Publications by authors named "Anwar Ahmed"

180 Publications

SDS modulates amyloid fibril formation and conformational change in succinyl-ConA at low pH.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Oct 13;267(Pt 1):120494. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is homologous to the cellular membrane lipids, and is known to stimulate amyloid fibrillation in several proteins. However, the mechanism by which SDS influences aggregation and structural changes in succinylated protein has not been determined. In this study, we observed the effects of variable SDS concentrations on succinyl-ConA aggregation at pH 3.5 and proposed a possible mechanism of SDS-induced succinyl-ConA aggregation. We used several biophysical techniques to identify the changes caused by SDS. Our results suggest that SDS stimulates succinyl-ConA aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. From turbidity measurements, it was evident that a very low concentration (<0.1 mM) of SDS did not induce succinyl-ConA aggregation and proteins remained soluble. However, aggregations were observed at 0.1-2.5 mM SDS, which then dissipated at SDS concentrations above 2.5 mM. Far-UV CD results suggest that the β-sheet secondary structure of succinyl-ConA transformed into the cross-β-sheet structure in the presence of aggregating SDS concentrations. Notably, at SDS concentrations above 2.5 mM, the succinyl-ConA β-sheet transformed into an α-helical structure. The SDS-induced succinyl-ConA amyloid-like aggregates were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We propose that SDS modulates amyloid fibrillation in succinyl-ConA due to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and succinylation affects SDS-induced succinyl-ConA aggregation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120494DOI Listing
October 2021

Bilateral Cerebral Hemorrhagic Infarctions: An Early Presentation of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

Cureus 2021 Sep 6;13(9):e17772. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is one of the most common causes of morbidity secondary to accidental or intentional exposure. It is a potentially life-threatening disease. We present the case of a 23-year-old male patient who slept with a gas generator the whole night in a closed room. The next morning the patient presented to emergency with altered mentation. His Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8/15 on arrival. The patient had cerebral hemorrhages on presentation with diffuse cerebral hypoxic injury and bilateral globus pallidus signals. Hemorrhagic infarction in the brain is a rare presentation of CO poisoning and even rarer as an early manifestation of this disease. We present a case of bilateral posterior cerebral hemorrhagic infarctions with a diffuse hypoxic insult as an early presentation of CO poisoning in a young male, which to our knowledge has rarely been reported. Early imaging and prompt medical attention can be life-saving.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.17772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494245PMC
September 2021

Role of "dual-personality" fragments in HEV adaptation-analysis of Y-domain region.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 Oct 12;19(1):154. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.

Background: Hepatitis E is a liver disease caused by the pathogen hepatitis E virus (HEV). The largest polyprotein open reading frame 1 (ORF1) contains a nonstructural Y-domain region (YDR) whose activity in HEV adaptation remains uncharted. The specific role of disordered regions in several nonstructural proteins has been demonstrated to participate in the multiplication and multiple regulatory functions of the viruses. Thus, intrinsic disorder of YDR including its structural and functional annotation was comprehensively studied by exploiting computational methodologies to delineate its role in viral adaptation.

Results: Based on our findings, it was evident that YDR contains significantly higher levels of ordered regions with less prevalence of disordered residues. Sequence-based analysis of YDR revealed it as a "dual personality" (DP) protein due to the presence of both structured and unstructured (intrinsically disordered) regions. The evolution of YDR was shaped by pressures that lead towards predominance of both disordered and regularly folded amino acids (Ala, Arg, Gly, Ile, Leu, Phe, Pro, Ser, Tyr, Val). Additionally, the predominance of characteristic DP residues (Thr, Arg, Gly, and Pro) further showed the order as well as disorder characteristic possessed by YDR. The intrinsic disorder propensity analysis of YDR revealed it as a moderately disordered protein. All the YDR sequences consisted of molecular recognition features (MoRFs), i.e., intrinsic disorder-based protein-protein interaction (PPI) sites, in addition to several nucleotide-binding sites. Thus, the presence of molecular recognition (PPI, RNA binding, and DNA binding) signifies the YDR's interaction with specific partners, host membranes leading to further viral infection. The presence of various disordered-based phosphorylation sites further signifies the role of YDR in various biological processes. Furthermore, functional annotation of YDR revealed it as a multifunctional-associated protein, due to its susceptibility in binding to a wide range of ligands and involvement in various catalytic activities.

Conclusions: As DP are targets for regulation, thus, YDR contributes to cellular signaling processes through PPIs. As YDR is incompletely understood, therefore, our data on disorder-based function could help in better understanding its associated functions. Collectively, our novel data from this comprehensive investigation is the first attempt to delineate YDR role in the regulation and pathogenesis of HEV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43141-021-00238-8DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of influenza vaccine in reduction of incidence and severity of influenza-like illness.

East Mediterr Health J 2021 Sep 21;27(9):884-891. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Vaccination is useful for protection against seasonal influenza but has a low uptake. Evidence of a protective effect of influenza vaccine among Arab populations would be a useful tool for advocacy.

Aims: To evaluate the impact of vaccine in reducing the incidence and severity of influenza-like illness among health staff of a tertiary care eye hospital in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2018-2019. Hospital staff were divided into vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. Influenza-like illness episodes and their severity were compared between the groups and influenza-like illness rate before and after vaccination was reviewed in the vaccinated group.

Results: The uptake of flu vaccine among 1180 health staff was 41%. There were 28 (9.3%) and 51 (17%) persons with influenza-like illness in the vaccinated (n = 300) and nonvaccinated (n = 300) groups, respectively. The nonvaccinated group had a significantly higher rate of influenza-like illness than the vaccinated group had. Vaccination, young age and absence of comorbidity were independent protectors against influenza-like illness.

Conclusions: Influenza vaccine confers significant protection and reduces the incidence and severity of influenza-like illness. However, this was a retrospective review of health data; therefore, the association of vaccine with outcomes should be considered as a weak form of evidence. The low uptake of influenza vaccine in hospital staff and their dependents is a matter of concern and should be addressed by greater awareness and education. This evidence can be used to improve overall vaccine coverage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/emhj.21.041DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of Urate-Elevating Inosine on Early Parkinson Disease Progression: The SURE-PD3 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2021 09;326(10):926-939

University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Importance: Urate elevation, despite associations with crystallopathic, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders, has been pursued as a potential disease-modifying strategy for Parkinson disease (PD) based on convergent biological, epidemiological, and clinical data.

Objective: To determine whether sustained urate-elevating treatment with the urate precursor inosine slows early PD progression.

Design, Participants, And Setting: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of oral inosine treatment in early PD. A total of 587 individuals consented, and 298 with PD not yet requiring dopaminergic medication, striatal dopamine transporter deficiency, and serum urate below the population median concentration (<5.8 mg/dL) were randomized between August 2016 and December 2017 at 58 US sites, and were followed up through June 2019.

Interventions: Inosine, dosed by blinded titration to increase serum urate concentrations to 7.1-8.0 mg/dL (n = 149) or matching placebo (n = 149) for up to 2 years.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was rate of change in the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS; parts I-III) total score (range, 0-236; higher scores indicate greater disability; minimum clinically important difference of 6.3 points) prior to dopaminergic drug therapy initiation. Secondary outcomes included serum urate to measure target engagement, adverse events to measure safety, and 29 efficacy measures of disability, quality of life, cognition, mood, autonomic function, and striatal dopamine transporter binding as a biomarker of neuronal integrity.

Results: Based on a prespecified interim futility analysis, the study closed early, with 273 (92%) of the randomized participants (49% women; mean age, 63 years) completing the study. Clinical progression rates were not significantly different between participants randomized to inosine (MDS-UPDRS score, 11.1 [95% CI, 9.7-12.6] points per year) and placebo (MDS-UPDRS score, 9.9 [95% CI, 8.4-11.3] points per year; difference, 1.26 [95% CI, -0.59 to 3.11] points per year; P = .18). Sustained elevation of serum urate by 2.03 mg/dL (from a baseline level of 4.6 mg/dL; 44% increase) occurred in the inosine group vs a 0.01-mg/dL change in serum urate in the placebo group (difference, 2.02 mg/dL [95% CI, 1.85-2.19 mg/dL]; P<.001). There were no significant differences for secondary efficacy outcomes including dopamine transporter binding loss. Participants randomized to inosine, compared with placebo, experienced fewer serious adverse events (7.4 vs 13.1 per 100 patient-years) but more kidney stones (7.0 vs 1.4 stones per 100 patient-years).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients recently diagnosed as having PD, treatment with inosine, compared with placebo, did not result in a significant difference in the rate of clinical disease progression. The findings do not support the use of inosine as a treatment for early PD.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02642393.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.10207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441591PMC
September 2021

Ophthalmologists perceived usefulness of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) for evaluating the mental health of patients with chronic eye diseases.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 13:11206721211044634. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: To evaluate the awareness of ophthalmologists about assessing the mental health of patients and usefulness of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) survey.

Methods: This web-based survey was performed in 2020 at an eye hospital in Saudi Arabia. Participants included ophthalmologists and physicians. Participants were queried on the need to assess mental health of patients, usefulness of the screening tool, and barriers to assessment. Their responses were graded on a Likert scale and Rasch analysis was performed.

Results: Of the 100 participants, 72 were aware of assessing mental health of eye patients and 82 expressed about limited skills for such assessment. The median score for perceived usefulness of the PHQ-9 as screening tool to suspect depression was -1.0 (inter quartile range, -1.0: 0.0) [Mean Rasch score = -0.735]. The median score of perceived usefulness for the GAD-7 as screening tool to suspect anxiety was -1.0 (inter quartile range, -1.0: 0.0) [Mean Rasch score = -0.695]. The PHQ-9 related score was significantly correlated to "30-39 years" age group (Kruskal Wallis  = 0.04) and non-Saudi professionals (Mann Whitney  = 0.005). The GAD-7 related score was significantly correlated to non-Saudi professionals (Mann Whitney  = 0.04). The mental health related score was significantly and negatively correlated to the "40-59 years" age group (Kruskal Wallis  = 0.04).

Conclusions: Although awareness of mental health assessment was high, eyecare professionals felt with inadequate training for performing the screening. PHQ-9 seems to be more acceptable to screen for depression than GAD-7 for screening anxiety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11206721211044634DOI Listing
September 2021

Bladder Endometriosis Masquerading as Bladder Tumor: The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnosis.

Cureus 2021 Jul 3;13(7):e16133. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Bladder endometriosis is an infrequent cause of a focal bladder mass and may masquerade as a neoplasm on ultrasound imaging. This diagnostic dilemma can be resolved with a multiparametric MRI, which shows characteristic hemorrhagic signals of this entity. We present an unusual case of bladder endometriosis where the patient complained of lower abdominal pain without urinary symptoms and was found to have a bladder mass on ultrasonography. This mass was further investigated by an MRI of the pelvis, which revealed characteristic features of endometriosis; the diagnosis was confirmed on subsequent laparoscopy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.16133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8327303PMC
July 2021

Prevalence and determinants of methicillin-resistant aureus and methicillin-sensitive aureus carrier among staff of a tertiary eye hospital in Saudi Arabia.

Oman J Ophthalmol 2021 May-Aug;14(2):88-93. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Research, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) carriers among staff of a tertiary eye hospital in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in 2019. Nasal and axillary swabs of health-care staff were used to determine carriers of MRSA. Bacteria were identified by culture and sensitivity tests. These isolates were grouped as antibiotic resistant, sensitive, and others not in the group. Demographics and other determinants were associated with carrier status.

Results: We evaluated the carrier status of 430 staff. There were 110 (24.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.5, 29.7) -positive staff, 21 (11.7%; 95% CI: 11.7, 26.4) of who carried the MRSA strain. Carrier status was significantly higher among physicians (31%) compared to nurses (22.5%) and other staff (5.7%) ( < 0.001). MRSA carrier status was significantly associated with >5 years of employment at the eye hospital ( = 0.02). MRSA was significantly associated with staff who were of Indian nationality (75%) compared to other nationalities ( = 0.04) and those who were at the hospital for <5-year stay compared more than 5 years at the hospital ( = 0.001). All carriers responded to decolonization treatment.

Conclusions: The high prevalence of MRSA and relatively easy treat MRSA carriers points at the need for universal screening for MRSA carriers among eye health staff.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ojo.ojo_98_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300282PMC
June 2021

Epidemiology of Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in the United States: Analysis of NEISS Database 2000 to 2019.

Phys Sportsmed 2021 Jul 30:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Dept. Of Athletics, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA.

Objective: There have been numerous case series of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) but no comprehensive studies investigating the incidence of ER in the civilian athletic population in the United States (US).

Methods: A retrospective review of patients with ER presenting to emergency departments in the US over a 20-year period between 2000 and 2019 was performed using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database.

Results: The national estimate of hospital visits in the US for ER during the 20-year period was 40,654 (0.66 per 100,000 population). There was a 10-fold increase in the incidence of ER from the first to the second decade. The odds of ER were 3.77 (95% CI 3.67-3.86, P < .0001) times higher for males (31,921, 78.5%, 1.06 per 100,000) than females (8,733, 21.5%, 0.28 per 100,000) and 3.82 (95% CI 3.71-3.93, P < .0001) higher in African Americans (33.6, 0.93 per 100,000) than white patients (53%, 0.24 per 100,000). American football (3,064, 7.5%) was responsible for 43.9% of the sports-induced ER cases. The majority (67.3%) of ER cases occurred between the ages of 16 and 35 years old. The majority of patients required hospitalization (26,550, 65.3%).

Conclusions: The number of ER cases presenting to emergency departments in the US increased from 2000-2009 to 2010-2019. Young males and African Americans are at highest risk of ER. There was a high rate of hospitalization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00913847.2021.1956288DOI Listing
July 2021

Experience with modified two stage inner preputial flap for repair of proximal hypospadias with chordee: A single institution study with intermediate follow up.

J Pediatr Surg 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Urology, Urology and Nephrology Hospital, Minia University, School of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

Purpose: We present our modified technique of using the inner preputial flap to cover the penile shaft, while removing the subcutaneous tissue of the distal part of the flap to act similar to graft. Herein, we present our experience with modified two stage inner preputial flap for repair of proximal hypospadias with chordee.

Patients And Methods: The current study was a single-institution retrospective study between January 2016 and December 2020. Thirty-one patients with proximal hypospadias with chordee were included and underwent our modified technique. We excluded re-operative hypospadias and incomplete follow-up cases (<6 month of follow up). Patient demographics, outcomes and complications in the form of fistula formation, diverticulum, metal stenosis, stricture formation and glans dehiscence were reviewed.

Results: A total of 31 patients were included in the study and underwent our modified technique. The median age was 18 months (9-60) & IQR 15-25). The median follow up was 40 months. Overall, success was achieved in 24 cases (77.4%). Complications occurred in seven cases (22.6%) and included urethrocutanous fistula in three patients (9.7%), diverticulum in two patients (6.5.%), metal stenosis in one patient (3.2%) and glans dehiscence in one patient (3.2%).

Conclusion: Our technique provides a favourable outcome with a low complication rate for repair of proximal severe hypospadias.

Level Of Evidence: Case Series Study (Level IV).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2021.05.024DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of Yunanan Baiyao adjunct therapy on postoperative recovery and clinical prognosis of patients with traumatic brain injury: A randomized controlled trial.

Phytomedicine 2021 Aug 14;89:153593. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, The first Medical Center of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China. Electronic address:

Background: Effective therapies are needed to prevent the secondary injury and poor prognosis associated with emergency craniotomy of traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Hypothesis/purpose: The wound-healing medicine Yunnan Baiyao (YB) and Xingnaojing (XNJ) adjunct-therapy may improve the outcome of orthodox mono-therapy (OT).

Study Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Methods: Eighty patients with moderate-to-severe TBI received emergency craniotomy (within 12 h after TBI) at the Chinese PLA General Hospital before being randomly assigned to 4 different treatments (n = 20) for 7 days: 1) OT; 2) OT+XNJ (i.v. 20 ml/daily); 3) OT+low dose-YB (oral, 1,000 mg/day); 4) OT+high dose-YB, 2,000 mg/day).

Results: GCS score was improved more quickly and became significantly higher in XNJ, l-YB, h-YB groups than in OT group (p<0.01). Serum S100B peaked higher but declined more slowly in OT group than in other groups (p<0.01). On postoperative Day 7, S100B was 20% below baseline in YB and XNJ groups but remained 19% above baseline in OT group which also lost 38% of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity on Day 3 and recovered 69% of SOD on Day 7 whereas the YB and XNJ groups lost 16%∼23% of SOD activity on Day 3 and recovered 92%∼99% of SOD on Day 7 (p<0.01). Clinical prognosis (Glasgow Outcome Scale and Karnofsky Performance Scale) were significantly better (25%∼30%) in the XNJ, l-YB and h-YB groups than in OT group 3 months post-surgery and were correlated with serum S100B and SOD.

Conclusions: YB and XNJ adjunct therapies improved postoperative recovery and clinical prognosis in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI partly through divergent regulation of S100B and SOD pathways. (The trial was registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) trial registration number: ChiCTR2000030280).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153593DOI Listing
August 2021

E-cigarette and dual product use as an emerging health threat to the US military.

Tob Prev Cessat 2021 4;7:43. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, United States.

Introduction: Cigarette and e-cigarette use are threats to the health and readiness of the US military. The study objective was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with e-cigarette, cigarette, and dual use among active duty service members (SMs).

Methods: We used data from the 2015 Health Related Behaviors Survey-a crosssectional survey weighted to represent the US military (n=16699). Weighted prevalence and odds ratios assessed associations between risk factors and e-cigarette/cigarette use via weighted multinomial logistic models.

Results: The prevalence of cigarette use in the US military declined from 24% in 2011 to 13.8% in 2015. However, e-cigarette use (12.4%) and dual product use (4.7%) increased during this period. Additionally, prevalence of e-cigarette use was higher in the military compared to the general population (12.4% vs 3.5%), particularly among those aged 17-24 years (22.8% vs 5.2%); cigarette use was also higher in the military in this age group (19.3% vs 13.0%). After adjustment, SMs who were enlisted, lacked a Bachelor's degree, and/or had probable alcohol use disorder had significantly greater odds of cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual use. While SMs aged 17-24 years had the highest prevalence of all types of product use, only being aged ≥45 years was significantly associated with decreased odds of product use in adjusted models.

Conclusions: Military efforts to control cigarette use among SMs seem to have been successful, as demonstrated by the dramatic declines in its use and the lower prevalence seen in the military compared to the general population. However, the concurrent increases in e-cigarette use are concerning, particularly among the youngest members of the military. The US military must continue to monitor emerging trends in e-cigarette, cigarette, and dual use and rapidly take steps to address them as threats to health and readiness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tpc/135516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176862PMC
June 2021

Structural Refolding and Thermal Stability of Myoglobin in the Presence of Mixture of Crowders: Importance of Various Interactions for Protein Stabilization in Crowded Conditions.

Molecules 2021 May 10;26(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India.

The intracellular environment is overcrowded with a range of molecules (small and large), all of which influence protein conformation. As a result, understanding how proteins fold and stay functional in such crowded conditions is essential. Several in vitro experiments have looked into the effects of macromolecular crowding on different proteins. However, there are hardly any reports regarding small molecular crowders used alone and in mixtures to observe their effects on the structure and stability of the proteins, which mimics of the cellular conditions. Here we investigate the effect of different mixtures of crowders, ethylene glycol (EG) and its polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 Da) on the structural and thermal stability of myoglobin (Mb). Our results show that monomer (EG) has no significant effect on the structure of Mb, while the polymer disrupts its structure and decreases its stability. Conversely, the additive effect of crowders showed structural refolding of the protein to some extent. Moreover, the calorimetric binding studies of the protein showed very weak interactions with the mixture of crowders. Usually, we can assume that soft interactions induce structural perturbations while exclusion volume effects stabilize the protein structure; therefore, we hypothesize that under in vivo crowded conditions, both phenomena occur and maintain the stability and function of proteins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126177PMC
May 2021

Structural Characterization and Binding Studies of the Ectodomain G Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Reveal the Crucial Role of pH with Possible Implications in Host-Pathogen Interactions.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 7;6(15):10403-10414. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading viral pathogen causing acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. The G protein of RSV is involved in attachment with the host cell. It is a neutralizing antigen and thus a vaccine candidate. Heparan sulfate is a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) present on the host cell membrane that is involved in attachment with the G protein of RSV. We describe a novel approach for efficient expression and purification of the ectodomain G protein in the prokaryotic system and its biophysical characterization. The native ectodomain G protein was purified using a two-step process by Ni-NTA and DEAE weak anion-exchange chromatography through the supernatant obtained after cell lysis. In addition, the denatured form of the protein was also purified from the solubilized inclusion bodies (IBs) by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography with a higher yield. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was performed to confirm the homogeneity of the purified protein. The effect of pH on the stability and structure of the purified protein was studied by circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence, and absorbance spectroscopy techniques. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and microscale thermophoresis (MST) were exploited to demonstrate the interaction of heparan sulfate with the ectodomain G protein. The dynamic light scattering results showed that the purified protein was homogenic and had a well-folded native conformation. Biophysical characterization of the protein revealed that it was stable and had intact secondary and tertiary structures at pH 7.5. CD analysis revealed that the protein showed a loss in the secondary structure at pH values 5.5 and 3.5, while absorbance spectroscopy suggested a stable tertiary structure at pH values 7.5 and 5.5 with a probable aggregation pattern at pH 3.5. This loss in the structure of the ectodomain G protein at low pH can be correlated with its physiological activity. A slight change in pH might play a crucial role in host-pathogen interactions. The fluorescence intensity of the protein decreased on moving toward a lower pH with no spectral shift in emission maxima. In addition, isothermal titration calorimetry and microscale thermophoresis results showed strong binding affinity of the ectodomain G protein with heparan sulfate. The binding of heparan sulfate with protein was probably due to the electrostatic interaction of positively charged amino acid residues of the heparin-binding domain of the protein and the negatively charged group of GAGs. Future studies may involve the development of possible therapeutic agents interacting with the G protein and affecting the overall charge and pH that might hinder the host-pathogen interaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153753PMC
April 2021

Results of two-stage transverse preputial island flap urethroplasty for proximal hypospadias with chordee that mandate division of the urethral plate.

Cent European J Urol 2021 15;74(1):89-94. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

University Hospital, School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Minia, Egypt.

Introduction: Reconstruction of proximal hypospadias with chordee remains a difficult task. Our work aims to evaluate the role of two-stage transverse preputial island flap urethroplasty for repair of proximal hypospadias with chordee.

Material And Methods: This is a retrospective study including 57 children who underwent two-stage transverse preputial island flap urethroplasty. Glans meatus shaft (GMS) score was applied to 24 cases. Patient's characteristics, operative details and complications were assessed. Hypospadias objective scoring evaluation was used for postoperative assessment.

Results: The mean age at the first stage operation was 23.6 months (9-84); the mean time interval between the first and second stage operations was 8.1 months (6-12) and the mean follow-up duration was 52.1 months (24-96). Urethral meatus was proximal penile in 18 patients, penoscrotal in 24 and scrotal in 15. The mean degree of ventral curvature (VC) was 51.5° (30-90). After the second stage operation, postoperative complications occurred in 16 (28.1%) patients with urethrocutaneous fistula in 6 (10.5%) cases, diverticulum in 3 (5.3%), glans dehiscence in 5 (8.8%) and meatal stenosis in 2 (3.5%). All cases of glans dehiscence occurred in severe hypospadias and small glans. Moderate GMS score was present in 10 (41.7%) cases and severe GMS in 14 (58.3%). Complications occurred in 7 (29.1%) patients with 5 (20.8%) with a severe GMS score and 2 (8.3%) with a moderate GMS score. The hypospadias objective scoring evaluation showed satisfactory results, with 39 (68.4%) patients achieving a score of 16 points.

Conclusions: Two-stage transverse preputial flap is a good choice for repair of proximal hypospadias with an acceptable complication rate of 28.1%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2021.0245.R2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097640PMC
January 2021

Crowding Milleu stabilizes apo-myoglobin against chemical-induced denaturation: Dominance of hardcore repulsions in the heme devoid protein.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 17;181:552-560. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025, India. Electronic address:

Macromolecular crowding can have significant consequences on the structure and dynamics of a protein. The size and shape of a co-solute molecule and the nature of protein contribute significantly in macromolecular crowding, which results in different outcomes in similar conditions. The structure of apo-myoglobin (apo-Mb) both in the absence and presence of denaturants (GdmCl and urea) was investigated in crowded conditions at pH 7.0, with a comparable size of crowders (~70 kDa) but of different shapes (ficoll and dextran) at various concentrations using spectroscopic techniques like absorption and circular dichroism to monitor changes in secondary and tertiary structure, respectively. The crowders in the absence of denaturants showed structural stabilization of the tertiary structure while no significant change in the secondary structure was observed. The effect of crowders on the stability of the protein was also investigated using probes such as Δε and θ using chemical denaturants. The analysis of chemical-induced denaturation curves showed that both the crowders stabilize apo-Mb by increasing the values of the midpoint of transition (C) and change in free energy in the absence of denaturant (∆G°), and it was observed that dextran 70 shows more stabilization than ficoll 70 under similar conditions. In this study apo-Mb showed stabilization under crowded conditions, which is a deviation from earlier work from our group where holo form of the same protein was destabilized. This study emphasizes that volume exclusion is a dominant force in a simple protein while soft interactions may play important role in the proteins that are possessing prosthetic group. Hence, the effect of crowders is protein-dependent, and excluded volume plays a great role in the stabilization of apo-Mb, which does not interact with the crowders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.03.089DOI Listing
June 2021

Gait analysis in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

Behav Brain Res 2021 05 24;405:113210. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Neuroscience Graduate Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA; Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA. Electronic address:

Gait disruptions following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted in the clinical population. To date, thorough analysis of gait changes in animal models of TBI to allow for correlation of pathological alterations and utilization of this as a therapeutic outcome have been limited. We therefore assessed gait using the DigiGait analysis system as well as overall locomotion using the Beam Walk test in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats following a commonly used model of TBI, parietal lobe controlled cortical impact (CCI). Rats underwent DigiGait baseline analysis 24 h prior to injury, followed by a moderate CCI in the left parietal lobe. Performance on the DigiGait was then assessed at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days post-injury, followed by histological analysis of brain tissue. Beam walk analysis showed a transient but significant impairment acutely after injury. Despite observance of gait disturbance in the clinical population, TBI in the parietal lobe of rats resulted in limited alterations in hind or forelimb function. General hindlimb locomotion showed significant but transient impairment. Significant changes in gait were observed to last through the sub-acute period, including right hindpaw angle of rotation and left forelimb and right hindlimb swing phase duration. Slight changes that did not reach statistical significant but may reflect subtle impacts of TBI on gait were reflected in several other measures, such as stride duration, stance duration and stance width. These results demonstrate that moderate-severe injury to the parietal cortex and underlying structures including corpus callosum, hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia result in slight changes to gait that can be detected using the Digigait analysis system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113210DOI Listing
May 2021

Prevention of stone retropulsion during ureteroscopy: Limitations in resources invites revival of old techniques.

Arab J Urol 2020 Aug 13;18(4):252-256. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

School of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.

Objective: To compare a modified technique using the Dormia basket vs Stone Cone for stone entrapment to avoid proximal stone migration during ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy of ureteric stones.

Patients And Methods: Our study included all patients with ureteric stones of <15 mm who underwent ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy from January 2015 to September 2018. The study had two arms that were conducted over two consecutive periods; the first included 72 patients in whom we used the Stone Cone (Group 1) and the second included 86 patients in whom we started to use a Dormia basket with a modification (Group 2) to guard against proximal stone migration.

Results: Both groups were comparable for gender, age, and stone characteristics. Lower ureteric stones were the most prevalent as they represented 62.5% and 60.5% in groups 1 and 2, respectively; while upper ureteric stones were respectively found in 16.7% and 17.4%. Chemical stone analysis revealed that calcium oxalate stones were most predominant accounting for 51.3% and 51.1% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Most of the stones were radio-opaque stones representing 57% and 58.1% in groups 1 and 2, respectively. There was a significant difference in operative time, with a mean (SD) operative time was 50.9 (11.2) in Group 1 vs 58.3 (12.4) min in Group 2 ( < 0.001). The success rate, defined as no retropulsion of stone fragments, was 97.7% in Group 2 vs 91.7% in Group 1 ( < 0.01). Complications were minor and comparable between the groups. There was no difference in hospital stay between the groups, but the cost assessment favoured Group 2.

Conclusion: We found that our modified-basket stone entrapment technique compared favourably with the Stone Cone to guard against stone retropulsion during ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy. Our modification to the basket was found to be feasible, efficient, safe, reproducible and cost-effective in preventing proximal stone migration. This procedure is particularly suitable in cost-limited environments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2090598X.2020.1805966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717714PMC
August 2020

The transcriptome of circulating sexually committed Plasmodium falciparum ring stage parasites forecasts malaria transmission potential.

Nat Commun 2020 12 2;11(1):6159. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Malaria is spread by the transmission of sexual stage parasites, called gametocytes. However, with Plasmodium falciparum, gametocytes can only be detected in peripheral blood when they are mature and transmissible to a mosquito, which complicates control efforts. Here, we identify the set of genes overexpressed in patient blood samples with high levels of gametocyte-committed ring stage parasites. Expression of all 18 genes is regulated by transcription factor AP2-G, which is required for gametocytogenesis. We select three genes, not expressed in mature gametocytes, to develop as biomarkers. All three biomarkers we validate in vitro using 6 different parasite lines and develop an algorithm that predicts gametocyte production in ex vivo samples and volunteer infection studies. The biomarkers are also sensitive enough to monitor gametocyte production in asymptomatic P. falciparum carriers allowing early detection and treatment of infectious reservoirs, as well as the in vivo analysis of factors that modulate sexual conversion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19988-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710746PMC
December 2020

Circulation of dengue virus serotypes in hyperendemic region of New Delhi, India during 2011-2017.

J Infect Public Health 2020 Dec 2;13(12):1912-1919. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Background: Dengue fever has become a hampering menace in New Delhi India, since the disease has become hyperendemic, due to circulation of multiple serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). This hyperendemicity poses a greater risk of secondary infections in human health system. This is a major issue which leads to apprehension amongst the researchers and health organizations and thus requires regular epidemiological surveillance.

Methods: We analyzed the prevalence and serotypic distribution of dengue fever cases reported from the Southern part of New Delhi during continued surveillance from 2011 to 2017. The blood samples for the investigation were obtained from the patients suspected with dengue fever attending the OPD at a local Health Centre. The data for 2011-2016 was already published from our laboratory. The samples collected during 2017 were serotyped and characterized in the present study.

Results: A total of 565 samples (59%) were positive for DENV of 958 samples tested by RT-PCR during 7 years (2011-2017). Our study has shown that most infections were caused by DENV-2 during 2011-2015. The data has shown occurrence of all four serotypes of DENV during 2015 and predominance of DENV-3 in 2016 and 2017. Further, predominant combination of DENV-1 and DENV-2 was found in most of the co-infections. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study showing the epidemiological trend of dengue fever in reference to the circulating DENV serotypes and co-infections from a hyperendemic region of New Delhi during 2011-2017.

Conclusions: This hyperendemic pattern of DENV and instantaneous shift in circulation of its serotypes is likely pose a greater risk of secondary infections. Inclusion of comprehensive community and hospital surveillance of dengue fever will assist in formulation and implementation of effective control measures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2020.10.009DOI Listing
December 2020

Vancomycin in ICU Patients with Gram-Positive Infections: Initial Trough Levels and Mortality.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2020 14;16:979-987. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, College of Public Health and Health Informatics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Vancomycin is one of the most common therapeutic agents for treating gram-positive infections, particularly in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with initial therapeutic vancomycin trough levels and mortality in a tertiary-care intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 301 adult ICU patients admitted to King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh between October 1, 2017 and December 31, 2018 with confirmed gram-positive infections and received intravenous vancomycin. Vancomycin trough levels of 15-20 mg/L for severe infections and 10-15 mg/L for less severe infections were considered therapeutic.

Results: The patients were relatively older with a mean age of 60 (SD ±20) years. Initial vancomycin trough levels were therapeutic in 168 (55.8%). Factors associated with initial therapeutic vancomycin trough levels were female gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.575), older age (aOR=1.024), receiving a loading dose (aOR=2.445), having bacteremia (aOR=2.061), and high platelet count (aOR=1.003). On the other hand, the increase of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (aOR=0.993) and albumin levels (aOR=0.944) were associated with lower odds of initial therapeutic vancomycin trough levels. Factors associated with higher mortality were female gender (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=2.630), increased body weight (aHR=1.021), cancer (aHR=3.451), and high APACHE II score (aHR=1.068).

Conclusion: The study identified several factors associated with achieving initial therapeutic vancomycin trough levels (i.e. older age, female gender, receiving a loading dose, bacteremia, high platelets count, low eGFR and albumin level). These factors should be considered in the dosing of vancomycin in critically ill patients with gram-positive infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S266295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569025PMC
October 2020

Optimization of expression and purification of mitochondrial HSP 40 (Tid1-L) chaperone: Role of mortalin and tid1 in the reactivation and amyloid inhibition of proteins.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Nov 10;27(11):3099-3105. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Central Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Stimulation of complex chaperone activity may be a viable means of therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. These chaperons execute reactivation of thermally and chemically aggregated protein substrates by cooperating with their partner co-chaperons. We optimized the expression and purification conditions of Tid1-L chaperone. Expression of Tid1-L in resulted in the formation of inclusion bodies which was further purified to soluble active form using 8 M urea and Ni-NTA column. Also, we investigated the events of the reactivation and disaggregation using aggregated G6PDH, luciferase and insulin as substrates. Incubation of aggregated/denatured enzymes with mortalin but not with Tid1 and/or Mge1 resulted in the initiation of the disaggregation reaction albeit very insignificantly. Under the same conditions coincubating the samples with chaperon and its assisted partners Tid1-L and nucleotide exchange factor Mge1 led to (40%) increase in enzyme activity of G6PDH. Similarly, luciferase activity was synergistically enhanced in the presence of mortlain/Tid1-L/Mge1 chaperones machinery. Chaperone-dependent disaggregation of thermally aggregated insulin showed that addition of Hsp70 and Hsp40 chaperones resulted in fast-track of renaissance reaction and inhibition of amyloid. The present study results conclude the quality of cell-control involves interaction of chaperon Hsp70 and its co-chaperones leading to complex formation with chemically/thermally aggregated substrate eventually causing its reactivation and disaggregation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.09.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569118PMC
November 2020

A three-step repair of post circumcision coronal fistula: A glans flap, urethral closure, and dartos flap interposition.

J Pediatr Surg 2021 Sep 22;56(9):1628-1631. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Minia University Hospital, Urology Department, Minia, Egypt 61111. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent a post-circumcision coronal fistula repair by means of a three-step repair technique: glans flap, urethral closure, and dartos flap interposition.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 23 patients with postcircumcision urethrocutaneous fistulas who were treated at our institution between January of 2014 and December of 2018. The patients included in this review had exclusively a coronal fistula with an adequate glans bridge between the fistula and the urethral meatus and underwent surgical repair at least 6 months after the initial injury. We excluded from the study patients who had multiple level fistulas, glans dehiscence and patients that were lost to follow-up less than 6 months post fistula repair.

Results: The median age at the time of the repair was 9.2 (range: 6.3 to 31) months. The fistulas were classified according to their size as small (ranging from pinpoint to ≤4 mm; n = 19) or large (>4 mm; n = 4). The overall success rate was 87% (20 of 23 patients). The success rates for the small and the large fistulas were 94.7% (18 of 19) and 50% (2 of 4), respectively. An indwelling urethral stent was used in all patients, except in those with pinpoint fistulas. The mean follow-up was 19.9 (6-60) months.

Conclusions: Post-circumcision coronal urethrocutaneous fistulas less or equal to 4 mm in diameter without glans dehiscence can be successfully repaired using a three-step repair technique, with a recurrence rate of less than 6%. For larger fistulas, a formal urethroplasty is recommended due to high recurrence rate of the three-step repair technique.

Level Of Evidence: Case Series (Level IV).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.09.012DOI Listing
September 2021

A three-step repair of post circumcision coronal fistula: A glans flap, urethral closure, and dartos flap interposition.

J Pediatr Surg 2021 Sep 22;56(9):1628-1631. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Minia University Hospital, Urology Department, Minia, Egypt 61111. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent a post-circumcision coronal fistula repair by means of a three-step repair technique: glans flap, urethral closure, and dartos flap interposition.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 23 patients with postcircumcision urethrocutaneous fistulas who were treated at our institution between January of 2014 and December of 2018. The patients included in this review had exclusively a coronal fistula with an adequate glans bridge between the fistula and the urethral meatus and underwent surgical repair at least 6 months after the initial injury. We excluded from the study patients who had multiple level fistulas, glans dehiscence and patients that were lost to follow-up less than 6 months post fistula repair.

Results: The median age at the time of the repair was 9.2 (range: 6.3 to 31) months. The fistulas were classified according to their size as small (ranging from pinpoint to ≤4 mm; n = 19) or large (>4 mm; n = 4). The overall success rate was 87% (20 of 23 patients). The success rates for the small and the large fistulas were 94.7% (18 of 19) and 50% (2 of 4), respectively. An indwelling urethral stent was used in all patients, except in those with pinpoint fistulas. The mean follow-up was 19.9 (6-60) months.

Conclusions: Post-circumcision coronal urethrocutaneous fistulas less or equal to 4 mm in diameter without glans dehiscence can be successfully repaired using a three-step repair technique, with a recurrence rate of less than 6%. For larger fistulas, a formal urethroplasty is recommended due to high recurrence rate of the three-step repair technique.

Level Of Evidence: Case Series (Level IV).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.09.012DOI Listing
September 2021

Symptoms of Daytime Sleepiness and Sleep Apnea among Pregnant Women.

Oman Med J 2020 May 21;35(3):e132. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: Despite the fact that sleep disturbances have been associated with poor maternal and neonatal health outcomes in pregnancy, no studies have assessed excessive daytime sleepiness or the risk for sleep apnea among pregnant Saudi Arabian women. We sought to estimate the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and the high risk for sleep apnea (OSA) in a sample of pregnant Saudi women.

Methods: An anonymous self-report questionnaire was completed by 517 pregnant women who attended obstetric outpatient clinics at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, for a routine pregnancy check. We collected demographic and clinical data for all patients and used the Berlin Questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to determine the primary outcomes.

Results: A high risk of OSA was found in 37.1% of women (95% confidence interval (CI): 33.00%-41.50%), and EDS was found in 32.1% (95% CI: 28.10%-36.30%). The presence of both (EDS and a high risk of OSA) was found in 14.9% of women (95% CI: 11.90%-18.30%). We found increased odds of EDS in women who reported pain three times or more per week (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.59) and insomnia (aOR = 1.65). Older women (≥ 37 years) (aOR = 3.00), those who reported pain once a week (aOR = 1.99), pain twice a week (aOR = 2.75), three times or more a week (aOR = 2.57), and insomnia (aOR = 1.95) increased the odds of high risk for OSA.

Conclusions: EDS and a high risk for OSA affected a large portion of the pregnant women included in the study, primarily those who reported pain and insomnia. Our study provides important information for gynecologists to help promote healthy sleep and manage the issues arising from sleep disturbances among pregnant women as part of their daily practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2020.50DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306166PMC
May 2020

Top Ethical Issues Concerning Healthcare Providers Working in Saudi Arabia.

J Epidemiol Glob Health 2020 06;10(2):143-152

College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh.

Background: Healthcare providers working in Saudi Arabia come from various nationalities, cultures, and training backgrounds. This study aimed to assess the perceptions of healthcare providers working in Riyadh hospitals about ethical dilemmas and solutions.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among physicians working in Riyadh's private and governmental hospitals between June and December 2017. The study collected information on demographics, knowledge about medical ethics, the sources of such knowledge, and common ethical issues in general and the top ethical issues and dilemmas encountered in their daily practice.

Results: A total of 455 physicians from government and private hospitals were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the participants was 34.29 ± 10.5 years, females were 29.7% and mean years of practice was 13.0 ± 11.5. The top ethical issues identified by the participants were "disagreement with the patients' relatives about treatment" (91%), patient disagreement with decisions made by professionals (84%), treating the incompetent patient (79%), conflict with administration policy and procedures (77%), scarcity of resources (72%), and making decision about do-not-resuscitate or life-sustaining treatment (68%). There were significant differences in dealing with ethical issues in relation to gender, confidence about ethical knowledge, nationality, seniority, training site, and private or government hospitals academic and nonacademic.

Conclusion: Healthcare providers in Riyadh hospitals face multiple ethical challenges. In addition to improvement in ethics knowledge through educational program among healthcare professional, there is a valid need for healthcare professionals and other sectors within society to engage in serious and continuous dialogue to address these issues and propose recommendations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.191211.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310778PMC
June 2020

Effect of Antioxidants on Heavy Metals Induced Conformational Alteration of Cytochrome C and Myoglobin.

Protein Pept Lett 2021 ;28(1):31-42

Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110062, India.

Background: The exposure to heavy metals due to unrestrained industrialization, pollution and non-degradability imposes a significant risk to human health. Proteins are prime targets of heavy metal stress, however, the underlying mechanisms and its impact on heme proteins is still not entirely clear.

Objective: To analyze the deleterious effect of heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium and mercury on conformation of two proteins namely, cytochrome c and myoglobin. The protective effect of glycine and ascorbic acid (animal origin), gallic acid and sesamol (plant origin) on heavy metal exposure was studied.

Methods: Far- and near-UV Circular Dichroism (CD) measurements monitored the changes in secondary and tertiary structure. Absorption Soret spectroscopy study revealed changes in heme-protein interaction. Peroxidase activity has been assayed to measure the absorption of tetraguaiacol. The interaction of heme proteins with different heavy metals was done using docking study.

Results: Far- and near-UV CD measurements reveal that heavy metals disrupt the secondary and tertiary structure of heme proteins. Antioxidants counteract the deleterious effect of heavy metals. Absorption spectroscopy revealed changes in the Soret region of these heme proteins. Changes in peroxidase activity was observed on addition of heavy metals and antioxidants. Molecular docking validated interaction of the heavy metals with proteins with a significant binding affinity (-2.3 kcal/- mol).

Conclusion: Heavy metals interfered and disrupted both the heme proteins and mercury showed the maximum deleterious effect, further, chromium showed detrimental effect at very small concentration. The antioxidants from animal origin exhibited better protective response than those from plant source.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929866527666200610134442DOI Listing
April 2021

Identification of Novel Molecular Network Expression in Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Curr Genomics 2019 Aug;20(5):340-348

Medicinal Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: In the current study, we aimed to analyze the hypothesis that human myocardial-specific extracellular RNAs expression could be used for acute myocardial injury(AMI) diagnosis.

Methodology: We used bioinformatics' analysis to identify RNAs linked to ubiquitin system and specific to AMI, named, (lncRNA-RP11-175K6.1), (LOC101927740), microRNA-106b-5p (miR-106b-5p) and Anaphase, promoting complex 11 (). We measured the serum expression of the chosen RNAs in 69 individuals with acute coronary syndromes, 31 individuals with angina pectoris without MI and non-cardiac chest pain and 31 healthy control individuals by real-time reverse-transcription PCR.

Results: Our study revealed a significant decrease in both lncRNA-RP11-175K6. and expression of in the sera samples of AMI patients compared to that of the two control groups alongside with significant upregulation of .

Conclusion: Of note, the investigated serum RNAs decrease the false discovery rate of AMI to 3.2%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389202920666190820142043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235391PMC
August 2019

Large Left Ventricular Fibroma: Case Report and Literature Review.

Innovations (Phila) 2020 May/Jun;15(3):283-285. Epub 2020 May 3.

68789 Cardiothoracic Surgery and Cardiac Anaesthesia Departments, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Benign cardiac tumors are rare and fibroma is second to rhabdomyoma in frequency in pediatric cardiac tumors. We report a case of a 14-year-old male patient, who presented with shortness of breath for 2 years. Echocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging indicated a large mass located in the left ventricular lateral wall. The patient underwent surgical excision of the tumor, and histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a cardiac fibroma. The patient had a good postoperative recovery and was discharged on sixth postoperative day.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1556984520917139DOI Listing
April 2021

Incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and countries affected by malarial infections.

Authors:
Anwar E Ahmed

Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 Sep - Oct;37:101693. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194665PMC
October 2020
-->