Publications by authors named "Anwar Baban"

63 Publications

Deciphering Genetic Variants of Warfarin Metabolism in Children With Ventricular Assist Devices.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Heart Failure, Transplant and Mechanical Assistance Program Unit, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Warfarin is prescribed in patients with ventricular assist devices (VADs). Dosage depends on several factors including the underlying genotype. These include polymorphisms of genes encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes, the main ones being CYP2C9, VKORC1, and CYP4F2. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of CY2CP9 1*2*3*, VKORC1, and CYP4F2 in children with VADs and the time to reach the target international normalized ratio. We performed a retrospective/prospective study in children with VADs. We recorded polymorphisms, disease, type of VAD, ethnicity, age, gender, height, weight, INR values, bleeding, and thromboembolic episodes. Informed consent was obtained. We enrolled 34 children (19 male, 15 female), with a median age of 2 years (range 0.3-17 years) and median weight of 6.9Kg. The Berlin Heart was the most commonly implanted VAD (22/34; 64%), and the most common diagnosis was dilated cardiomyopathy. Statistical analysis confirmed a significant partial correlation with VKORC1 CC (p = 0.019). The CYP2C9*2 CT genotype showed a late rise in target INR values (p = 0.06), while the CYP2C9*2 CC showed a tendency toward an early INR rise (p = 0.024). We provide new information on the contribution of the warfarin polymorphisms in children with VAD implantation. Pharmacogenomic dosing for children using warfarin has the potential to improve clinical care in VAD patients. Patients with the CYP2C9*2 CT genotype may need more time or higher doses to reach target INR, while clinicians may need to be aware of the potential for a rapid rise in INR in patients with the CYP2C9*2 CC genotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-021-02585-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Remember friedreich ataxia even in a toddler with apparently isolated dilated (not hypertrophic!) cardiomyopathy: revisited.

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

European Reference Network for rare, low prevalence and complex diseases of the heart - ERN GUARD-Heart HCP, Pediatric Cardiology and Arrhythmia/Syncope Units, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital and Research Institute, Rome, Italy -

Background: Friedreich Ataxia (FRDA) is the most common form of ataxia in late childhood. Neurological manifestations often precede cardiac involvement, presenting mainly as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Methods: We describe a toddler with apparently isolated severe heart failure, successfully managed with heart transplant (HT). Although well described in adolescents and adults, onset of FRDA is very uncommon in toddlers and neurological ataxic features are predominant. The presenting symptom of cardiomyopathy is very rare. Similar history is rarely reported in literature, that we described, including an aggressive cardiomyopathy in children younger than 5years-old.

Results: Our patient was diagnosed with FRDA at a postoperative stage due to minimal neurological manifestations. Moreover, the novelty of this study lies in demonstrating a major DNA triplet repeat expansion in skeletal muscle compared to DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes. These results support the concept that triplet repeat expansion is variable among different tissues in FRDA, and in our case it was more expanded in the post mitotic muscular tissue than in blood cells.

Conclusions: We believe on the importance of taking in consideration this rare condition even in a toddler with apparently isolated cardiomyopathy and especially when conventional investigations give negative results. We discuss potential trigger effect of heart transplant as a precipitating factor in manifesting neurological symptoms. This observation corresponds to our experience and relates to three patients described so far (the third patient died suddenly). Early onset cardiomyopathy with FRDA should increase awareness of this rare condition and we highlight HT successful outcome. Further reports are needed to delineate this rare condition in youngsters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5276.21.05969-3DOI Listing
April 2021

The role of the electrocardiographic phenotype in risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Centre for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases, Great Ormond Street Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH, UK.

Aims: The 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is routinely performed in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). An ECG risk score has been suggested as a useful tool for risk stratification, but this has not been independently validated. This aim of this study was to describe the ECG phenotype of childhood HCM in a large, international, multi-centre cohort and investigate its role in risk prediction for arrhythmic events.

Methods And Results: Data from 356 childhood HCM patients with a mean age of 10.1 years (±4.5) were collected from a retrospective, multi-centre international cohort. Three hundred and forty-seven (97.5%) patients had ECG abnormalities at baseline, most commonly repolarization abnormalities (n = 277, 77.8%); left ventricular hypertrophy (n = 240, 67.7%); abnormal QRS axis (n = 126, 35.4%); or QT prolongation (n = 131, 36.8%). Over a median follow-up of 3.9 years (interquartile range 2.0-7.7), 25 (7%) had an arrhythmic event, with an overall annual event rate of 1.38 (95% CI 0.93-2.04). No ECG variables were associated with 5-year arrhythmic event on univariable or multivariable analysis. The ECG risk score threshold of >5 had modest discriminatory ability [C-index 0.60 (95% CI 0.484-0.715)], with corresponding negative and positive predictive values of 96.7% and 6.7.

Conclusion: In a large, international, multi-centre cohort of childhood HCM, ECG abnormalities were common and varied. No ECG characteristic, either in isolation or combined in the previously described ECG risk score, was associated with 5-year sudden cardiac death risk. This suggests that the role of baseline ECG phenotype in improving risk stratification in childhood HCM is limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwab046DOI Listing
March 2021

Progressive involvement of cardiac conduction system in paediatric patients with Kearns-Sayre syndrome: how to predict occurrence of complete heart block and sudden cardiac death?

Europace 2020 Dec 18. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Sant'Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy.

Aims: The aims of this study are to evaluate the progressive involvement of the cardiac conduction system in the Kearn-Sayre syndrome (KSS) and to establish criteria for the prevention of episodes of syncope or sudden cardiac death.

Methods And Results: This is a prospective monocentric study including KSS patients, with diagnosis based on clinical manifestations, muscle biopsy, and genetic tests, before the age of 18. All patients underwent cardiac screening examination with 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), 24-h Holter monitoring, and pacemaker (PM) interrogation twice a year. Fifteen patients (nine males, mean age 16.6 ± 3.9 years) with a sporadic KSS were recruited. All subjects manifested at least one of the intraventricular conduction defects (IVDs): 1 right bundle branch block (RBBB), 2 left anterior fascicular block (LAFB), 11 a bi-fascicular block (RBBB + LAFB), and 1 left posterior fascicular block. Most children with bi-fascicular block developed LAFB before the RBBB (P = 0.0049). In six patients, IVD degenerated into atrioventricular block (AVB). Endocavitary PM was implanted in 11 patients (6 with AVB and 5 with a bi-fascicular block), while an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator only in one patient with a non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Four died at mean age of 14.7 ± 2.6 years, but none of them suddenly.

Conclusion: Even a 'simple' ECG can predict the arrhythmic risk and the occurrence of catastrophic events in young patients with KSS. Left anterior fascicular block precedes RBBB in determining the bi-fascicular block and this can predict an inexorable progression of the conduction defects even in a short time. Pacemaker implantation may be indicated in these patients since the first bi-fascicular block manifestation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa335DOI Listing
December 2020

Clinical Profile of Cardiac Involvement in Danon Disease: A Multicenter European Registry.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 12 5;13(6):e003117. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Leviev Heart Center, Sheba Medical Center and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel (D.L., Y.W., M.A.).

Background: The X-linked Danon disease manifests by severe cardiomyopathy, myopathy, and neuropsychiatric problems. We designed this registry to generate a comprehensive picture of clinical presentations and outcome of patients with Danon disease in cardiomyopathy centers throughout Europe.

Methods: Clinical and genetic data were collected in 16 cardiology centers from 8 European countries.

Results: The cohort comprised 30 male and 27 female patients. The age at diagnosis was birth to 42 years in men and 2 to 65 in women. Cardiac involvement was observed in 96%. Extracardiac manifestations were prominent in men but not in women. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was reported in 73% of male and 74% of female patients. LV systolic dysfunction was reported in 40% of men (who had LV ejection fraction, 34±11%) and 59% of women (LV ejection fraction, 28±13%). The risk of arrhythmia and heart failure was comparable among sexes. The age of first heart failure hospitalization was lower in men (18±6 versus 28±17 years; <0.003). Heart failure was the leading cause of death (10 of 17; 59%), and LV systolic dysfunction predicted an adverse outcome. Eight men and 8 women (28%) underwent heart transplantation or received an LV assist device. Our cohort suggests better prognosis of female compared with male heart transplant recipients.

Conclusions: Danon disease presents earlier in men than in women and runs a malignant course in both sexes, due to cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy features, heart failure and arrhythmia, are similar among the sexes. Clinical diagnosis and management is extremely challenging in women due to phenotypic diversity and the absence of extracardiac manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003117DOI Listing
December 2020

Persistent myocardial atrophy despite LV reverse remodeling in Duchenne cardiomyopathy treated by LVAD.

Pediatr Transplant 2021 Mar 26;25(2):e13890. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Arrhythmias/Syncope Unit, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

DCM is the leading cause of death in Duchenne patients. LVADs are considered as therapeutic options as DT in advanced HF. The aim of our study was to evaluate LV remodeling of Duchenne after LVADs and chronic therapy. Demographic and echocardiographic data of 8 Duchenne patients implanted with LVADs were reviewed and analyzed. All measures were collected before LVAD implantation, after 1 month and 1 year. All patients were affected by end-stage DCM, and mean age at implantation was 16.9 ± 2.9 years. Patients were treated with maximal medical therapy. One-year post-implantation HR decreased from a mean of 110 ± 19 bpm to 82 ± 2 bpm (P = .002), and a significant decrease in LV volumes and diameters LVEDD P = .03, LVESD P = .02, EDV P = .01, and ESV P = .02) was noticed together with a significant increase in EF (P = .0036). However, RWT did not change over time, showing an eccentric remodeling pattern pre- and post-LVADs. Our data showed that cardiac atrophy is persistent in Duchenne cardiomyopathy despite the improvement of LV function secondary to a significant ventricular unloading due to LVADs coupled with chronic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13890DOI Listing
March 2021

Cardiovascular Involvement in Pediatric Laminopathies. Report of Six Patients and Literature Revision.

Front Pediatr 2020 24;8:374. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

The European Reference Network for Rare, Low Prevalence and Complex Diseases of the Heart-ERN GUARD-Heart, Pediatric Cardiology and Arrhythmia/Syncope Units, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital and Research Institute, Rome, Italy.

Lamin A/C () encodes for two nuclear intermediate filament proteins. Mutations in cause a highly heterogeneous group of diseases predominantly leading to muscular or cardiac disease, lipodystrophy syndromes, peripheral neuropathy, and accelerated aging disorders. Cardiac involvement includes progressive arrhythmias (brady/tachyarrhythmias, sudden cardiac death). Furthermore, cardiomyocyte damage often progresses into dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), rarely described in the pediatric age group. Neuromuscular manifestations are even rarer in children. We report on six pediatric patients with mutations: patient 1 was operated on for aortic coarctation, non-compact left ventricle, atrial fibrillation (AF) preceding the diagnosis of DCM; patient 2 was operated on for ventricular septal defect (VSD), developed after years malignant arrhythmias preceding the progression to DCM (left ventricular non-compaction with LV dysfunction); patient 3 had ectopic atrial tachycardia as first manifestation of a DCM; patients 4 and 5 had no major arrhythmic events but only dilated ascending aorta, mildly dilated LV with mild hypertrabeculation of the lateral wall and a normally functioning but dilated left ventricle, respectively; patient 6 showed aortic coarctation, supraventricular tachycardia. Paroxysmal AF occurred in patients 1, 2, and 3 (50% of cases). Our series highlight the coexistence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) and aortic involvement with laminopathies in four of our patients: consisting of aortic coarctation (two patients), aortic root dilatation (one patient), and VSD (one patient). Aortic changes in laminopathies have been reported only once in an adult patient. This is the first report in the pediatric setting, and no associations with CHD have been previously described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393225PMC
July 2020

Cantú syndrome versus Zimmermann-Laband syndrome: Report of nine individuals with ABCC9 variants.

Eur J Med Genet 2020 Sep 2;63(9):103996. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Cantú syndrome (CS) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by a coarse facial appearance, macrocephaly, hypertrichosis, skeletal and cardiovascular anomalies and caused by heterozygous gain-of-function variants in ABCC9 and KCNJ8, encoding subunits of heterooctameric ATP-sensitive potassium (K) channels. CS shows considerable clinical overlap with Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS), a rare condition with coarse facial features, hypertrichosis, gingival overgrowth, intellectual disability of variable degree, and hypoplasia or aplasia of terminal phalanges and/or nails. ZLS is caused by heterozygous gain-of-function variants in KCNH1 or KCNN3, and gain-of-function KCNK4 variants underlie the clinically similar FHEIG (facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, intellectual disability/developmental delay, and gingival overgrowth) syndrome; KCNH1, KCNN3 and KCNK4 encode potassium channels. Within our research project on ZLS, we performed targeted Sanger sequencing of ABCC9 in 15 individuals tested negative for a mutation in the ZLS-associated genes and found two individuals harboring a heterozygous pathogenic ABCC9 missense variant. Through a collaborative effort, we identified a total of nine individuals carrying a monoallelic ABCC9 variant: five sporadic patients and four members of two unrelated families. Among the six detected ABCC9 missense variants, four [p.(Pro252Leu), p.(Thr259Lys), p.(Ala1064Pro), and p.(Arg1197His)] were novel. Systematic assessment of the clinical features in the nine cases with an ABCC9 variant highlights the significant clinical overlap between ZLS and CS that includes early developmental delay, hypertrichosis, gingival overgrowth, joint laxity, and hypoplasia of terminal phalanges and nails. Gain of K channel activity possibly accounts for significant clinical similarities of CS, ZLS and FHEIG syndrome and defines a new subgroup of potassium channelopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.103996DOI Listing
September 2020

Atypical cardiac defects in patients with RASopathies: Updated data on CARNET study.

Birth Defects Res 2020 06;112(10):725-731

Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: RASopathies are a set of relatively common autosomal dominant clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders. Cardiac outcomes in terms of mortality and morbidity for common heart defects (such as pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) have been reported. Nevertheless, also Atypical Cardiac Defects (ACDs) are described. The aim of the present study was to report both prevalence and cardiac outcome of ACDs in patients with RASopathies.

Methods: A retrospective, multicentric observational study (CArdiac Rasopathy NETwork-CARNET study) was carried out. Clinical, surgical, and genetic data of the patients who were followed until December 2019 were collected.

Results: Forty-five patients out of 440 followed in CARNET centers had ACDs. Noonan Syndrome (NS), NS Multiple Lentigines (NSML) and CardioFacioCutaneous Syndrome (CFCS) were present in 36, 5 and 4 patients, respectively. Median age at last follow-up was 20.1 years (range 6.9-47 years). Different ACDs were reported, including mitral and aortic valve dysfunction, ascending and descending aortic arch anomalies, coronary arteries dilation, enlargement of left atrial appendage and isolated pulmonary branches diseases. Five patients (11%) underwent cardiac surgery and one of them underwent a second intervention for mitral valve replacement and severe pericardial effusion. No patients died in our cohort until December 2019.

Conclusions: Patients with RASopathies present a distinct CHD spectrum. Present data suggest that also ACDs must be carefully investigated for their possible impact on the clinical outcome. A careful longitudinal follow up until the individuals reach an adult age is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1670DOI Listing
June 2020

Differences in morbidity and mortality in Down syndrome are related to the type of congenital heart defect.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 06 22;182(6):1342-1350. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Arrhythmias Unit, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Morbidity and mortality in Down syndrome (DS) are mainly related to congenital heart defects (CHDs). While CHDs with high prevalence in DS (typical CHDs), such as endocardial cushion defects, have been extensively described, little is known about the impact of less common CHDs (atypical CHDs), such as aortic coarctation and univentricular hearts. In our single-center study, we analyzed, in observational, retrospective manner, data regarding cardiac features, surgical management, and outcomes of a cohort of DS patients. Literature review was performed to investigate previously reported studies on atypical CHDs in DS. Patients with CHDs were subclassified as having typical or atypical CHDs. Statistical analysis was performed for comparison between the groups. The study population encompassed 859 DS patients, 72.2% with CHDs, of which 4.7% were atypical. Statistical analysis showed a significant excess in multiple surgeries, all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality in patients with atypical CHDs (p = .0067, p = .0038, p = .0001, respectively). According to the Kaplan-Meier method, survival at 10 and 40 years was significantly higher in typical CHDs (99 and 98% vs. 91 and 84%, log rank <0.05). Among atypical CHDs, it seems that particularly multiple complex defects in univentricular physiology associate with a worse outcome. This may be due to the surgical difficulty in managing univentricular hearts with multiple defects concurring to the clinical picture or to the severity of associated defects themselves. Further studies need to address this specific issue, also considering the higher pulmonary pressures, infective complications, and potential comorbidities in DS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61586DOI Listing
June 2020

KBG syndrome: Common and uncommon clinical features based on 31 new patients.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 05 3;182(5):1073-1083. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Medical Genetics, Rare Diseases, Pediatric Cardiology, and Endocrinology Units, Scientific Rectorate, Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

KBG syndrome (MIM #148050) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, distinct craniofacial anomalies, macrodontia of permanent upper central incisors, skeletal abnormalities, and short stature. This study describes clinical features of 28 patients, confirmed by molecular testing of ANKRD11 gene, and three patients with 16q24 deletion encompassing ANKRD11 gene, diagnosed in a single center. Common clinical features are reported, together with uncommon findings, clinical expression in the first years of age, distinctive associations, and familial recurrences. Unusual manifestations emerging from present series include juvenile idiopathic arthritis, dysfunctional dysphonia, multiple dental agenesis, idiopathic precocious telarche, oral frenula, motor tics, and lipoma of corpus callosum, pilomatrixoma, and endothelial corneal polymorphic dystrophy. Facial clinical markers suggesting KBG syndrome before 6 years of age include ocular and mouth conformation, wide eyebrows, synophrys, long black eyelashes, long philtrum, thin upper lip. General clinical symptoms leading to early genetic evaluation include developmental delay, congenital malformations, hearing anomalies, and feeding difficulties. It is likely that atypical clinical presentation and overlapping features in patients with multiple variants are responsible for underdiagnosis in KBG syndrome. Improved knowledge of common and atypical features of this disorder improves clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61524DOI Listing
May 2020

An International Multicenter Evaluation of Type 5 Long QT Syndrome: A Low Penetrant Primary Arrhythmic Condition.

Circulation 2020 02 16;141(6):429-439. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Division of Heart Rhythm Services, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Molecular Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, Windland Smith Rice Sudden Death Genomics Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (M.B., J.R.G., M.J.A.).

Background: Insight into type 5 long QT syndrome (LQT5) has been limited to case reports and small family series. Improved understanding of the clinical phenotype and genetic features associated with rare variants implicated in LQT5 was sought through an international multicenter collaboration.

Methods: Patients with either presumed autosomal dominant LQT5 (N = 229) or the recessive Type 2 Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (N = 19) were enrolled from 22 genetic arrhythmia clinics and 4 registries from 9 countries. variants were evaluated for ECG penetrance (defined as QTc >460 ms on presenting ECG) and genotype-phenotype segregation. Multivariable Cox regression was used to compare the associations between clinical and genetic variables with a composite primary outcome of definite arrhythmic events, including appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks, aborted cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death.

Results: A total of 32 distinct rare variants were identified in 89 probands and 140 genotype positive family members with presumed LQT5 and an additional 19 Type 2 Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome patients. Among presumed LQT5 patients, the mean QTc on presenting ECG was significantly longer in probands (476.9±38.6 ms) compared with genotype positive family members (441.8±30.9 ms, <0.001). ECG penetrance for heterozygous genotype positive family members was 20.7% (29/140). A definite arrhythmic event was experienced in 16.9% (15/89) of heterozygous probands in comparison with 1.4% (2/140) of family members (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 11.6 [95% CI, 2.6-52.2]; =0.001). Event incidence did not differ significantly for Type 2 Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome patients relative to the overall heterozygous cohort (10.5% [2/19]; HR 1.7 [95% CI, 0.3-10.8], =0.590). The cumulative prevalence of the 32 variants in the Genome Aggregation Database, which is a human database of exome and genome sequencing data from now over 140 000 individuals, was 238-fold greater than the anticipated prevalence of all LQT5 combined (0.238% vs 0.001%).

Conclusions: The present study suggests that putative/confirmed loss-of-function variants predispose to QT prolongation, however, the low ECG penetrance observed suggests they do not manifest clinically in the majority of individuals, aligning with the mild phenotype observed for Type 2 Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.043114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7035205PMC
February 2020

Delayed appearance of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria in neonates with early onset metabolic cardiomyopathies: A potential pitfall for the diagnosis.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 01 15;182(1):64-70. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Metabolic Diseases Unit, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital and Research Institute, Rome, Italy.

Infantile onset cardiomyopathies are highly heterogeneous with several phenocopies compared with adult cardiomyopathies. Multidisciplinary management is essential in determining the underlying etiology in children's cardiomyopathy. Elevated urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid (3-MGA) is a useful tool in identifying the etiology in some metabolic cardiomyopathy. Here, we report the delayed appearance of 3-MGA-uria, between 6 and 18 months in three patients (out of 100 childhood onset cardiomyopathy) with neonatal onset cardiomyopathy, secondary to TMEM70 mutations and TAZ mutations (Barth syndrome), in whom extensive metabolic investigations, performed in the first weeks of life, did not display 3-MGA-uria. Serial retrospective evaluations showed full characteristic features of TMEM70 and TAZ mutations (Barth syndrome) in these three patients, including a clearly abnormal monolysocardiolipin/cardiolipin ratio in the two Barth syndrome patients. Serially repeated metabolic investigations finally discovered the 3-MGA-uria biomarker in all three patients between the age of 6 and 18 months. Our observation provides novel insights into the temporal appearance of 3-MGA-uria in TMEM70 and TAZ mutations (Barth syndrome) and focus the importance of multidisciplinary management and careful evaluation of family history and red flag signs for phenocopies in infantile onset cardiomyopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61383DOI Listing
January 2020

Targeted panel sequencing in pediatric primary cardiomyopathy supports a critical role of TNNI3.

Clin Genet 2019 12 22;96(6):549-559. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), a joint cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), Berlin, Germany.

The underlying genetic mechanisms and early pathological events of children with primary cardiomyopathy (CMP) are insufficiently characterized. In this study, we aimed to characterize the mutational spectrum of primary CMP in a large cohort of patients ≤18 years referred to a tertiary center. Eighty unrelated index patients with pediatric primary CMP underwent genetic testing with a panel-based next-generation sequencing approach of 89 genes. At least one pathogenic or probably pathogenic variant was identified in 30/80 (38%) index patients. In all CMP subgroups, patients carried most frequently variants of interest in sarcomere genes suggesting them as a major contributor in pediatric primary CMP. In MYH7, MYBPC3, and TNNI3, we identified 18 pathogenic/probably pathogenic variants (MYH7 n = 7, MYBPC3 n = 6, TNNI3 n = 5, including one homozygous (TNNI3 c.24+2T>A) truncating variant. Protein and transcript level analysis on heart biopsies from individuals with homozygous mutation of TNNI3 revealed that the TNNI3 protein is absent and associated with upregulation of the fetal isoform TNNI1. The present study further supports the clinical importance of sarcomeric mutation-not only in adult-but also in pediatric primary CMP. TNNI3 is the third most important disease gene in this cohort and complete loss of TNNI3 leads to severe pediatric CMP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13645DOI Listing
December 2019

Development of a Novel Risk Prediction Model for Sudden Cardiac Death in Childhood Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM Risk-Kids).

JAMA Cardiol 2019 09;4(9):918-927

Centre for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Cardiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the most common mode of death in childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but there is no validated algorithm to identify those at highest risk.

Objective: To develop and validate an SCD risk prediction model that provides individualized risk estimates.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A prognostic model was developed from a retrospective, multicenter, longitudinal cohort study of 1024 consecutively evaluated patients aged 16 years or younger with HCM. The study was conducted from January 1, 1970, to December 31, 2017.

Exposures: The model was developed using preselected predictor variables (unexplained syncope, maximal left-ventricular wall thickness, left atrial diameter, left-ventricular outflow tract gradient, and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia) identified from the literature and internally validated using bootstrapping.

Main Outcomes And Measures: A composite outcome of SCD or an equivalent event (aborted cardiac arrest, appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy, or sustained ventricular tachycardia associated with hemodynamic compromise).

Results: Of the 1024 patients included in the study, 699 were boys (68.3%); mean (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 11 (7-14) years. Over a median follow-up of 5.3 years (IQR, 2.6-8.3; total patient years, 5984), 89 patients (8.7%) died suddenly or had an equivalent event (annual event rate, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15-1.92). The pediatric model was developed using preselected variables to predict the risk of SCD. The model's ability to predict risk at 5 years was validated; the C statistic was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.66-0.72), and the calibration slope was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.59-1.38). For every 10 implantable cardioverter defibrillators implanted in patients with 6% or more of a 5-year SCD risk, 1 patient may potentially be saved from SCD at 5 years.

Conclusions And Relevance: This new, validated risk stratification model for SCD in childhood HCM may provide individualized estimates of risk at 5 years using readily obtained clinical risk factors. External validation studies are required to demonstrate the accuracy of this model's predictions in diverse patient populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2019.2861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6694401PMC
September 2019

SOS1 mutations in Noonan syndrome: Cardiomyopathies and not only congenital heart defects! Report of six patients including two novel variants and literature review.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 10 1;179(10):2083-2090. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Arrhythmias Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital and Research Institute, Rome, Italy.

Noonan syndrome (NS) is caused by mutations in more than 10 genes, mainly PTPN11, SOS1, RAF1, and RIT1. Congenital heart defects and cardiomyopathy (CMP) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in NS. Although hypertrophic CMP has "classically" been reported in association to RAF1, RIT1, and PTPN11 variants, SOS1 appears to be poorly related to CMP. Patients with NS attending our Center from January 2013 to June 2018 were eligible for inclusion if they carried SOS1 variants and presented with-or developed-CMP. Literature review describing the co-existence of SOS1 mutation and CMP was also performed. We identified six patients with SOS1 variants and CMP (male to female ratio 2:1) including two novel variants. CMP spectrum encompassed: (a) dilated CMP, (b) nonobstructive hypertrophic CMPs, and (c) obstructive hypertrophic CMPs. Survival is 100%. Literature review included 16 SOS1 mutated in CMP. CMP, mainly hypertrophic, has been often reported in association to RAF1, RIT1, and PTPN11 variants. Differently from previous reports, due to the frequent association of SOS1 variants and CMP in our single center experience, we suggest potential underestimated proportion of SOS1 in pediatric CMPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61312DOI Listing
October 2019

A heterozygous, intragenic deletion of CNOT2 recapitulates the phenotype of 12q15 deletion syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 08 30;179(8):1615-1621. Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Medical Genetics, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Only a few individuals with 12q15 deletion have been described, presenting with a disorder characterized by learning disability, developmental delay, nasal speech, and hypothyroidism. The smallest region of overlap for this syndrome was included in a genomic segment spanning CNOT2, KCNMB4, and PTPRB genes. We report on an additional patient harboring a 12q15 microdeletion encompassing only part of CNOT2 gene, presenting with a spectrum of clinical features overlapping the 12q15 deletion syndrome phenotype. We propose CNOT2 as the phenocritical gene for 12q15 deletion syndrome and its haploinsufficiency being associated with an autosomal dominant disorder, presenting with developmental delay, hypotonia, feeding problems, learning difficulties, nasal speech, skeletal anomalies, and facial dysmorphisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61217DOI Listing
August 2019

Hidden Complexity in Routine Adult and Pediatric Arrhythmias Interpretation: The Future of Precision Electrocardiology.

Card Electrophysiol Clin 2019 06;11(2):391-404

Arrhythmology Unit, Cardiology Department, Foligno General Hospital, Via Massimo Arcamone, Foligno, Perugia 06034, Italy; Cardiovascular Disease Department, University of Perugia, Piazza Menghini 1, Perugia 06129, Italy.

Classic ECG interpretation is based on identification of waveforms and deductive analysis of the electrical events the waveforms represent. The more in depth the understanding of electrophysiologic cellular interactions, the more precise the interpretation of ECG tracing. Surface ECG has limitations; yet, it is accurate in representing myocytes' pathologic behaviors. Recent advances have improved understanding of arrhythmias by reconstructing their mechanisms of induction and maintenance and exploring cellular channel dysfunction. Translating this knowledge to ECG analysis will create the link that allows ECG interpretation to reach the level of precision electrocardiology. This article presents cases illustrating new techniques for electrophysiologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccep.2019.03.001DOI Listing
June 2019

Palmoplantar Keratoderma and Woolly Hair Revealing Asymptomatic Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy.

Acta Derm Venereol 2019 Jul;99(9):831-832

Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata, IDI-IRCCS, Via dei Monti di Creta, 104, IT-00167 Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-3216DOI Listing
July 2019

Left pulmonary artery in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Echocardiographic evaluation in patients without cardiac defects and role of Tbx1 in mice.

PLoS One 2019 1;14(4):e0211170. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Institute of Genetics and Biophysics "Adriano Buzzati Traverso", CNR, Naples, Italy.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) present, in about 75% of cases, typical patterns of cardiac defects, with a particular involvement on the ventricular outflow tract and great arteries. However, in this genetic condition the dimensions of the pulmonary arteries (PAs) never were specifically evaluated. We measured both PAs diameter in patients with 22q11.2DS without cardiac defects, comparing these data to a normal control group. Moreover, we measured the PAs diameter in Tbx1 mutant mice. Finally, a cell fate mapping in Tbx1 mutants was used to study the expression of this gene in the morphogenesis of PAs.

Methods: We evaluated 58 patients with 22q11.2DS without cardiac defects. The control group consisted of 54 healthy subjects, matched for age and sex. All cases underwent a complete transthoracic echocardiography. Moreover, we crossed Tbx1+/- mice and harvested fetuses. We examined the cardiovascular phenotype of 8 wild type (WT), 37 heterozygous (Tbx1+/-) and 6 null fetuses (Tbx1-/-). Finally, we crossed Tbx1Cre/+mice with R26RmT-mG Cre reporter mice to study Tbx1 expression in the pulmonary arteries.

Results: The echocardiographic study showed that the mean of the LPA/RPA ratio in 22q11.2DS was smaller (0.80 ± 0.12) than in controls (0.97 ± 0.08; p < 0.0001). Mouse studies resulted in similar data as the size of LPA and RPA was not significantly different in WT embryos, but in Tbx1+/- and Tbx1-/- embryos the LPA was significantly smaller than the RPA in both mutants (P = 0.0016 and 0.0043, respectively). We found that Tbx1 is expressed near the origin of the PAs and in their adventitia.

Conclusions: Children with 22q11.2DS without cardiac defects show smaller LPA compared with healthy subjects. Mouse studies suggest that this anomaly is due to haploinsufficiency of Tbx1. These data may be useful in the clinical management of children with 22q11.2DS and should guide further experimental studies as to the mechanisms underlying PAs development.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211170PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443172PMC
December 2019

Correction: The ARID1B spectrum in 143 patients: from nonsyndromic intellectual disability to Coffin-Siris syndrome.

Authors:
Pleuntje J van der Sluijs Sandra Jansen Samantha A Vergano Miho Adachi-Fukuda Yasemin Alanay Adila AlKindy Anwar Baban Allan Bayat Stefanie Beck-Wödl Katherine Berry Emilia K Bijlsma Levinus A Bok Alwin F J Brouwer Ineke van der Burgt Philippe M Campeau Natalie Canham Krystyna Chrzanowska Yoyo W Y Chu Brain H Y Chung Karin Dahan Marjan De Rademaeker Anne Destree Tracy Dudding-Byth Rachel Earl Nursel Elcioglu Ellen R Elias Christina Fagerberg Alice Gardham Blanca Gener Erica H Gerkes Ute Grasshoff Arie van Haeringen Karin R Heitink Johanna C Herkert Nicolette S den Hollander Denise Horn David Hunt Sarina G Kant Mitsuhiro Kato Hülya Kayserili Rogier Kersseboom Esra Kilic Malgorzata Krajewska-Walasek Kylin Lammers Lone W Laulund Damien Lederer Melissa Lees Vanesa López-González Saskia Maas Grazia M S Mancini Carlo Marcelis Francisco Martinez Isabelle Maystadt Marianne McGuire Shane McKee Sarju Mehta Kay Metcalfe Jeff Milunsky Seiji Mizuno John B Moeschler Christian Netzer Charlotte W Ockeloen Barbara Oehl-Jaschkowitz Nobuhiko Okamoto Sharon N M Olminkhof Carmen Orellana Laurent Pasquier Caroline Pottinger Vera Riehmer Stephen P Robertson Maian Roifman Caroline Rooryck Fabienne G Ropers Monica Rosello Claudia A L Ruivenkamp Mahmut S Sagiroglu Suzanne C E H Sallevelt Amparo Sanchis Calvo Pelin O Simsek-Kiper Gabriela Soares Lucia Solaeche Fatma Mujgan Sonmez Miranda Splitt Duco Steenbeek Alexander P A Stegmann Constance T R M Stumpel Saori Tanabe Eyyup Uctepe G Eda Utine Hermine E Veenstra-Knol Sunita Venkateswaran Catheline Vilain Catherine Vincent-Delorme Anneke T Vulto-van Silfhout Patricia Wheeler Golder N Wilson Louise C Wilson Bernd Wollnik Tomoki Kosho Dagmar Wieczorek Evan Eichler Rolph Pfundt Bert B A de Vries Jill Clayton-Smith Gijs W E Santen

Genet Med 2019 Sep;21(9):2160-2161

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Pleuntje J. van der Sluijs, which was incorrectly given as Eline (P. J.) van der Sluijs. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0368-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752317PMC
September 2019

Heart rate reduction strategy using ivabradine in end-stage Duchenne cardiomyopathy.

Int J Cardiol 2019 04 17;280:99-103. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Cardiology Unit, Bambino Gesù Hospital & Research Institute, Rome, Italy.

Background: End-stage dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). No studies are available on the effect of ivabradine on long-term outcomes in end-stage DMD/DCM.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled a cohort of end-stage DMD/DCM patients with LV ejection fraction <40%, on chronic HF treatment with an ACE inhibitor referred consecutively from 2012 to 2017 to Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital. In each patient, before starting HRR strategy and after 1 year, we collected medical records comprehensive of clinical, demographic and imaging parameters, BNP levels, neurological and respiratory assessment.

Results: Twenty male patients with DMD/DCM with a mean age of 15.0 ± 3.5 (13-19 IQR) years were enrolled and divided into 2 groups according to ivabradine therapy. This group showed a higher incidence of MACEs compared to others in treatment with ivabradine (87.5% vs 12.5%, p = 0.025). At Kaplan Meier survival analysis curves, the rate free from MACEs was higher in patients treated with ivabradine (log rank p = 0.017). At multivariate Cox regression analysis, ivabradine therapy was an independent predictor of freedom from MACEs (H.R. 0.078, 95% CI 0.007-0.877, p = 0.039).

Conclusion: HRR strategy, whether achieved by beta blockers alone or in combination with ivabradine, seemed to be effective in reducing the incidence of acute adverse events, reaching optimal target heart rate and improving left ventricular function in DMD/DCM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.01.052DOI Listing
April 2019

LTBP2-related "Marfan-like" phenotype in two Roma/Gypsy subjects with the LTBP2 homozygous p.R299X variant.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 01 18;179(1):104-112. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Pediatric Cardiology and Arrhythmology Unit, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, IRCCS-Bambino Gesù Children Hospital and Research Institute, Rome, Italy.

Recessive variants in LTBP2 are associated with eye-restricted phenotypes including (a) primary congenital glaucoma and (b) microspherophakia/megalocornea and ectopia lentis with/without secondary glaucoma. Nosology of LTBP2 pathology in humans is apparently in contrast with the consolidated evidence of a wide expression of this gene in the developing embryo. Accordingly, in previously published patients with LTBP2-related eye disease, additional extraocular findings have been occasionally reported and include, among others, high-arched palate, tall stature, and variable cardiac involvement. Anyway, no emphasis was put on such systemic manifestations. Here, we report two unrelated Roma/Gypsy patients first ascertained for a multisystem disorder mainly characterized by primary congenital glaucoma, complex congenital heart defect, tall stature, long fingers, skin striae and dystrophic scarring, and resembling Marfan syndrome. Heart involvement was severe with polyvalvular heart dysplasia in one, and transposition of great arteries, thoracic arterial tortuosity, polyvalvular heart dysplasia, and neo-aortic root dilatation in the other. Both patients were homozygous for the recurrent c.895C>T[p.(R299X)] variant, typically found in individuals of Roma/Gypsy descent with an eye-restricted phenotype. Our findings point out LTBP2 as responsible of a systemic phenotype coherent with the community of syndromes related to anomalies in genes involved in the TGFβ-pathway. Among these disorders, LTBP2-related systemic disease emerges as a distinct condition with expanding prognostic implications and autosomal recessive inheritance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.10DOI Listing
January 2019

The ARID1B spectrum in 143 patients: from nonsyndromic intellectual disability to Coffin-Siris syndrome.

Authors:
Pleuntje J van der Sluijs Sandra Jansen Samantha A Vergano Miho Adachi-Fukuda Yasemin Alanay Adila AlKindy Anwar Baban Allan Bayat Stefanie Beck-Wödl Katherine Berry Emilia K Bijlsma Levinus A Bok Alwin F J Brouwer Ineke van der Burgt Philippe M Campeau Natalie Canham Krystyna Chrzanowska Yoyo W Y Chu Brain H Y Chung Karin Dahan Marjan De Rademaeker Anne Destree Tracy Dudding-Byth Rachel Earl Nursel Elcioglu Ellen R Elias Christina Fagerberg Alice Gardham Blanca Gener Erica H Gerkes Ute Grasshoff Arie van Haeringen Karin R Heitink Johanna C Herkert Nicolette S den Hollander Denise Horn David Hunt Sarina G Kant Mitsuhiro Kato Hülya Kayserili Rogier Kersseboom Esra Kilic Malgorzata Krajewska-Walasek Kylin Lammers Lone W Laulund Damien Lederer Melissa Lees Vanesa López-González Saskia Maas Grazia M S Mancini Carlo Marcelis Francisco Martinez Isabelle Maystadt Marianne McGuire Shane McKee Sarju Mehta Kay Metcalfe Jeff Milunsky Seiji Mizuno John B Moeschler Christian Netzer Charlotte W Ockeloen Barbara Oehl-Jaschkowitz Nobuhiko Okamoto Sharon N M Olminkhof Carmen Orellana Laurent Pasquier Caroline Pottinger Vera Riehmer Stephen P Robertson Maian Roifman Caroline Rooryck Fabienne G Ropers Monica Rosello Claudia A L Ruivenkamp Mahmut S Sagiroglu Suzanne C E H Sallevelt Amparo Sanchis Calvo Pelin O Simsek-Kiper Gabriela Soares Lucia Solaeche Fatma Mujgan Sonmez Miranda Splitt Duco Steenbeek Alexander P A Stegmann Constance T R M Stumpel Saori Tanabe Eyyup Uctepe G Eda Utine Hermine E Veenstra-Knol Sunita Venkateswaran Catheline Vilain Catherine Vincent-Delorme Anneke T Vulto-van Silfhout Patricia Wheeler Golder N Wilson Louise C Wilson Bernd Wollnik Tomoki Kosho Dagmar Wieczorek Evan Eichler Rolph Pfundt Bert B A de Vries Jill Clayton-Smith Gijs W E Santen

Genet Med 2019 06 8;21(6):1295-1307. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Pathogenic variants in ARID1B are one of the most frequent causes of intellectual disability (ID) as determined by large-scale exome sequencing studies. Most studies published thus far describe clinically diagnosed Coffin-Siris patients (ARID1B-CSS) and it is unclear whether these data are representative for patients identified through sequencing of unbiased ID cohorts (ARID1B-ID). We therefore sought to determine genotypic and phenotypic differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS. In parallel, we investigated the effect of different methods of phenotype reporting.

Methods: Clinicians entered clinical data in an extensive web-based survey.

Results: 79 ARID1B-CSS and 64 ARID1B-ID patients were included. CSS-associated dysmorphic features, such as thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, thick alae nasi, long and/or broad philtrum, small nails and small or absent fifth distal phalanx and hypertrichosis, were observed significantly more often (p < 0.001) in ARID1B-CSS patients. No other significant differences were identified.

Conclusion: There are only minor differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS patients. ARID1B-related disorders seem to consist of a spectrum, and patients should be managed similarly. We demonstrated that data collection methods without an explicit option to report the absence of a feature (such as most Human Phenotype Ontology-based methods) tended to underestimate gene-related features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0330-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752273PMC
June 2019

First evidence of maternally inherited mosaicism in TGFBR1 and subtle primary myocardial changes in Loeys-Dietz syndrome: a case report.

BMC Med Genet 2018 09 15;19(1):170. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Mechanical Assistance Device and Artificial Heart Unit, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital and Research Institute, Rome, Italy.

Background: Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a rare multisystemic disorder characterized by vascular and skeletal abnormalities, with considerable intra- and interfamilial variability.

Case Presentation: We report the case of an 8-year-old male with clinical features of two distinct genetic disorders, namely LDS, manifesting in the first months by progressive aortic root dilatation, arterial tortuosity, bifid uvula, and inguinal hernias and oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) manifesting by white hair and skin that does not tan, nystagmus, reduced iris pigment with iris translucency, and reduced retinal pigment). We identified previously reported, homozygous mutations of TYR, c.1A > G (p.Met1Val) and heterozygous, missense mutation of TGFBR1, c.1460G > A (p.Arg487Gln). Family history revealed that his mother underwent multiple surgical repairs for recurrent hemorrhage originating from the buccal artery. Molecular studies confirmed a maternally inherited low grade TGFBR1 mutation somatic mosaicism (18% in peripheral blood leukocytes, 18% in buccal cells and 10% in hair root cells). Maternal cardiac investigations revealed peculiar cardiovascular features: mild tortuosity at the aortic arch, dilatation of the proximal abdominal aorta, multiple deep left ventricular myocardial crypts, and dysplastic mitral valve. TGFBR2 germline mosaicism has been described in three fathers of children carrying TGFBR2 mutations but, to the best of our knowledge, no case of maternally inherited TGFBR1 mutation mosaicism has been reported so far.

Conclusions: This case report suggests that individuals with somatic mosaicism might be at risk for mild and unusual forms of LDS but germline mosaicism can lead to full blown picture of the disease in offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-018-0661-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6139163PMC
September 2018

Long-term survival and phenotypic spectrum in heterotaxy syndrome: A 25-year follow-up experience.

Int J Cardiol 2018 Oct;268:100-105

Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital and Research Institute, Rome, Italy.

Background: Heterotaxy syndrome (HS) is a group of congenital disorders characterized by abnormal arrangement of thoraco-abdominal organs across the left-right axis of the body, classified as right (RAI) and left atrial isomerism (LAI)·We investigated the long-term survival and phenotypic spectrum in our HS cohort. Results are compared to literature data.

Methods: This is a single centre, observational, both retro and prospective study. Cardiac features, surgical management and abdominal ultrasound (US) of all HS patients were reviewed or investigated if missing. We evaluated all anatomical data and their clinical impact on survival, arrhythmias, infections, and heart transplant (HT).

Results: 136 patients were classified as RAI (81) and LAI (55). Long-term survival and freedom from HT reached 69.8% and 87.8% at 40 years in RAI and LAI, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that LAI is an independent predictor for pacemaker implantation (p = 0.019). Splenic status varied in both groups: in RAI, abdominal US showed asplenia, polysplenia and normal spleen in 48%, 4% and 32% of patients, respectively, whereas in LAI polysplenia, asplenia and normal spleen occurred in 64%, 4% and 16% of cases, respectively.

Conclusions: Mortality was significantly lower (9%) compared to literature (50%). Although patients with RAI experienced a higher mortality, no independent predictors were found. We demonstrated that the obsolete cardiac definition of "asplenia" and "polysplenia" instead of RAI and LAI is misleading, because of the high variability of the splenic phenotype among patients of both groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.02.050DOI Listing
October 2018

Pharmacological resources, diagnostic approach and coordination of care in joint hypermobility-related disorders.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2018 Jul 19;11(7):689-703. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

b Division of Medical Genetics , IRCCS-Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza , San Giovanni Rotondo , FG , Italy.

Introduction: Joint hypermobility (JH) is the hallmark of many hereditary soft connective tissue disorders, including Ehlers-Danlos syndromes and related disorders, disorders of the TGFβ-pathway, lateral meningocele syndrome, arterial tortuosity syndrome, and cutis laxa syndromes. Contemporary practice separates individuals with isolated, non-syndromic JH from patients with Mendelian syndromes and those with hypermobility spectrum disorders. The latter is a new nosologic entity grouping together individuals with JH and related musculoskeletal manifestations, but lacking inclusion criteria for well-defined and/or single-gene disorders. Area covered: Nomenclature of JH and JH-related disorders are summarized on a practically oriented perspective. Critical areas of clinical management comprise pain; cardiovascular and respiratory issues; fatigue and dysautonomia; bone fragility; and capillary, skin and soft tissue fragility. Medical management stands on low-evidence data. Ongoing preclinical and clinical studies are aimed to reach a more personalized pharmacological approach to the management of the cardiovascular risk, musculoskeletal pain, and reduced bone mass. Expert commentary: Correct classification of patients with JH-related disorders needs a systematic approach, in which a wide array of molecular tests should be intermingled with strong clinical competences in highly specialized settings. A multispecialty, hierarchical approach should be encouraged for optimal coordination of care in systemic phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2018.1497973DOI Listing
July 2018

Bradyarrhythmias in Repaired Atrioventricular Septal Defects: Single-Center Experience Based on 34 Years of Follow-Up of 522 Patients.

Pediatr Cardiol 2018 Dec 13;39(8):1590-1597. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Arrhythmia Unit, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital and Research Institute, Piazza Sant'Onofrio, 4, 00050, Rome, Italy.

Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) is a rare congenital heart defect (CHD) often associated with genetic syndromes, most commonly Down syndrome (DS). Over the last four decades, surgical repair has increased survival and improved quality of life in these patients. The prevalence of bradyarrhythmias namely, atrioventricular block (AVB) and sinus node dysfunction (SND) in AVSD is partially known. 522 cases with both partial and complete AVSD (38.7% with DS), undergoing intracardiac repair from 1982 to 2016 at our institution, were reviewed from our system database. 38 (7.3%) patients received permanent PM implantation for AVB (early or late) or SND. On one hand, AVB requiring PM was found in 26 (4.98%). This was further subdivided into early-onset 14 (2.6%) and late-onset AVB 12 (2.2%) (median 4 [IQR 1-7] years). On the other hand, 12 (2.3%) experienced late SND requiring PM (median 11 [IQR 3.5-15.2] years). Early and late AVB were independent from the type of AVSD (partial or complete), whereas the late SND was remarkably observed in complete AVSD compared to partial AVSD (p = 0.017). We classified the cohort into two main categories: DS (202, 38.7%) and non-DS (320, 61.3%). At Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, DS was significantly associated with late-onset bradyarrhythmias (p = 0.024). At Cox regression analysis, we identified DS as an independent predictor of PM implantation (HR 2.17). In conclusion, about 7% of repaired AVSD patients need PM implantation during follow-up. There are no differences in early and late AVB occurrence according to the type of AVSD. There is a higher incidence of late SND in repaired complete AVSD, with a later timing onset in patients with associated DS. Moreover, DS seems to be an independent predictor of PM implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-018-1934-4DOI Listing
December 2018

Some Isolated Cardiac Malformations Can Be Related to Laterality Defects.

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2018 May 2;5(2). Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Human beings are characterized by a left⁻right asymmetric arrangement of their internal organs, and the heart is the first organ to break symmetry in the developing embryo. Aberrations in normal left⁻right axis determination during embryogenesis lead to a wide spectrum of abnormal internal laterality phenotypes, including and . In more than 90% of instances, the latter condition is accompanied by complex and severe cardiovascular malformations. Atrioventricular canal defect and transposition of the great arteries—which are particularly frequent in the setting of —are commonly found in with or without genetic syndromes. Here, we review current data on morphogenesis of the heart in human beings and animal models, familial recurrence, and upstream genetic pathways of left⁻right determination in order to highlight how some isolated congenital heart diseases, very common in , even in the setting of , may actually be considered in the pathogenetic field of laterality defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5020024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6023464PMC
May 2018

Data on cardiac defects, morbidity and mortality in patients affected by RASopathies. CARNET study results.

Data Brief 2018 Feb 2;16:649-654. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

A comprehensive description of morbidity and mortality in patients affected by mutations in genes encoding for signal transducers of the RAS-MAPK cascade (RASopathies) was performed in our study recently published in the International Journal of Cardiology. Seven European cardiac centres participating to the CArdiac Rasopathy NETwork (CARNET), collaborated in this multicentric, observational, retrospective data analysis and collection. In this study, clinical records of 371 patients with confirmed molecular diagnosis of RASopathy were reviewed. Cardiac defects, crude mortality, survival rate of patients with 1) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and age <2 years or young adults; 2) individuals with Noonan syndrome and pulmonary stenosis carrying mutations; 3) biventricular obstruction and mutations; 4) Costello syndrome or cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome were analysed. Mortality was described as crude mortality, cumulative survival and restricted estimated mean survival. In particular, with this Data In Brief (DIB) paper, the authors aim to report specific statistic highlights of the multivariable regression analysis that was used to assess the impact of mutated genes on number of interventions and overall prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.11.085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5847490PMC
February 2018