study investigated the relationship of TTT and treatment choice with sociodemographic factors in patients with prostate cancer who underwent external beam radiation therapy (RT), radical prostatectomy (RP), androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), or active surveillance (AS) at a safety-net academic medical center.

Methods And Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 1088 patients who were diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between January 2005 and December 2013. Demographic data as well as data on TTT, initial treatment choice, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, and National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk categories were collected. Analyses of variance and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to analyze the relationship of these factors with treatment choice and TTT.

Results: Age, race, and marital status were significantly related to treatment choice. Patients who were nonwhite and older than 60 years were less likely to undergo RP. Black patients were 3.8 times more likely to undergo RT compared with white patients. The median TTT was 75 days. Longer time delays were significant in patients of older age, nonwhite race/ethnicity, non-English speakers, those with noncommercial insurance, and those with non-married status. The average TTT of high-risk patients was 25 days longer than that of low-risk patients. Patients who underwent RT had an average TTT that was 34 days longer than that of RP patients.

Conclusions: The treatment choice and TTT of patients with prostate cancer are affected by demographic factors such as age, race, marital status, and insurance, as well as clinical factors including stage and risk category of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2017.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6000162PMC
December 2017

Hypofractionated radiation treatment in the management of breast cancer.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2018 08 26;18(8):793-803. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

a Department of Radiation Oncology , Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey , New Brunswick , NJ , USA.

Introduction: The standard treatment for early-stage breast cancer is breast conservation therapy, consisting of breast conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiation treatment (RT). Conventionally-fractionated whole breast irradiation (CF-WBI) has been the standard RT regimen, but recently shorter courses of hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (HF-WBI) have been advocated for patient convenience and reduction in healthcare costs and resources. Areas covered: This review covers the major randomized European and Canadian trials comparing HF-WBI to CF-WBI with long-term follow-up, as well as additional recently closed randomized trials that further seek to define the applicability of HF-WBI in clinical practice. Randomized data is summarized in terms of clinical utility and for a variety of clinical applications. Recently published consensus guidelines and practical implementation of HF-WBI including its broader effect on the healthcare system are reviewed. Finally, an assessment of the emerging evidence in support of hypofractionation for locally advanced disease is presented. Expert commentary: HF-WBI has replaced CF-WBI as the accepted standard of care in most women with early-stage breast cancer who do not require regional nodal irradiation. Early data supports the continued study of hypofractionation in the locally advanced setting, however broad adoption awaits longer follow-up and additional data from ongoing clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737140.2018.1489245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312641PMC
August 2018

Daily Image Guidance With Cone Beam Computed Tomography May Reduce Radiation Pneumonitis in Unresectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 08 30;101(5):1104-1112. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the impact of daily image-guided radiation therapy technique on clinical outcomes in patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy.

Methods And Materials: We compared patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer receiving daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) after an initial 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) simulation (n = 76) with those receiving daily 2-dimensional orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) imaging (n = 48). The primary endpoint was time to grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis (RP2), estimated with the cumulative incidence method, compared with Gray's test, and modeled with the Fine-Gray method.

Results: Median follow-up was 40.6 months (range, 5.9-58.1 months) for the CBCT group and 75.8 months (range, 9.9-107.8 months) for the orthogonal kV group. Four-dimensional computed tomography simulation was used in 100% (n = 76) of the CBCT group and 56% (n = 27) of the orthogonal kV group (P < .0001). The 1-year cumulative incidence of RP2 was lower in the CBCT group than in the orthogonal kV group (24% vs 44%, P = .020). On multivariate analysis, daily imaging with CBCT after an initial 4DCT simulation was associated with a decreased risk of RP2 (adjusted hazard ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.82, P = .011), a finding that persisted among only patients who received 4DCT simulation (adjusted hazard ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.98, P = .045). There was no difference in locoregional progression, distant metastasis, any progression, or overall survival between groups.

Conclusions: Daily image guided radiation therapy with CBCT compared with 2-dimensional orthogonal kV imaging was associated with a decreased risk of RP2. Clinicians could consider the implications of localization methods during curative intent radiation therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.03.025DOI Listing
August 2018

In Reply to Leddy.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 03;100(3):802-803

Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.11.018DOI Listing
March 2018

Review of the First 12 Years of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Political Action Committee.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 02 13;100(2):301-305. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.10.006DOI Listing
February 2018

Effect of Patient Demographic Characteristics and Radiation Timing on PSA Reduction in Patients Treated With Definitive Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2015 Aug 30;13(4):364-369. Epub 2015 Jan 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess how demographic characteristics and temporal factors including time to treatment (TTT) and elapsed time of treatment (ETT) affect prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels during and after radiation treatment for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective review of 1584 patients was conducted on patients diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2005 and 2013, from which 147 patients were found to have completed definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) monotherapy. Demographic data, TTT (days between diagnosis and EBRT start date), ETT (days between EBRT start and stop date), and Gleason score were collected on these patients and analysis of variance was performed to analyze the relationship of these factors with PSA changes. PSA changes were calculated during treatment as the difference between pre- and posttreatment PSA levels and after treatment as 3-year and overall PSA velocities.

Results: Patients who spoke Haitian Creole (P = .039) and those with a longer ETT (P = .029) had significantly greater PSA decline during treatment, primarily as a result of higher pretreatment PSA levels. Patients with Gleason score 4+3 disease had significantly greater 3-year (P = .033) and overall (P = .019) PSA velocities. Race and/or ethnicity, insurance type, marital status, and age were not associated with any PSA variable.

Conclusion: Disparities in prostate cancer are not reflected in PSA dynamics during or after radiation treatment, but are evident in PSA level at presentation. Timeliness of treatment was not found to affect true PSA change due to EBRT in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2015.01.009DOI Listing
August 2015

Mid-life Cardiovascular Risk Impacts Memory Function: The Framingham Offspring Study.

Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2015 Apr-Jun;29(2):117-23

Departments of *Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine †Biostatistics, Framingham Heart Study, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Introduction: This study incorporates unique error response analyses with traditional measures of memory to examine the association between mid-life cardiovascular risk factors and later-life memory function.

Methods: The Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP), a composite score of cardiovascular risk, was assessed in 1755 Framingham Offspring participants (54% women, mean age=54±9 y) from 1991 to 1995. Memory tests including Logical Memory and Visual Reproductions were administered from 2005 to 2008. Linear and logistic regression examined the association between FSRP and memory measures. Interaction between the presence of the ApoE4 allele and each FSRP component on the memory measures was also assessed.

Results: FSRP and the individual components of age, sex, and smoking were related to lower standard scores of memory. The new error response analyses reinforced the standard analyses and also identified new relationships. Participants with diabetes were found to make more errors on Logical Memory, and those with a history of smoking were found to make more errors on Visual Reproductions. Lastly, ApoE4 smokers experienced significant verbal memory loss, whereas ApoE4 smokers did not.

Conclusions: Middle-aged healthy adults with cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes, history of smoking, and ApoE4 positivity were found to have greater later-life memory impairments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0000000000000059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4345145PMC
February 2016

Patient demographic characteristics and disease stage as drivers of disparities in mortality in prostate cancer patients who receive care at a safety net academic medical center.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2014 Dec 11;12(6):455-60. Epub 2014 Jun 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of patient demographic characteristics and tumor stage at diagnosis on mortality in prostate cancer patients who receive care at a safety net, academic medical center with a diverse patient population.

Patients And Methods: Eight hundred sixty-nine patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer at our institution between August 2004 and October 2011. Patient demographic characteristics were determined as follows: race and/or ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, age at diagnosis, marital status, income (determined by zip code), and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage. Fisher exact or Pearson χ(2) test was used to test for differences in categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to mortality recorded at the end of follow-up in March of 2012.

Results: Mortality was significantly decreased in patients who spoke Haitian Creole (odds ratio [OR], 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.74; P = .017). Distribution of insurance type, age, income, and prostate-specific antigen level differed between English and Haitian Creole speakers. Increased mortality was observed in patients who were single (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.06-3.73; P = .032), older than 70 (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 3.03-79.45; P = .001), had Medicaid and/or free care (OR, 4.98; 95% CI, 1.72-14.4; P = .003), or had AJCC stage IV cancer (OR, 9.56; 95% CI, 4.89-18.69; P < .001). There was no significant difference in mortality according to race and/or ethnicity or income in the multivariate-adjusted model.

Conclusion: In this retrospective study, prostate cancer patients who spoke Haitian Creole had a lower incidence of mortality compared with English speakers. Consistent with similar large-scale studies, being single or having Medicaid and/or free care insurance predicted worse outcomes, reinforcing their roles as drivers of disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2014.04.005DOI Listing
December 2014
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