Publications by authors named "Anwar Hussain"

69 Publications

Exposure of Brassica to Red Light Antagonizes Low Production of IAA in Leaf Through Root Signaling Under Stress Conditions.

Photochem Photobiol 2021 Dec 6. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Food Science & Technology, Garden Campus, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan.

Plant leaf is highly sensitive to various growth promoting and restraining components. This sensitivity is normally caused by the alteration of different phyto-hormones (predominately by IAA), when the plants exposed to certain environmental conditions. We exposed the hydroponically grown Brassica campestris seedlings (7 days old) to red and green light in order to observe its effect on IAA secretion at leaf. The evaluated data showed that red light antagonized the low production of IAA in leaf by initiating the root signaling through flavonoids production and high redox activity. The study also explored the link between the differential phytohormonal response and biotic or abiotic stress elimination in leaf through root signaling under green or red light. The results exhibited that the biotic (P. syringae or F. alni) or abiotic stresses (100 mM AgNO or 100 mM tert-butyl alcohol) inhibited flavonoids at the roots and resisted the restoration of IAA at the leaf. However, under green light where IAA was not inhibited, the stresses could not produce flavonoid at the root and further passing the signals to leaf. The results concluded that the growth and photosynthetic rates of the seedlings were improved under red light exposure through flavonoid inducing stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/php.13572DOI Listing
December 2021

Pseudocitrobacter anthropi reduces heavy metal uptake and improves phytohormones and antioxidant system in Glycine max L.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Oct 15;37(11):195. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Smart Farm Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Gangwon, Korea.

Heavy metal contamination due to anthropogenic activities is a great threat to modern humanity. A novel and natural technique of bioremediation using microbes for detoxification of heavy metals while improving plants' growth is the call of the day. In this study, exposing soybean plants to different concentrations (i.e., 10 and 50 ppm) of chromium and arsenic showed a severe reduction in agronomic attributes, higher reactive oxygen species production, and disruption in the antioxidant system. Contrarily, rhizobacterial isolate C18 inoculation not only rescued host growth, but also improved the production of nonenzymatic antioxidants (i.e., flavonoids, phenolic, and proline contents) and enzymatic antioxidants i.e., catalases, ascorbic acid oxidase, peroxidase activity, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, lower reactive oxygen species accumulation in leaves. Thereby, lowering secondary oxidative stress and subsequent damage. The strain was identified using 16 S rDNA sequencing and was identified as Pseudocitrobacter anthropi. Additionally, the strain can endure metals up to 1200 ppm and efficient in detoxifying the effect of chromium and arsenic by regulating phytohormones (IAA 59.02 µg/mL and GA 101.88 nM/mL) and solubilizing inorganic phosphates, making them excellent phytostimulant, biofertilizers, and heavy metal bio-remediating agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-021-03156-6DOI Listing
October 2021

Heavy metal tolerant endophytic fungi Aspergillus welwitschiae improves growth, ceasing metal uptake and strengthening antioxidant system in Glycine max L.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Oct 9. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Garden Campus, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

In modern agricultural practice, heavy metal (HM) contamination is one of the main abiotic stress threatening sustainable agriculture, crop productivity, and disturb natural soil microbiota. Different reclamation techniques are used to restore the contaminated site; however, they are either costly or unable to remove contaminant when concentration is very low. In such circumstances, bioremediation is used as a novel technique involving microbes for soil restoration. In the current project, Aspergillus welwitschiae(Bk) efficiently endure metal stress (i.e., Cr-VI and As-V in the form of KCrO and NaAsO) up to 1200 μg/mL and enhanced the production of phytohormones, i.e., 54.83 μg/mL of indole acetic acid (IAA) compared to control 15.56 μg/mL, solubilized inorganic phosphate, and produced stress-related metabolites. The isolate Bk was able to enhance growth of soybean by showing higher root shoot length and fresh/dry weight under stress (p<0.05). Besides, the strain strengthened the antioxidant system of the host increasing enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., catalases (CAT) by 1.58 and 1.11 fold, ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) by 6.75 and 7.94 fold, peroxidase activity (POD) by 1.12 and 1.37 fold, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) by 1.42 and 1.25 fold at 50 μg/mL of chromate and arsenate. Thus, actively scavenging the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced results in lower ROS accumulation and high ROS scavenging. On the other hand, the isolates cut down Cr and As uptake by approximately 50% at 50 μg/mL from the medium while bio-transforming it, thereby stabilizing it and assisting the host to resume normal growth, thus avoiding phytotoxicity. It is evident from the current study that A. welwitschiae may potentially be used as a bioremediating agent for reclamation of Cr- and As-contaminated soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16640-1DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparative assessment of chromate bioremediation potential of Pantoea conspicua and Aspergillus niger.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 22;424(Pt A):127314. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Botany, Garden Campus, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

The recent work aims at the use of Pantoea conspicua (MT5) and Aspergillus niger (CRS3) to assess their bioremediation potential and growth restoration of Helianthus annuus L. under chromate (Cr) stress. The growth of the P. conspicua and A. niger was tested in Cr supplemented media. The strains can withstand up to 1200 and 900 ppm respectively in the media and effectively bio-transform it to nontoxic form. Supplemented metal's levels significantly decreased the growth attribute of H. annuus (p< 0.05). On the other hand, P. conspicua and A. niger rescued the host plant by establishing higher colonization frequency with the host roots. Moreover, MT5 bio-transformed the toxic Cr to non-toxic Cr form in the rhizosphere. It also enhanced the host plant growth by producing phytohormones and ceasing Cr uptake and accumulation. Contrarily, CRS3 tends to accumulate and bio-transform metal in their hyphae. Nonetheless, both of the microbes tend to modulate phytohormones production and strengthening antioxidant system of the host. Improvement in the antioxidant system enabled the host plant to produce higher phenolics and flavonoids, and lower peroxidase. The associated plant species also exhibited higher ROS scavenging and lower ROS accumulation. Besides, the strains were able to produce higher amounts of phytohormones, including IAA, GA, and SA. Such activities rendered them as excellent phytostimulants, that can be used as biofertilizers in chromium polluted soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127314DOI Listing
September 2021

Transformation of Endophytic spp. Into Biotrophic Pathogen Under Auxin Cross-Talk With Brassinosteroids and Abscisic Acid.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 28;9:657635. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

Auxin is the reciprocal signaling molecule, which interferes with other phyto-hormonal and physiological processes during plant-microbes interaction. In this regard, spp., a growth-promoting endophytic fungus was used to inoculate pre-stressed seedlings with yucasin (IAA inhibitor). The IAA-deficient host was heavily colonized by the endophyte that subsequently promoted the host growth and elevated the IAA levels with a peak value at 72 h. However, the seedling growth was inhibited later (i.e., at 120 h) due to the high levels of IAA that interfered with the activity of phytoalexins and brassinosteroids. Such interference also modulated the endophytic fungus from symbiotic to biotrophic pathogen that left the host plants defenseless.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.657635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8355742PMC
July 2021

Estimating the price elasticity for cigarette and chewed tobacco in Pakistan: evidence from microlevel data.

Tob Control 2020 11 25;29(Suppl 5):s319-s325. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: While there is a large literature on the magnitude of price elasticity of cigarette demand, less is known about the same for chewed tobacco. Moreover, the studies on cigarette demand in Pakistan tend to ignore the heterogeneity in the smoking behaviour. This study estimates price elasticity for cigarette and chewed tobacco demand across different income groups, provinces and regions; and use these coefficients for simulating Pakistan's tax policy and its impact on revenue and health outcomes.

Method: Deaton model was applied on the 2015-2016 Household Integrated Income and Consumption Survey dataset to estimate price elasticities of different tobacco products.

Results: The demand for cigarettes is unitary elastic (-1.06), suggesting that a 1% increase in cigarette price would reduce its consumption by 1.06%. On the other hand, the demand for chewed tobacco is relatively inelastic (-0.55). Provincially, the own-price elasticity of cigarettes is negative and significant for all but Kyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province; whereas that of the chewed tobacco is negative and significant only for KP and Balochistan. Besides, the price elasticity of demand for both tobacco products is negative and significant only for lower income group and the rural region. The tax simulations favour a two-tiered tax system over the existing three-tiered system as the former will bring significantly better tax revenue and health outcomes.

Conclusions: While confirming the effectiveness of tax policies in curbing tobacco use, this study concludes that higher tobacco taxes could increase tax revenue and improve public health in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055232DOI Listing
November 2020

Pilonidal sinus disease: Review of current practice and prospects for endoscopic treatment.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2020 Sep 1;57:212-217. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Russells Hall Hospital, Pensnett Rd, Dudley, West Midlands, DY1 2HQ, UK.

Pilonidal sinus disease is chronic acquired condition leading to significant morbidity and associated healthcare costs. Several techniques have been described to manage this condition with no treatment gaining universal acceptance. With the shift towards minimally invasive surgery, Video Assisted-Ablation of Pilonidal Sinus (VAAPS) and Endoscopic Pilonidal Sinus Treatment (EPiST) have gained prominence. The aim of this review is to analyse current treatment modalities and the evidence for endoscopic pilonidal sinus surgery. Reported surgical techniques range from wide excision with or without primary closure to various flap closures. These aim to eliminate the underlying causes driven by natal cleft hair and reducing recurrence. However, long term (≥5 years) recurrence rates range between 10 and 30% with significant complication rates. Trials with endoscopic treatment which have shown comparable short-term results to established treatments with reduced morbidity. However, the potential higher cost, learning curve, patient selection criteria and need for long term outcomes from randomised trials limit widespread application of this promising method. Endoscopic treatment of pilonidal sinus disease therefore provides a minimally invasive alternative to traditional surgical methods with the potential to reduce morbidity. However long-term outcomes data from further prospective randomised trials is needed to establish its efficacy compared to traditional surgical methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2020.07.050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7415633PMC
September 2020

Phytohormones producing rhizobacterium alleviates chromium toxicity in Helianthus annuus L. by reducing chromate uptake and strengthening antioxidant system.

Chemosphere 2020 Nov 14;258:127386. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Department of Botany, Garden Campus, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Contamination of agricultural land with heavy metal is a serious biological and environmental issue. Such threat can be challenged by exploring the plant symbiotic microbes that can improve plant growth through phyto-hormones secretion and chromate chelation. In the current study, chromate resistant rhizospheric Staphylococcus arlettae strain MT4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Malvestrum tricuspadatum L. The strain showed potential to secrete phytohormones and plant growth promoting secondary metabolites under induced chromate stress, making it a best suitable candidate in chromate stress alleviation. Moreover, the rhizobacterium MT4 significantly promoted the net assimilation and relative growth rate of sunflower grown in the presence of chromate (100 ppm). Chromate stress alleviation strategy of MT4 strain was three-fold. MT4 alleviated chromate stress and promoted the sunflower growth by suppressing the chromate intake by the host, modulating phytohormones and strengthening of the host's antioxidant system. The improved antioxidant system was confirmed by noticing lower ROS accumulation and improved ROS scavenging, lower peroxidase activity and higher accumulation of phenols and flavonoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127386DOI Listing
November 2020

Molecular docking and in-vitro analysis of Fagonia cretica and Berberis lyceum extract against Brucella melitensis.

Curr Comput Aided Drug Des 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Zoology Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan. Pakistan.

Background: Brucellosis is an economically important zoonotic disease caused by the gram negative bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella. Medicinal plants are well known for a wide variety of potential antimicrobial agents that can be used as anti-microbial drugs.

Method: In the present study, crude ethanol and methanol extracts of local plants (Berberies lyceum and Fagonia cretica) were tested in vitro against Brucella melitensis via well diffusion method for their antibacterial activity. In in-silico study, phytochemicals previously identified in the selected plants were docked with homology model of the cytotoxic factor malate synthase G (MSG) highly conserved among Brucella spp., in Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) to predict a potential drug against B. melitensis. Molecular dynamic simulation was performed to predict the stability of MSG through MOE.

Result: Ethanolic crude extracts of B. lyceum showed maximum zone of inhibition (32.5 mm) followed by methanolic extracts (30 mm), while ethanolic extracts of F. cretica showed zone of inhibition (29 mm) followed by methanolic extracts (27.5 mm). In silico screening predicted phytic acid as the most potent inhibitor followed by jehlumine, barbamine, oxyberberine and sindamine.

Conclusion: The synergistic utilization of phytochemicals derived from B. lyceum may potentially provide protection against B. melitensis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573409916666200612145712DOI Listing
June 2020

Amenity Migration and Public Lands: Rise of the Protected Areas.

Environ Manage 2020 07 27;66(1):56-71. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

U.S. Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC, USA.

Rural amenity migration, or the relocation for quality of life purposes as opposed to monetary enhancement, has been occurring for decades and has been particularly pronounced in the American West where the phenomenon peaked in the 1990s. Researchers have illustrated that some places are more attractive for migrants than others and that certain regional amenities hold considerable influence on where migrants relocate. Increased migration levels typically result in increased economic growth indicators, making amenity migration an attractive rural development strategy. But comprehensive econometric analysis focused on amenity migration in the American West has been lacking. To address this, we conducted an econometric analysis of attributes that influenced migration to rural Western counties from 1980 to 2010. Over 20 potential amenity supply categories were collated for 356 rural counties from 11 Western states, with a focus on public lands. Descriptive statistics and OLS regressions were estimated and interpreted. Traditional amenities of climate, water area, and regional access were highly associated with migration levels, while designated natural amenities of Wilderness and National Monuments were the most influential public lands for migration to rural Western counties. Farming and oil and gas dependency were negatively associated with migration levels. Increasing the amount of protected areas, and branding campaigns based on natural amenities, can be a critical development strategy for rural communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-020-01293-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185266PMC
July 2020

Plant-Associated Microbes Alter Root Growth by Modulating Root Apical Meristem.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2094:49-58

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Rhizobacteria are known to produce a variety of signal molecules which may modify plant growth by interfering with phytohormone balance. Among the microbial signals are phytohormones, known to contribute to plant endogenous pool of phytohormones. The current chapter describes different methods to study the regulation of gene expression in root apical meristem in response to rhizobacterial inoculation. We describe protocol for the detection of in planta modulation of CKs and IAA by rhizobacteria and their impact on root growth, dissecting the underlying plant signaling pathway by RNA sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0183-9_6DOI Listing
February 2021

Regulatory Role of Phytohormones in Maintaining Stem Cells and Boundaries of Stem Cell Niches.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2094:1-16

Department of Agriculture, Garden Campus, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Plants are multicellular organism composed of different types of cells. These all kinds of cells are formed from pluripotent stem cells present at different positions in plant called stem cell niches. All these stem cell niches and their boundaries are maintained by complex regulatory mechanism at molecular level involving different genes, cofactors, and phytohormones. In this chapter, we discussed the regulatory mechanism and models of stem cell maintenance, specifying their boundaries at different stem cell niches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0183-9_1DOI Listing
February 2021

A promising growth promoting Meyerozyma caribbica from Solanum xanthocarpum alleviated stress in maize plants.

Biosci Rep 2019 10;39(10)

School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

Fungal endophytes are known to secrete a large array of secondary metabolites (phenols, flavonoids, indole acetic acid (IAA) etc.) that facilitate crops under stress conditions. Considering this, a potent plant growth promoting endophyte (SXSp1) from the spines and leaves of Solanum xanthocarpum L. has been isolated. The isolated strain ably secreted high quantities of indole-3-acetic acid, phenols and flavonoids. Also, it exhibited phosphate solubilization, siderophore and had 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. The SXSp1 also resisted the salinity stress up to 150 mM. LC/MS analysis of SXSp1 culture filtrate (CF) revealed the presence of p-hydroxyl benzoic acid, diadzein, genistien, myricetin and caffeoyl-d-glucose. Moreover, the inoculation of maize plants with SXSp1 significantly (P=0.05) promoted the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, root and shoot lengths, plant fresh and dry weights, catalase and peroxidase activities, proline, phenolics, flavonoids and relative water contents (RWCs) under salinity. More interestingly, SXSp1-associated plants showed lower endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and higher endogenous IAA contents that helped the plants to resist salinity stress up to 100 mM. After sequencing, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1 and ITS4) and phylogenetic analysis, the SXSp1 was identified as Meyerozyma caribbica.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20190290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822527PMC
October 2019

Salt stress alleviation in Pennisetum glaucum through secondary metabolites modulation by Aspergillus terreus.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Nov 23;144:127-134. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Department of Botany, Garden Campus, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan.

The growth promoting activities of the isolated endophyte Aspergillus terreus from Aloe barbendsis was studied in the salt stressed Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet). A significant (P = 0.05) increase in the root-shoot lengths, fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content of pearl millet seedlings was noticed after colonization by A. terreus under normal conditions. At 100 mM NaCl stress and A. terreus inoculation, the growth rate of pearl millet seedlings were significantly (P = 0.05) inhibited. Furthermore, the IAA production, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, soluble sugar, phenol and flavonoid contents were significantly decreased, whereas proline content and lipid peroxidation were increased. On the contrary, pearl millet seedlings inoculated with A. terreus retained significantly (P = 0.05) higher amounts of RWC, chlorophyll, soluble sugar, phenol and flavonoid contents under 100 mM salt stress. The higher IAA production in A. terreus associated seedlings rescued the plant growth and development under salt stress. Moreover, the LC MS/MS analysis of A. terreus cultural filtrate revealed the presence of quinic acid, ellagic acid, calycosin, wogonin, feruloylquinic acid, caffeic acid phenylethyl ester, D-glucoside, myricetin, propoxyphene and aminoflunitrazepam. The results of the study conclude that innoculation of A. terreus improves the NaCl tolerance in pearl millet by ameliorating the physicochemical attributes of the host plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.09.038DOI Listing
November 2019

Promoted the Growth of Soybean and Sunflower Seedlings at Elevated Temperature.

Biomed Res Int 2019 2;2019:1295457. Epub 2019 May 2.

School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Kyungpook National University, Republic of Korea.

The current climate changes in the form of global warming are one of the leading threats to agricultural crops (including soybean and sunflower). To enable the crops to cope with the heat stress, innovative steps are needed to be taken as soon as possible. Fungal endophytes are known to secrete secondary metabolites that promote the growth of host plants under stress conditions. Therefore, we have isolated endophytic fungus from (a wild desert plant) and tested it for plant growth promoting activities. The culture filtrate of the fungal strains exhibited the presence of secondary metabolites. Higher amounts of indole acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA), flavonoids, and phenolics have been found in the culture filtrate. The 18S rDNA sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate is . Soybean and sunflower seedlings were inoculated with the identified . The -associated seedlings along with the control (without ) were monitored for thermal stress resistance in a growth chamber, operated at 25°C and 40°C. Control seedlings exposed to high temperature stress had higher levels of abscisic acid (ABA), proline, and lower levels of phenols, flavonoids, catalase, and ascorbic acid oxidase. Similarly, a higher reduction in chlorophyll, root-shoot length, and dry weight has been noticed in the control seedlings. The results suggested the usefulness of . in host plant growth promotion under heat stress conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/1295457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6521304PMC
December 2019

Cochliobolus sp. acts as a biochemical modulator to alleviate salinity stress in okra plants.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Jun 14;139:459-469. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Department of Botany, Garden Campus, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.

Salinity stress can severely affect the growth and production of the crop plants. Cheap and reliable actions are needed to enable the crop plants to grow normal under saline conditions. Modification at the molecular level to produce resistant cultivars is one of the promising, yet highly expensive techniques, whereas application of endophytes on the other hand are very cheap. In this regard, the role of Cochliobolus sp. in alleviating NaCl-induced stress in okra has been investigated. The growth and biomass yield, relative water content, chlorophyll content and IAA were decreased, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline content were increased in okra plants treated with 100 mM NaCl. On the contrary, okra plants inoculated with C. lunatus had higher shoot length, root length, plant dry weight, chlorophyll, carotenoids, xanthophyll, phenolicss, flavonoids, IAA, total soluble sugar and relative water content, while lower MDA. LC-MS/MS analysis of the Cochliobolus sp. extract revealed the presence of pinocembrin, chlorogenic acids, wogonin, calycosin and diadzein as a salinity stress reliever. From the results, it can be concluded that colonization of Cochliobolus sp. improves the NaCl tolerance by ameliorating the physicochemical attributes of the host plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.04.019DOI Listing
June 2019

Endophytic Fungus Mediates Host Plant Growth under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions.

Biomed Res Int 2018 6;2018:7696831. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea.

We have isolated an endophytic fungus with heat stress alleviation potential from wild plant L. The phylogenetic analysis and 18S rDNA sequence homology revealed that the designated isolate was EuR-26. Analysis of culture filtrate displayed higher concentrations of salicylic acid (SA), indoleacetic acid (IAA), flavonoids, and phenolics. Furthermore, association with soybean and sunflower had improved plant biomass and other growth features under high temperature stress (40°C) in comparison to endophyte-free plants. In fact, endophytic association mitigated heat stress by negotiating the activities of abscisic acid, catalase, and ascorbic acid oxidase in both soybean and sunflower. The nutritional quality (phenolic, flavonoids, soluble sugars, proteins, and lipids) of the -associated seedlings has also improved under heat stress in comparison to endophyte-free plants. From the results, it is concluded that can modulate host plants growth under heat stress and can be used as thermal stress alleviator in arid and semiarid regions of the globe (where mean summer temperature exceeds 40°C) to sustain agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7696831DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304497PMC
April 2019

An endophytic isolate of the fungus Yarrowia lipolytica produces metabolites that ameliorate the negative impact of salt stress on the physiology of maize.

BMC Microbiol 2019 01 7;19(1). Epub 2019 Jan 7.

School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

Background: To combat salinity, plants need easily accessible, safe and sustainable mechanisms for optimum growth. Recently, endophytes proved to be the promising candidates that helped the host plant to thrive under stress conditions. Therefore, the aim was to discover endophytic strain(s) and their mechanism of action to alleviate salt stress in maize.

Results: Keeping the diverse role of endophytes in view, 9 endophytic fungi from the spines of Euphorbia milli L. were isolated. Among the isolated fungal isolates, isolate FH1 was selected for further study on the basis of high antioxidant activity and capability to produce high indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-acetamide (IAM), phenol and flavonoid contents. The 18S rDNA sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis of the fungal isolate FH1 revealed to be Yarrowia lipolytica. Furthermore, the inoculation of Y. lipolytica FH1 had significantly promoted plant growth attributes in treated maize as compared to positive (salt stress) and negative (salt stress free) controls. Likewise, differences in chlorophyll, carotenes, electrolyte leakage, leaf relative water, peroxidase, catalase, ABA, IAA and proline contents were observed between treated maize and controls. Interestingly, Y. lipolytica FH1 inoculated plants showed lower endogenous ABA and higher endogenous IAA contents.

Conclusion: From the results, we have concluded that Y. lipolytica inoculation has promoted the growth of maize plants through controlled metabolism and hormonal secretions (ABA and IAA) under salinity stress. Because of the fact, Y. lipolytica can be tried as an eco-friendly bio-fertilizer to achieve optimum crop productivity under saline conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-018-1374-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323777PMC
January 2019

Cinnamic acid as an inhibitor of growth, flavonoids exudation and endophytic fungus colonization in maize root.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Feb 27;135:61-68. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

College of Veternary Science, Garden Campus, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Cinnamic acid (CA) is an allelochemical that inhibits the growth of root promoting soil microorganisms. To prevent the growth of soil microbes, CA modulates several metabolic pathways in host plants and soil microbes. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of CA on maize root growth, exudation of secondary metabolites and its interaction with beneficial endophyte Pz11. The endophyte Pz11 was isolated from the roots of drought stressed Asphodelus tenuifolius (wild onion). The Pz11 strain was identified as Fusarium culmorum by homology of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 18 S rDNA sequence. The F. culmorum Pz11 produced phytostimulants and signaling compounds, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), flavonoids and sugars. Moreover, the strain have effectively colonized the roots of maize and subsequently enhanced the growth of its host plants. On the contrary, application of CA has reduced root growth in maize seedlings as well as root colonization ability of F. culmorum Pz11. Also, maize seedlings exposed to CA exude low quantities of flavonoids and polyphenols. In conclusion, CA reduces the maize root growth and exudation of secondary metabolites, which may affects its ability to attract plant growth promoting endophytic fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.11.029DOI Listing
February 2019

QRREM method for the isolation of high-quality RNA from the complex matrices of coconut.

Biosci Rep 2019 01 3;39(1). Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Botany, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 23200 Pakistan.

Complex plant tissues vary in hardness, i.e. some are succulent, while others are complex to break. Besides, plant metabolites, such as polysaccharides, proteins, polyphenols and lipids, can greatly interfere with the RNA extraction. So, in order to obtain a high-quality RNA from the complex tissues (like coconut endosperm, coconut apple and coconut leaf bud) rich in secondary metabolites, a robust method is demanded. Several methods (MRIP, CTAB and TRIZOL) have been used previously for the isolation of quality RNA from the coconut tissues, but without any success. The present study will provide with the details of a new method (Quick and Reliable RNA Extraction Method or QRREM), which have efficiently isolated the intact RNA form the complex tissues of coconut compared with CTAB, Trizol and RNA plant. The method has been validated for the isolation of high-quality intact RNA from the other available plant species (Areca/betel nut, mint and spring onion). The method has various advantages over the other methods in terms of time and cost effectiveness. Furthermore, the resulted RNA from various tissues of coconut performed well in the downstream experiments, i.e. reverse transcription and PCR for the production and amplification of cDNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20181163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328872PMC
January 2019

Oncological outcomes of abdominoperineal resection for the treatment of low rectal cancer: A retrospective review of a single UK tertiary centre experience.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2018 Oct 26;34:28-33. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Department of Surgery, University Hospital North Midlands, Royal Stoke University Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

Background: The use of abdominoperineal resection (APR) in the management of low rectal cancer has received criticism over high rates of incomplete resection due to tumour involvement at the circumferential resection margin. Extralevator abdominoperineal resection has been advocated as a means of improving complete resection. However, Extralevator abdominoperineal resection can result in increased cost, morbidity and reduced quality of life.This study aims to assess the histological features and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing standard abdominoperineal resection and discusses the potential role of Extralevator abdominoperineal resection in this cohort.

Method: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of rectal cancer patients at a single centre. Patients undergoing standard APR were included from 01/06/2007 to 31/05/2012 to allow a minimum 2-year follow-up. Data was collected on age, gender, co-morbidity, pre-operative stage, neo-adjuvant therapy, histology, recurrence and mortality.

Results: Seventy patients were identified (45 (64%) male, median age 67; (range 36-85)). 12 (17.1%) patients had a positive circumferential resection margin; 4 (6.1%) tumours were located anteriorly, 8 (11%) were located posteriorly or laterally and may potentially have been completely resected with extralevator abdomino-perineal resection, Number-needed to treat = 9. Positive circumferential resection margin was more common in advanced tumours (p < 0.001). Local recurrence was more common with positive circumferential resection margins (16.7% Vs 0%, p = 0.027), with no statistically significant difference in 5-year survival, although there was a tendency towards worse survival in these patients.

Conclusion: Positive circumferential resection margin following APR resulted in significantly increased local recurrence with a trend towards poorer survival outcomes. Extralevator abdomino-perineal resection may have benefited some of these patients with locally advanced tumours and postero-lateral recurrences. However, this has to be balanced against exposing patients to increased risk of adverse events. We would recommend selective use of Extralevator abdominoperineal resection for locally advanced and node-positive tumours although further studies to help refine selection criteria are required with long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2018.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6125802PMC
October 2018

Gibberellin application ameliorates the adverse impact of short-term flooding on L.

Biochem J 2018 09 18;475(18):2893-2905. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea

Flooding is an abiotic stress that creates hypoxic conditions triggered by redox potential leading to restricted growth and grain yield in plants. In the current study, we have investigated the effect of exogenous gibberellins (GA) on soybean under flooding stress. A regulatory role of GAs on biochemical changes in soybean plants [including chlorophyll contents, endogenous bioactive GA and GA, endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA)] has been elucidated after 3 and 6 h of flooding stress. The modulation of stress-related bio-chemicals and their genetic determinants [for instance, ABA (-, -) and NO (-nitrosoglutathione reductase-, NO overproducer1-, and nitrite reductase-)] in response to short-term flooding stress were also explored. The current study showed that exogenous GAs rescued chlorophyll contents, enhanced endogenous bioactive GA and GA levels, endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and checked the rate of ABA biosynthesis under short-term flooding. The exo-GAs induced the glutathione activity and reduced the resulting superoxide anion contents during short-term flooding in Pungsannamul soybean. Exo-GAs also triggered the endogenous -nitrosothiols (precursor for increased NO production) that have been decreased over the time. Moreover, the exo-GAs could impinge a variety of biochemical and transcriptional programs that are ameliorative to plant growth during short-term flooding stress. The presence of GA and GA also confirms the presence of both C13-hydroxylation pathway and non-C13-hydroxylation pathway in soybean, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20180534DOI Listing
September 2018

Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium by endophytic fungi; safe and improved production of Lactuca sativa L.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 3;211:653-663. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Agriculture, Garden Campus, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

One of the main problems of the industrialized world is the accumulation of chromium (Cr) in soil, which is a serious threat to the crops. Complete removal of Cr from the contaminated soils poses a great challenge. However, this issue can be minimised by using plant growth promoting microbes as a bioremediation tool. In the present study, healthy plants established near the University campus in Mardan were selected for the isolation of Cr resistant endophytes. From the designated plants, 114 species of endophytic fungi were isolated. Among the 114 isolated strains, 4 strains have induced resistance in L. sativa against Cr. The strains were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium radicum and Fusarium proliferatum based on ITS region (18 S rDNA) homology. The isolates have removed Cr from soil and culture media as well as bio-transformed it from highly toxic hexavalent to least toxic trivalent form, thus helped the Cr stressed L. sativa to restore its normal growth. The Rhizopus Sp. CUC23 has mainly accrued Cr and detoxified intracellularly, whereas A. fumigatus ML43 and P. radicum PL17 has detoxified up to 95% of Cr extracellularly. From the results, it is concluded that the selected endophytic strains might be used as biofertilizer for healthy and safe crop production in Cr contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.07.197DOI Listing
November 2018

Salt tolerance of Glycine max.L induced by endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus CSH1, via regulating its endogenous hormones and antioxidative system.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Jul 4;128:13-23. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Botany, Garden Campus, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Abiotic stress resistance strategies are powerful approaches to sustainable agriculture because they reduce chemical input and enhance plant productivity. In current study, an endophytic fungus, Aspergillus flavus CHS1 was isolated from Chenopodium album Roots. CHS1 was initially screened for growth promoting activities like siderphore, phosphate solubilization, and the production of indole acetic acid and gibberellins and were further assayed for its ability to promote the growth of mutant Waito-C rice. The results revealed that different plant growth characteristic such as chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production were significantly promoted during CHS1 treatment. This growth promotion action was due to the presence of various types of GAs and IAA in the endophyte culture filtrate. Significant up regulation with respect to levels in the control was observed in all endogenous plant GAs, after treatment with CHS1. Furthermore, to evaluate the potential of CHS1 against NaCl stress up to 400 mM, it was tested for its ability to improve soybean plant growth under NaCl stress. In endophyte-soybean interaction, CHS1 association significantly increased plant growth and attenuated the NaCl stress by down regulating ABA and JA synthesis. Similarly, it significantly elevated antioxidant activities of enzymes catalase, polyphenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase as compared to non-inoculated salt stress plants. Thus, CHS1 ameliorated the adverse effect of high NaCl stress and rescued soybean plant growth by regulating the endogenous plant hormones and antioxidative system. We conclude that CHS1 isolate could be exploited to increase salt resistant and yield in crop plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.05.007DOI Listing
July 2018

Glycyrrhiza glabra HPLC fractions: identification of Aldehydo Isoophiopogonone and Liquirtigenin having activity against multidrug resistant bacteria.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 May 2;18(1):140. Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Zoology, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.

Background: Medicinal plants have been founded as traditional herbal medicine worldwide. Most of the plant's therapeutic properties are due to the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and volatile oil.

Methods: The present investigation analyzed the High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fractions of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Aqueous, Chloroform, Ethanol and Hexane) against multidrug resistant human bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). All the fractions showed antibacterial activity, were subjected to LC MS/MS analysis for identification of bioactive compounds.

Results: Among total HPLC fractions of G. glabra (n = 20), three HPLC fractions showed potential activity against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates. Fraction 1 (F1) of aqueous extracts, showed activity against A. baumannii (15 ± 0.5 mm). F4 from hexane extract of G. glabra showed activity against S. aureus (10 ± 0.2 mm). However, F2 from ethanol extract exhibited activity against S. aureus (10 ± 0.3 mm). These active fractions were further processed by LC MS/MS analysis for the identification of compounds. Ellagic acid was identified in the F1 of aqueous extract while 6-aldehydo-isoophiopogonone was present in F4 of hexane extract. Similarly, Liquirtigenin was identified in F2 of ethanol.

Conclusions: Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts HPLC fractions showed anti-MDR activity. Three bioactive compounds were identified in the study. 6-aldehydo-isoophiopogonone and Liquirtigenin were for the first time reported in G. glabra. Further characterization of the identified compounds will be helpful for possible therapeutic uses against infectious diseases caused by multidrug resistant bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2207-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5930497PMC
May 2018

In Vitro Antidiabetic Effects and Antioxidant Potential of Pods.

Biomed Res Int 2018 23;2018:1824790. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Division of Plant Biosciences, School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture & Life Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of pod (EECNP) was evaluated by three in vitro assays, including yeast glucose uptake assay, glucose adsorption assay, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The result revealed that the extracts have enhanced the uptake of glucose through the plasma membrane of yeast cells. A linear increase in glucose uptake by yeast cells was noticed with gradual increase in the concentration of the test samples. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of the EECNP was directly proportional to the molar concentration of glucose. Also, the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of the extract was increased to a maximum value of 43.3% at 80 g/ml, which was then decreased to 41.9% at 100 g/ml. From the results, it was concluded that EECNP possess good antidiabetic and antioxidant properties as shown by in vitro assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1824790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5827890PMC
September 2018

Impact of medial-to-lateral vs lateral-to-medial approach on short-term and cancer-related outcomes in laparoscopic colorectal surgery: A retrospective cohort study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2018 Feb 28;26:19-23. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Department of Surgery, University Hospital North Midlands, Royal Stoke University Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

Background: Laparoscopic surgery is the favoured method of colorectal cancer resections. It is surgeon expertise and discretion to choose whether to mobilize colon lateral-to-medial or medial-to-lateral. We aim to identify the advantage of one approach over the other in short-term and cancerrelated outcomes.

Methods: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all laparoscopic colorectal resections with curative-intent, in a single unit, from March 2013 to October 2014. Data was collected on patient demographics, method of laparoscopic mobilisation, operating time, length-of-stay, post-operative complications, clearance of circumferential resection margins lymph node harvest and follow-up.

Results: 137 patients with comparable patient demographics had laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection. 76 (60.3%) male and 50 (39.7%) female patients. 58(46.0%) of resections were performed using medial-to-lateral approach, while 68(54.0%) lateral-to-medial. Lateral group had on average 14(0-38) lymph nodes with specimen compared to 17 (6-45) in medial group. There was a statistically significant difference in the major complication rate (Clavien-Dindo IV) between the groups with 1(1.7%) in the medial-to-lateral group compared to 7 (10.2%) in the lateral-to-medial group, (p .035). Patients in the medial-to-lateral group had median length-of-stay of 7 days (range 2-55) compared to 7 days (range 2-75) in the lateral-to-medial group. There was no statistically significant difference in survival between both groups up-to 1334 days p=.413.

Conclusion: Our study shows that mobilising the colon medially in laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection increases the lymph node harvest, gives comparable CRM clearance, similar length of hospital stay and complications. It makes no statistically significant difference in the overall patient survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2017.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5755743PMC
February 2018

Effect of Methanolic Extract of Dandelion Roots on Cancer Cell Lines and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2017 28;8:875. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

Ethnomedicinal knowledge of plant-derived bioactives could help us in discovering new therapeutic compounds of great potential. Certainly, dandelion has been used in traditional ethno-medicinal systems (i.e., Chinese, Arabian, Indian, and Native American) to treat different types of cancer. Though, dandelion is highly vigorous, but the potential mode of action is still unclear. In the current study, the antiproliferative activity of methanolic extracts of dandelion root (MEDr) on cell viability of HepG2, MCF7, HCT116, and normal Hs27 was investigated. It was observed that MEDr (500 μg/mL) drastically decreased the growth of HepG2 cell line, while the effect on MCF7 and HCT116 cell lines was less pronounced and no effect has been observed in Hs27 cell lines. The MEDr also enhanced the phosphorylation level of AMPK of HepG2 cells, which considered crucial in cancer treatment and other metabolic diseases. The AMPK activation by MEDr noticed in the current study has never been reported previously. The results regarding the number of apoptotic cells (HepG2 cells) were in line with the cell viability test. The current observations clearly demonstrated the potency of MEDr against liver cancer with validation that dandelion could control AMPK and thus cancer in the treated cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712354PMC
November 2017

Lensless imaging through multiple phase patterns illumination.

J Biomed Opt 2017 Nov;22(11):1-4

Zhejiang University, College of Optical Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Modern Opti, China.

A stable optical system is required to acquire a high-quality image. A motionless lensless setup is designated to obtain high-resolution and large field of view images. The sample is sequentially illuminated with multiple random phase patterns, and the recorded images are subtracted from the system calibration images correspondingly. The resultant images are propagated to the sample plane. The summation of all images yields a final image with resolution of ∼4  μm, field of view of ∼15  mm2, and better signal-to-noise ratio. This technique provides a compact, stable, and cost-effective optical system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.22.11.110502DOI Listing
November 2017

On-chip Microscopy Using Random Phase Mask Scheme.

Sci Rep 2017 11 7;7(1):14768. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

In this study, a simple and novel phase-retrieval scheme is implemented using multi-angle illumination to enhance the resolution of lensless microscopy. A random-phase mask (from 0 to 2π) precedes the sample to encode the information at the sensor plane. The sample is illuminated with multiple angles that are symmetrical along the optical axis of the system. The system is initially calibrated while recording the images without any sample at the corresponding multi angles. The two types of image are mutually subtracted, and the resultant images are summed at the sensor plane and backpropagated to the sample plane. The final image is free of the twin-image effect, and has a high signal-to-noise ratio owing to the multi angles of the illumination scheme. This scheme gives a resolution of ~4 micron for a large field-of-view (~15 mm). The scheme is useful for robust imaging owing to the fast phase-retrieval method, and it enables a straightforward analytical reconstruction instead of using complicated iterative algorithms in a lensless microscopic setup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-14517-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5676858PMC
November 2017
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