Publications by authors named "Anupam Agarwal"

176 Publications

Returning to Growth: One Academic Medical Center's Successful Five-Step Approach to Change Management.

Acad Med 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

S.M. Vickers is senior vice president for medicine and dean, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. A. Agarwal is executive vice dean, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4276-5186. N. Patel is executive director of operations, wellness, and administration, Dean's Office, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. E.N. Benveniste is senior vice dean for research, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. D. Bulgarella is senior associate dean for administration and finance, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, and chief financial officer, UAB Health System, Birmingham, Alabama. M.N. Fouad is senior associate dean for diversity and inclusion, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. C. Hoesley is senior associate dean for medical education, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2654-9141. K. Jones is senior associate dean for clinical affairs, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. R.P. Kimberly is senior associate dean for clinical and translational research, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. D.A. Rogers is senior associate dean for faculty affairs and professional development, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. J.A. Larson is senior associate dean for leadership development, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. T.R. Leeth is associate dean for strategic planning and administration, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. L. Mack is senior associate dean for administration and finance, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. P. Dorman is executive director of communications, Dean's Office University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. T. Furgerson is web communications specialist, Dean's Office, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. J. Longshore is managing editor, Dean's Office, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama. R. Watts is president, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

The University of Alabama at Birmingham academic medical center (UAB AMC) had achieved great success and growth during the 50 years since its founding. However, the challenging and more competitive environment of the 2000s left the UAB AMC on a downward trajectory. The UAB AMC had to overcome difficult internal cultural and structural barriers that stood in the way of the transformational change needed to remain competitive. Competition rather than collaborative and strategic financial investment were the primary cultural barriers for the UAB AMC, while people were the primary structural barrier. Leadership identified 5 steps that were critical for the transformation that occurred between 2013 and 2018: alignment of leadership; creating a compelling and credible shared vision; identifying cultural and structural barriers; creating a thoughtful, data-driven intervention; and improved communication and accountability. Following these enabled the UAB AMC to transform its institutional structure and culture. As a result, the UAB AMC thrived, returning to substantial growth in research and clinical care. UAB AMC School of Medicine grew by $100 million in National Institutes of Health funding and moved up 10 spots in ranking. In 2018, UAB Hospital had 10 specialties ranked by U.S. News & World Report, 7 more than in 2013. This article outlines the approach taken and provides a conceptual framework for other AMCs eager to transform their structure and culture and position themselves for growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000004116DOI Listing
April 2021

UAB-UCSD O'Brien Center for Acute Kidney Injury Research.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a significant clinical problem through its diverse etiologies, the challenges of robust measurements of injury and recovery and its progression to chronic kidney disease. Bridging the gap in knowledge of this disorder requires bringing together not only the technical resources for research, but also the investigators endeavoring to expand our knowledge and those who might bring novel ideas and expertise to this important challenge. The UAB-UCSD O'Brien Center for AKI Research brings together technical expertise and programmatic and educational efforts to advance our knowledge in these diverse issues and the required infrastructure to develop areas of novel exploration. Since inception, this Center has grown its impact by providing state-of-the-art resources in clinical and pre-clinical modeling of AKI, a bioanalytical core that facilitates measurement of critical biomarkers, including serum creatinine via LC-MS/MS among others, and a biostatistical resource. Through these resources and with educational efforts, our Center has grown the Investigator Base to include >200 members from 51 institutions. Importantly, this Center has translated its pilot and catalyst funding program with a $37 return/dollar invested. Over 500 publications have resulted from the support provided with a relative citation ratio of 2.18 ± 0.12. Through its efforts, this disease-centric O'Brien Center is providing the infrastructure and focus to help the development of the next generation of researchers in the basic and clinical science of AKI. This Center creates the promise of the application at the bedside of the advances in AKI made by current and future investigators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00661.2020DOI Listing
March 2021

Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase A and B isoforms in the mouse kidney.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States.

Cellular metabolic rates in the kidney are critical for maintaining renal function. In a hypoxic milieu, cells rely on glycolysis to meet energy needs, resulting in the generation of pyruvate and NADH. In the absence of oxidative phosphorylation, the continuation of glycolysis is dependent on the regeneration of NAD+ from NADH accompanied by the fermentation of pyruvate to lactate. This reaction is catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoform A (LDHA), while isoform B (LDHB) catalyzes the opposite reaction. LDH is widely used as a potential injury marker, yet the precise isoform-specific cellular localization of the enzyme along the nephron has not been characterized. By combining immunohistochemistry and single-cell RNA sequencing data on healthy mouse kidneys we identified that LDHA is primarily expressed in proximal segments while LDHB is expressed in the distal parts of the nephron. In vitro studies in mouse and human renal proximal tubule cells show an increase in LDHA following hypoxia with no change in LDHB. We observed that the overall expression of both LDHA and LDHB decreased following renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) as well as in the adenine-diet induced model of chronic kidney disease. Single-nucleus RNA sequencing analyses of kidneys following IRI revealed a significant decline in the number of cells expressing Ldha and Ldhb, however, cells that were positive showed increased average expression post-injury which subsided during the recovery phase. These data provide information on the cell-specific expression of LDHA and LDHB in the normal kidney as well as following acute and chronic kidney disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00628.2020DOI Listing
March 2021

Nephrology-Taking the Lead.

Authors:
Anupam Agarwal

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Division of Nephrology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; Nephrology Research and Training Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; and Birmingham Veterans Administration Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.20061220DOI Listing
March 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof Rolka Vanina Romanello Luigina Romani Alessandra Romano Patricia S Romano David Romeo-Guitart Luis C Romero Montserrat Romero Joseph C Roney Christopher Rongo Sante Roperto Mathias T Rosenfeldt Philip Rosenstiel Anne G Rosenwald Kevin A Roth Lynn Roth Steven Roth Kasper M A Rouschop Benoit D Roussel Sophie Roux Patrizia Rovere-Querini Ajit Roy Aurore Rozieres Diego Ruano David C Rubinsztein Maria P Rubtsova Klaus Ruckdeschel Christoph Ruckenstuhl Emil Rudolf Rüdiger Rudolf Alessandra Ruggieri Avnika Ashok Ruparelia Paola Rusmini Ryan R Russell Gian Luigi Russo Maria Russo Rossella Russo Oxana O Ryabaya Kevin M Ryan Kwon-Yul Ryu Maria Sabater-Arcis Ulka Sachdev Michael Sacher Carsten Sachse Abhishek Sadhu Junichi Sadoshima Nathaniel Safren Paul Saftig Antonia P Sagona Gaurav Sahay Amirhossein Sahebkar Mustafa Sahin Ozgur Sahin Sumit Sahni Nayuta Saito Shigeru Saito Tsunenori Saito Ryohei Sakai Yasuyoshi Sakai Jun-Ichi Sakamaki Kalle Saksela Gloria Salazar Anna Salazar-Degracia Ghasem H Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio Vega-Naredo Silvia Vega-Rubin-de-Celis Guillermo Velasco Ariadna P Velázquez Tibor Vellai Edo Vellenga Francesca Velotti Mireille Verdier Panayotis Verginis Isabelle Vergne Paul Verkade Manish Verma Patrik Verstreken Tim Vervliet Jörg Vervoorts Alexandre T Vessoni Victor M Victor Michel Vidal Chiara Vidoni Otilia V Vieira Richard D Vierstra Sonia Viganó Helena Vihinen Vinoy Vijayan Miquel Vila Marçal Vilar José M Villalba Antonio Villalobo Beatriz Villarejo-Zori Francesc Villarroya Joan Villarroya Olivier Vincent Cecile Vindis Christophe Viret Maria Teresa Viscomi Dora Visnjic Ilio Vitale David J Vocadlo Olga V Voitsekhovskaja Cinzia Volonté Mattia Volta Marta Vomero Clarissa Von Haefen Marc A Vooijs Wolfgang Voos Ljubica Vucicevic Richard Wade-Martins Satoshi Waguri Kenrick A Waite Shuji Wakatsuki David W Walker Mark J Walker Simon A Walker Jochen Walter Francisco G Wandosell Bo Wang Chao-Yung Wang Chen Wang Chenran Wang Chenwei Wang Cun-Yu Wang Dong Wang Fangyang Wang Feng Wang Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Heme Oxygenase-1 as a Pharmacological Target for Host-Directed Therapy to Limit Tuberculosis Associated Immunopathology.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jan 26;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Excessive inflammation and tissue damage are pathological hallmarks of chronic pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Despite decades of research, host regulation of these clinical consequences is poorly understood. A sustained effort has been made to understand the contribution of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) to this process. HO-1 is an essential cytoprotective enzyme in the host that controls inflammation and oxidative stress in many pathological conditions. While HO-1 levels are upregulated in animals and patients infected with (), how it regulates host responses and disease pathology during TB remains unclear. This lack of clarity is due in part to contradictory studies arguing that HO-1 induction contributes to both host resistance as well as disease progression. In this review, we discuss these conflicting studies and the role of HO-1 in modulating myeloid cell functions during disease progression. We argue that HO-1 is a promising target for host-directed therapy to improve TB immunopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911872PMC
January 2021

New insights into the role of heme oxygenase-1 in acute kidney injury.

Kidney Res Clin Pract 2020 Dec;39(4):387-401

Deparment of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is attended by injury-related biomarkers appearing in the urine and serum, decreased urine output, and impaired glomerular filtration rate. AKI causes increased morbidity and mortality and can progress to chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney failure. AKI is without specific therapies and is managed by supported care. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective, inducible enzyme that degrades toxic free heme released from destabilized heme proteins and, during this process, releases beneficial by-products such as carbon monoxide and biliverdin/bilirubin and promotes ferritin synthesis. HO-1 induction protects against assorted renal insults as demonstrated by in vitro and preclinical models. This review summarizes the advances in understanding of the protection conferred by HO-1 in AKI, how HO-1 can be induced including via its transcription factor Nrf2, and HO-1 induction as a therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23876/j.krcp.20.091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770992PMC
December 2020

Current State and Future of Research in Nephrology.

Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2020 07 24;27(4):305-311.e1. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Division of Nephrology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL; Birmingham Veterans Administration Medical Center, Birmingham, AL. Electronic address:

The focus of this article is to review the available funding opportunities for the nephrology workforce at all career levels and review the current challenges involved in the career of a physician-scientist. While the scarcity of nephrology fellows for training programs is a continuing challenge, increased funding for the National Institutes of Health is encouraging particularly for early career investigators. In addition to National Institutes of Health funding, other funding sources are also discussed as they provide much needed bridge funding during key transition periods for young careers. Recent initiatives such as the Advancing American Kidney Health, KidneyX, and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases' Kidney Precision Medicine Project offer new research opportunities for bringing much needed innovation to improve lives of people with kidney diseases. The time is now for us to seize the opportunity and ensure that a strong workforce will be able to take advantage of these potential game changers for nephrology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ackd.2020.05.008DOI Listing
July 2020

Fenfluramine HCl (Fintepla ) provides long-term clinically meaningful reduction in seizure frequency: Analysis of an ongoing open-label extension study.

Epilepsia 2020 11 19;61(11):2396-2404. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Zogenix, Inc, Emeryville, CA, USA.

Objective: Fenfluramine has been shown to provide clinically meaningful and statistically significant reductions in convulsive seizure frequency in children and adolescents (aged 2-18 years) with Dravet syndrome in two randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. The objective of this analysis was to assess longer-term safety and efficacy of fenfluramine in patients who completed one of the double-blind studies and entered an open-label extension (OLE) study.

Methods: Patients enrolling in the OLE study initiated fenfluramine at 0.2 mg/kg/d regardless of their treatment assignment in the double-blind study. After 4 weeks, the fenfluramine dose could be titrated based on efficacy and tolerability to maximum of 0.7 mg/kg/d (absolute maximum 27 mg/d) or maximum of 0.4 mg/kg/d (absolute maximum 17 mg/d) in patients receiving concomitant stiripentol. The number and type of seizures were recorded daily in an electronic diary, and safety, including echocardiography, was assessed at Months 1, 2, and 3, and at 3-month intervals thereafter.

Results: A total of 232 patients were enrolled as of March 13, 2018. During this analysis period, patients were treated for a median 256 days (range = 46-634 days). Over the entire OLE analysis period, the median decrease in convulsive seizure frequency compared to baseline in the double-blind studies was -66.8% (range = -100% to 234.9%; P < .001). The median reduction in seizure frequency was similar in patients <6 (-75.7%) and ≥6 years old (-64.7%). The most commonly reported adverse events included pyrexia (21.6%), nasopharyngitis (19.4%), and decreased appetite (-15.9%). No valvular heart disease (VHD) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was observed.

Significance: Study results demonstrate that fenfluramine provides clinically meaningful (≥50%) seizure frequency reduction over an extended period in patients with Dravet syndrome. No patient developed VHD or PAH, and fenfluramine was generally well tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756901PMC
November 2020

Protective role of HO-1 against acute kidney injury caused by cutaneous exposure to arsenicals.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 11 3;1480(1):155-169. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

UAB Research Center of Excellence in Arsenicals, Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Lewisite and many other similar arsenicals are warfare vesicants developed and weaponized for use in World Wars I and II. These chemicals, when exposed to the skin and other epithelial tissues, cause rapid severe inflammation and systemic damage. Here, we show that topically applied arsenicals in a murine model produce significant acute kidney injury (AKI), as determined by an increase in the AKI biomarkers NGAL and KIM-1. An increase in reactive oxygen species and ER stress proteins, such as ATF4 and CHOP, correlated with the induction of these AKI biomarkers. Also, TUNEL staining of CHOP-positive renal tubular cells suggests CHOP mediates apoptosis in these cells. A systemic inflammatory response characterized by a significant elevation in inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, IFN-α, and COX-2, in the kidney could be the underlying cause of AKI. The mechanism of arsenical-mediated inflammation involves activation of AMPK/Nrf2 signaling pathways, which regulate heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Indeed, HO-1 induction with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) treatment in arsenical-treated HEK293 cells afforded cytoprotection by attenuating CHOP-associated apoptosis and cytokine mRNA levels. These results demonstrate that topical exposure to arsenicals causes AKI and that HO-1 activation may serve a protective role in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14475DOI Listing
November 2020

Cardiovascular safety of fenfluramine in the treatment of Dravet syndrome: Analysis of an ongoing long-term open-label safety extension study.

Epilepsia 2020 11 18;61(11):2386-2395. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Zogenix, Inc., Emeryville, CA, USA.

Objective: Fenfluramine, which was previously approved as a weight loss drug, was withdrawn in 1997 when reports of cardiac valvulopathy emerged. The present study was conducted in part to characterize the cardiovascular safety profile of low-dose fenfluramine when used in a pediatric population to reduce seizure frequency in patients with Dravet syndrome.

Methods: Patients 2- to 18-years-old with Dravet syndrome who had completed any of three randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of fenfluramine were offered enrollment in this open-label extension (OLE) study. All patients were treated with fenfluramine starting at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day (oral solution dosed twice per day), which was titrated to maximal effect with a dose limit of 0.7 mg/kg/day (maximum 26 mg/day) or 0.4 mg/kg/day (maximum 17 mg/day) in patients receiving concomitant stiripentol. Standardized echocardiographic examinations were conducted at Week 4 or 6 and then every 3 months during the OLE study to monitor cardiac valve function and structure and pulmonary artery pressure. The primary end point for the echocardiography analysis was the number of patients who developed valvular heart disease or pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) during treatment.

Results: A total of 232 patients were enrolled in the study. The average age of patients was 9.1 ± 4.7 years, and 55.2% were male. The median duration of treatment with fenfluramine was 256 days (range = 58-634 days), and the mean dose of fenfluramine was 0.41 mg/kg/day. No cases of valvular heart disease or PAH were observed.

Significance: Longitudinal echocardiography over a median 8.4 months of treatment with fenfluramine suggests a low risk of developing cardiac valvulopathy and PAH when used to treat pediatric patients with Dravet syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754414PMC
November 2020

Interleukin-1 promotes autoimmune neuroinflammation by suppressing endothelial heme oxygenase-1 at the blood-brain barrier.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 10 11;140(4):549-567. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) is crucially involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Herein, we studied the role of IL-1 signaling in blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells (ECs), astrocytes and microglia for EAE development, using mice with the conditional deletion of its signaling receptor IL-1R1. We found that IL-1 signaling in microglia and astrocytes is redundant for the development of EAE, whereas the IL-1R1 deletion in BBB-ECs markedly ameliorated disease severity. IL-1 signaling in BBB-ECs upregulated the expression of the adhesion molecules Vcam-1, Icam-1 and the chemokine receptor Darc, all of which have been previously shown to promote CNS-specific inflammation. In contrast, IL-1R1 signaling suppressed the expression of the stress-responsive heme catabolizing enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in BBB-ECs, promoting disease progression via a mechanism associated with deregulated expression of the IL-1-responsive genes Vcam1, Icam1 and Ackr1 (Darc). Mechanistically, our data emphasize a functional crosstalk of BBB-EC IL-1 signaling and HO-1, controlling the transcription of downstream proinflammatory genes promoting the pathogenesis of autoimmune neuroinflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02187-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498485PMC
October 2020

Stepping into the Void: Remunerating, Valuing, and Understanding Nephrologists.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 Dec 9;15(12):1832-1834. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

American Society of Nephrology, Washington, DC

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.04660420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769029PMC
December 2020

Club Cell Heme Oxygenase-1 Deletion: Effects in Hyperoxia-Exposed Adult Mice.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 9;2020:2908271. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Thioredoxin reductase-1 (TXNRD1) inhibition activates nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) responses and prevents acute lung injury (ALI). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction following TXNRD1 inhibition is Nrf2-dependent in airway epithelial (club) cells . The influence of club cell HO-1 on lung development and lung injury responses is poorly understood. The present studies characterized the effects of hyperoxia on club cell-specific HO-1 knockout (KO) mice. These mice were generated by crossing flox mice with transgenic mice expressing cre recombinase under control of the club cell-specific promoter. Baseline analyses of lung architecture and function performed in age-matched adult wild-type and KO mice indicated an increased alveolar size and airway resistance in HO-1 KO mice. In subsequent experiments, adult wild-type and HO-1 KO mice were either continuously exposed to >95% hyperoxia or room air for 72 h or exposed to >95 hyperoxia for 48 h followed by recovery in room air for 48 h. Injury was quantitatively assessed by calculating right lung/body weight ratios (g/kg). Analyses indicated an independent effect of hyperoxia but not genotype on right lung/body weight ratios in both wild-type and HO-1 KO mice. The magnitude of increases in right lung/body weight ratios was similar in mice of both genotypes. In the recovery model, an independent effect of hyperoxia but not genotype was also detected. In contrast to the continuous exposure model, right lung/body weight ratio mice were significantly elevated in HO-1 KO but not wild-type mice. Though club cell HO-1 does not alter hyperoxic sensitivity in adult mice, it significantly influences lung development and resolution of lung injury following acute hyperoxic exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2908271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303751PMC
February 2021

Cutaneous lewisite exposure causes acute lung injury.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 11 24;1479(1):210-222. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Lewisite is a strong vesicating and chemical warfare agent. Because of the rapid transdermal absorption, cutaneous exposure to lewisite can also elicit severe systemic injury. Lewisite (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg) was applied to the skin of Ptch1 /SKH-1 mice and acute lung injury (ALI) was assessed after 24 hours. Arterial blood gas measurements showed hypercapnia and hypoxemia in the lewisite-exposed group. Histological evaluation of lung tissue revealed increased levels of proinflammatory neutrophils and a dose-dependent increase in structural changes indicative of injury. Increased inflammation was also confirmed by altered expression of cytokines, including increased IL-33, and a dose-dependent elevation of CXCL1, CXCL5, and GCSF was observed in the lung tissue. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lewisite-exposed animals, there was a significant increase in HMGB1, a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, as well as elevated CXCL1 and CXCL5, which coincided with an influx of neutrophils to the lungs. Complete blood cell analysis revealed eosinophilia and altered neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios as a consequence of lewisite exposure. Mean platelet volume and RBC distribution width, which are predictors of lung injury, were also increased in the lewisite group. These data demonstrate that cutaneous lewisite exposure causes ALI and may contribute to mortality in exposed populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14346DOI Listing
November 2020

Initiative: Recommendations for Awareness, Recognition, and Management of AKI.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 Dec 21;15(12):1838-1847. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

St. Peter's Health Partners, Albany, New York

The American Society of Nephrology has established a new initiative, , with the goal of promoting excellence in the prevention and treatment of AKI by building a foundational program that transforms education and delivery of AKI care, aiming to reduce morbidity and associated mortality and to improve long-term outcomes. In this article, we describe our current efforts to improve early recognition and management involving inclusive interdisciplinary collaboration between providers, patients, and their families; discuss the ongoing need to change some of our current AKI paradigms and diagnostic methods; and provide specific recommendations to improve AKI recognition and care. In the hospital and the community, AKI is a common and increasingly frequent condition that generates risks of adverse events and high costs. Unfortunately, patients with AKI may frequently have received less than optimal quality of care. New classifications have facilitated understanding of AKI incidence and its impact on outcomes, but they are not always well aligned with AKI pathophysiology. Despite ongoing research efforts, treatments to promote or hasten kidney recovery remain ineffective. To avoid progression, the current approach to AKI emphasizes the promotion of early recognition and timely response. However, a lack of awareness of the importance of early recognition and treatment among health care team members and the heterogeneity of approaches within the health care teams assessing the patient remains a major challenge. Early identification is further complicated by differences in settings where AKI occurs (the community or the hospital), and by differences in patient populations and cultures between the intensive care unit and ward environments. To address these obstacles, we discuss the need to improve education at all levels of care and to generate specific guidance on AKI evaluation and management, including the development of a widely applicable education and an AKI management toolkit, engaging hospital administrators to incorporate AKI as a quality initiative, and raising awareness of AKI as a complication of other disease processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.15611219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769012PMC
December 2020

Ferryl Hemoglobin Inhibits Osteoclastic Differentiation of Macrophages in Hemorrhaged Atherosclerotic Plaques.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 27;2020:3721383. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

HAS-UD Vascular Biology and Myocardial Pathophysiology Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen, Hungary.

Intraplaque hemorrhage frequently occurs in atherosclerotic plaques resulting in cell-free hemoglobin, which is oxidized to ferryl hemoglobin (FHb) in the highly oxidative environment. Osteoclast-like cells (OLCs) derived from macrophages signify a counterbalance mechanism for calcium deposition in atherosclerosis. Our aim was to investigate whether oxidized hemoglobin alters osteoclast formation, thereby affecting calcium removal from mineralized atherosclerotic lesions. RANKL- (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa- ligand-) induced osteoclastogenic differentiation and osteoclast activity of RAW264.7 cells were studied in response to oxidized hemoglobin via assessing bone resorption activity, expression of osteoclast-specific genes, and the activation of signalization pathways. OLCs in diseased human carotid arteries were assessed by immunohistochemistry. FHb, but not ferrohemoglobin, decreased bone resorption activity and inhibited osteoclast-specific gene expression (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein) induced by RANKL. In addition, FHb inhibited osteoclastogenic signaling pathways downstream of RANK (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-). It prevented the induction of TRAF6 (tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6) and c-Fos, phosphorylation of p-38 and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), and nuclear translocation of NFB (nuclear factor kappa-) and NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1). These effects were independent of heme oxygenase-1 demonstrated by knocking down HO-1 gene in RAW264.7 cells and in mice. Importantly, FHb competed with RANK for RANKL binding suggesting possible mechanisms by which FHb impairs osteoclastic differentiation. In diseased human carotid arteries, OLCs were abundantly present in calcified plaques and colocalized with regions of calcium deposition, while the number of these cells were lower in hemorrhagic lesions exhibiting accumulation of FHb despite calcium deposition. We conclude that FHb inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation of macrophages and suggest that accumulation of FHb in a calcified area of atherosclerotic lesion with hemorrhage retards the formation of OLCs potentially impairing calcium resorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3721383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063196PMC
November 2020

Zinc Inhibits HIF-Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor-Aggravated VSMC Calcification Induced by High Phosphate.

Front Physiol 2019 15;10:1584. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

Vascular calcification is a life-threatening clinical condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with reduced zinc serum levels. Anemia is another frequent complication of CKD. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, also known as HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHI), are promising candidates to treat CKD-associated anemia by increasing erythropoietin synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that HIFs play a pivotal role in vascular calcification. Our study explored feasible impacts of HIF PHI on phosphate (Pi)-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and tested whether zinc might inhibit this mineralization process. Treatment of VSMCs with PHI aggravated Pi-induced calcium deposition and Pi uptake. PHI promoted Pi-induced loss of smooth muscle cell markers (ACTA-2, MYH11, SM22α) and enhanced osteochondrogenic gene expression (Msx-2, BMP-2, Sp7) triggering osteochondrogenic phenotypic switch of VSMCs. These effects of PHI paralleled with increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) expression, decreased Runx2 Ser451 phosphorylation, and reduced cell viability. Zinc inhibited Pi-induced mineralization of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner and also attenuated the pro-calcification effect of PHI in Pi-induced mineralization. Zinc inhibited osteochondrogenic phenotypic switch of VSMCs reflected by lowering Pi uptake, decreasing the expressions of Msx-2, BMP-2, and Sp7 as well as the loss of smooth muscle cell-specific markers. Zinc preserved phosphorylation state of Runx2 Ser451, decreased PDK4 level, and restored cell viability. PHI alone reduced the expression of smooth muscle markers without inducing mineralization, which was also inhibited by zinc. In addition, we observed a significantly lower serum zinc level in CKD as well as in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy compared to healthy individuals. Conclusion - PHI promoted the loss of smooth muscle markers and augmented Pi-induced osteochondrogenic phenotypic switch leading to VSMCs calcification. This mineralization process was attenuated by zinc. Enhanced vascular calcification is a potential risk factor during PHI therapy in CKD which necessitates the strict follow up of vascular calcification and zinc supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974455PMC
January 2020

Fenfluramine hydrochloride for the treatment of seizures in Dravet syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet 2019 12 17;394(10216):2243-2254. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Paediatric Neurology, University of Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium.

Background: Dravet syndrome is a rare, treatment-resistant developmental epileptic encephalopathy characterised by multiple types of frequent, disabling seizures. Fenfluramine has been reported to have antiseizure activity in observational studies of photosensitive epilepsy and Dravet syndrome. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of fenfluramine in patients with Dravet syndrome.

Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we enrolled children and young adults with Dravet syndrome. After a 6-week observation period to establish baseline monthly convulsive seizure frequency (MCSF; convulsive seizures were defined as hemiclonic, tonic, clonic, tonic-atonic, generalised tonic-clonic, and focal with clearly observable motor signs), patients were randomly assigned through an interactive web response system in a 1:1:1 ratio to placebo, fenfluramine 0·2 mg/kg per day, or fenfluramine 0·7 mg/kg per day, added to existing antiepileptic agents for 14 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in mean monthly frequency of convulsive seizures during the treatment period compared with baseline in the 0·7 mg/kg per day group versus placebo; 0·2 mg/kg per day versus placebo was assessed as a key secondary outcome. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. Safety analyses included all participants who received at least one dose of study medication. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov with two identical protocols NCT02682927 and NCT02826863.

Findings: Between Jan 15, 2016, and Aug 14, 2017, we assessed 173 patients, of whom 119 patients (mean age 9·0 years, 64 [54%] male) were randomly assigned to receive either fenfluramine 0·2 mg/kg per day (39), fenfluramine 0·7 mg/kg per day (40) or placebo (40). During treatment, the median reduction in seizure frequency was 74·9% in the fenfluramine 0·7 mg/kg group (from median 20·7 seizures per 28 days to 4·7 seizures per 28 days), 42·3% in the fenfluramine 0·2 mg/kg group (from median 17·5 seizures per 28 days to 12·6 per 28 days), and 19·2% in the placebo group (from median 27·3 per 28 days to 22·0 per 28 days). The study met its primary efficacy endpoint, with fenfluramine 0·7 mg/kg per day showing a 62·3% greater reduction in mean MCSF compared with placebo (95% CI 47·7-72·8, p<0·0001); fenfluramine 0·2 mg/kg per day showed a 32·4% reduction in mean MCSF compared with placebo (95% CI 6·2-52·3, p=0·0209). The most common adverse events (occurring in at least 10% of patients and more frequently in the fenfluramine groups) were decreased appetite, diarrhoea, fatigue, lethargy, somnolence, and decreased weight. Echocardiographic examinations revealed valve function within the normal physiological range in all patients during the trial and no signs of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Interpretation: In Dravet syndrome, fenfluramine provided significantly greater reduction in convulsive seizure frequency compared with placebo and was generally well tolerated, with no observed valvular heart disease or pulmonary arterial hypertension. Fenfluramine could be an important new treatment option for patients with Dravet syndrome.

Funding: Zogenix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32500-0DOI Listing
December 2019

Fenfluramine for Treatment-Resistant Seizures in Patients With Dravet Syndrome Receiving Stiripentol-Inclusive Regimens: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2020 03;77(3):300-308

Robert Debré University Hospital, Université de Paris, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unite 1141, Paris, France.

Importance: Fenfluramine treatment may reduce monthly convulsive seizure frequency in patients with Dravet syndrome who have poor seizure control with their current stiripentol-containing antiepileptic drug regimens.

Objective: To determine whether fenfluramine reduced monthly convulsive seizure frequency relative to placebo in patients with Dravet syndrome who were taking stiripentol-inclusive regimens.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized clinical trial was conducted in multiple centers. Eligible patients were children aged 2 to 18 years with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of Dravet syndrome who were receiving stable, stiripentol-inclusive antiepileptic drug regimens.

Interventions: Patients with 6 or more convulsive seizures during the 6-week baseline period were randomly assigned to receive fenfluramine, 0.4 mg/kg/d (maximum, 17 mg/d), or a placebo. After titration (3 weeks), patients' assigned dosages were maintained for 12 additional weeks. Caregivers recorded seizures via a daily electronic diary.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary efficacy end point was the change in mean monthly convulsive seizure frequency between fenfluramine and placebo during the combined titration and maintenance periods relative to baseline.

Results: A total of 115 eligible patients were identified; of these, 87 patients (mean [SD], age 9.1 [4.8] years; 50 male patients [57%]; mean baseline frequency of seizures, approximately 25 convulsive seizures per month) were enrolled and randomized to fenfluramine, 0.4 mg/kg/d (n = 43) or placebo (n = 44). Patients treated with fenfluramine achieved a 54.0% (95% CI, 35.6%-67.2%; P < .001) greater reduction in mean monthly convulsive seizure frequency than those receiving the placebo. With fenfluramine, 54% of patients demonstrated a clinically meaningful (≥50%) reduction in monthly convulsive seizure frequency vs 5% with placebo (P < .001). The median (range) longest seizure-free interval was 22 (3.0-105.0) days with fenfluramine and 13 (1.0-40.0) days with placebo (P = .004). The most common adverse events were decreased appetite (19 patients taking fenfluramine [44%] vs 5 taking placebo [11%]), fatigue (11 [26%] vs 2 [5%]), diarrhea (10 [23%] vs 3 [7%]), and pyrexia (11 [26%] vs 4 [9%]). Cardiac monitoring demonstrated no clinical or echocardiographic evidence of valvular heart disease or pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Conclusions And Relevance: Fenfluramine demonstrated significant improvements in monthly convulsive seizure frequency in patients with Dravet syndrome whose conditions were insufficiently controlled with stiripentol-inclusive antiepileptic drug regimens. Fenfluramine was generally well tolerated. Fenfluramine may represent a new treatment option for Dravet syndrome.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02926898.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.4113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6902175PMC
March 2020

Changing Paradigms in Acute Kidney Injury: From Mechanisms to Management: Proceedings of the 9th Annual UAB-UCSD O'Brien Center Symposium.

Nephron 2019 8;143(3):153. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000503790DOI Listing
July 2020

Human spaceflight from one's own soil.

Authors:
Anupam Agarwal

Neurol India 2019 May-Jun;67(Supplement):S169

Principal, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Indian Air Force, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.259120DOI Listing
December 2019

Renal Inflammation and Fibrosis: A Double-edged Sword.

J Histochem Cytochem 2019 09 22;67(9):663-681. Epub 2019 May 22.

Nephrology Research and Training Center, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Renal tissue injury initiates inflammatory and fibrotic processes that occur to promote regeneration and repair. After renal injury, damaged tissue releases cytokines and chemokines, which stimulate activation and infiltration of inflammatory cells to the kidney. Normal tissue repair processes occur simultaneously with activation of myofibroblasts, collagen deposition, and wound healing responses; however, prolonged activation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cell types causes excess extracellular matrix deposition. This review focuses on the physiological and pathophysiological roles of specialized cell types, cytokines/chemokines, and growth factors, and their implications in recovery or exacerbation of acute kidney injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/0022155419852932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6713973PMC
September 2019

Dynamic signature of lymphangiogenesis during acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease.

Lab Invest 2019 09 24;99(9):1376-1388. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are interconnected syndromes with significant attributable morbidity and mortality. The disturbing trend of increasing incidence and prevalence of these clinical disorders highlights the urgent need for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that are involved in pathogenesis of these conditions. Lymphangiogenesis and its involvement in various inflammatory conditions is increasingly recognized while its role in AKI and CKD remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we studied lymphangiogenesis in three models of kidney injury. Our results demonstrate that the main ligands for lymphangiogenesis, VEGF-C and VEGF-D, are abundantly present in tubules at baseline conditions and the expression pattern of these ligands is significantly altered following injury. In addition, we show that both of these ligands increase in serum and urine post-injury and suggest that such increment may serve as novel urinary biomarkers of AKI as well as in progression of kidney disease. We also provide evidence that irrespective of the nature of initial insult, lymphangiogenic pathways are rapidly and robustly induced as evidenced by higher expression of lymphatic markers within the kidney.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-019-0259-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6716993PMC
September 2019

Hydrogen sulfide inhibits calcification of heart valves; implications for calcific aortic valve disease.

Br J Pharmacol 2020 02 24;177(4):793-809. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

HAS-UD Vascular Biology and Myocardial Pathophysiology Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen, Hungary.

Background And Purpose: Calcification of heart valves is a frequent pathological finding in chronic kidney disease and in elderly patients. Hydrogen sulfide (H S) may exert anti-calcific actions. Here we investigated H S as an inhibitor of valvular calcification and to identify its targets in the pathogenesis.

Experimental Approach: Effects of H S on osteoblastic transdifferentiation of valvular interstitial cells (VIC) isolated from samples of human aortic valves were studied using immunohistochemistry and western blots. We also assessed H2S on valvular calcification in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE ) mice.

Key Results: In human VIC, H S from donor compounds (NaSH, Na S, GYY4137, AP67, and AP72) inhibited mineralization/osteoblastic transdifferentiation, dose-dependently in response to phosphate. Accumulation of calcium in the extracellular matrix and expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase was also inhibited. RUNX2 was not translocated to the nucleus and phosphate uptake was decreased. Pyrophosphate generation was increased via up-regulating ENPP2 and ANK1. Lowering endogenous production of H S by concomitant silencing of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) favoured VIC calcification. analysis of human specimens revealed higher Expression of CSE in aorta stenosis valves with calcification (AS) was higher than in valves of aortic insufficiency (AI). In contrast, tissue H S generation was lower in AS valves compared to AI valves. Valvular calcification in ApoE mice on a high-fat diet was inhibited by H S.

Conclusions And Implications: The endogenous CSE-CBS/H S system exerts anti-calcification effects in heart valves providing a novel therapeutic approach to prevent hardening of valves.

Linked Articles: This article is part of a themed section on Hydrogen Sulfide in Biology & Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v177.4/issuetoc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.14691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7024713PMC
February 2020

Outcomes of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in elderly patients: a single-centre study.

Int Urol Nephrol 2019 May 19;51(5):875-883. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Division of Statistics, Department of PSM, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, UP, India.

Background: HAAKI is a common clinical problem in hospitalized patients. Its incidence is high in older patients and carries worse prognosis. The presence of multiple co-morbidities, aging process, and frequent diagnostic and therapeutic interventions predispose elderly patients to HAAKI. This study aims to evaluate the spectrum, risk factors and determinants of outcome of elderly patients with HAAKI.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted during January 2014 to September 2015 in the Department of nephrology, Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi, UP, India. First 100 HAAKI elderly (> 60 years) patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled for study. HAAKI was defined as per RIFLE criteria after minimum 48 h of hospitalization. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological evaluation were done. Follow up was done till discharge or up to 30 days whichever was later.

Results: Till selection and enrollment of first 100 HAAKI patients, total 23507 patients were hospitalized. 11.2% (n = 2635) patients were ≥ 60 years of age. Among 2635 elderly patients, 3.79% (n = 100) developed HAAKI. Commonest causes of HAAKI were sepsis (37%) followed by drugs like NSAID, Contrast agent, Amphotericin B, and antibiotics including amino glycosides in (24%) patents. DM and HTN were the commonest risk factors. Mortality was noted in 45% cases and rest 55% patients recovered with partial or full recovery of renal function. ICU admission, Oliguria, RIFLE-F, need of RRT, and SOFA score > 11 were independent determinants of outcome of elderly patients with HAAKI.

Conclusion: HAAKI is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. Associated co-morbid conditions predispose elderly patients to HAAKI. ICU admission, Oliguria, severity of renal failure, requirement of RRT, and initial SOFA score were strong predictors of survival of elderly patients with HAAKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-019-02130-4DOI Listing
May 2019

Renal control of disease tolerance to malaria.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 03 4;116(12):5681-5686. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, 2780-156 Oeiras, Portugal;

Malaria, the disease caused by spp. infection, remains a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. Host protection from malaria relies on immune-driven resistance mechanisms that kill However, these mechanisms are not sufficient per se to avoid the development of severe forms of disease. This is accomplished instead via the establishment of disease tolerance to malaria, a defense strategy that does not target directly. Here we demonstrate that the establishment of disease tolerance to malaria relies on a tissue damage-control mechanism that operates specifically in renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC). This protective response relies on the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (; HO-1) and ferritin H chain () via a mechanism that involves the transcription-factor nuclear-factor E2-related factor-2 (). As it accumulates in plasma and urine during the blood stage of infection, labile heme is detoxified in RPTEC by HO-1 and FTH, preventing the development of acute kidney injury, a clinical hallmark of severe malaria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1822024116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431151PMC
March 2019

Potential Role of H-Ferritin in Mitigating Valvular Mineralization.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2019 03;39(3):413-431

From the HAS-UD Vascular Biology and Myocardial Pathophysiology Research Group, Hungarian, Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (K.É.S., L.P., M.O., N.P., G.B., J.B.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Hungary.

Objective- Calcific aortic valve disease is a prominent finding in elderly and in patients with chronic kidney disease. We investigated the potential role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease. Approach and Results- Cultured valvular interstitial cells of stenotic aortic valve with calcification from patients undergoing valve replacement exhibited significant susceptibility to mineralization/osteoblastic transdifferentiation in response to phosphate. This process was abrogated by iron via induction of H-ferritin as reflected by lowering ALP and osteocalcin secretion and preventing extracellular calcium deposition. Cellular phosphate uptake and accumulation of lysosomal phosphate were decreased. Accordingly, expression of phosphate transporters Pit1 and Pit2 were repressed. Translocation of ferritin into lysosomes occurred with high phosphate-binding capacity. Importantly, ferritin reduced nuclear accumulation of RUNX2 (Runt-related transcription factor 2), and as a reciprocal effect, it enhanced nuclear localization of transcription factor Sox9 (SRY [sex-determining region Y]-box 9). Pyrophosphate generation was also increased via upregulation of ENPP2 (ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-2). H-1, 2-dithiole-3-thione mimicked these beneficial effects in valvular interstitial cell via induction of H-ferritin. Ferroxidase activity of H-ferritin was essential for this function, as ceruloplasmin exhibited similar inhibitory functions. Histological analysis of stenotic aortic valve revealed high expression of H-ferritin without iron accumulation and its relative dominance over ALP in noncalcified regions. Increased expression of H-ferritin accompanied by elevation of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and IL-1β (interleukin-1β) levels, inducers of H-ferritin, corroborates the essential role of ferritin/ferroxidase via attenuating inflammation in calcific aortic valve disease. Conclusions- Our results indicate that H-ferritin is a stratagem in mitigating valvular mineralization/osteoblastic differentiation. Utilization of 3H-1, 2-dithiole-3-thione to induce ferritin expression may prove a novel therapeutic potential in valvular mineralization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.118.312191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393195PMC
March 2019

Resident macrophages reprogram toward a developmental state after acute kidney injury.

JCI Insight 2019 Jan 24;4(2). Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Nephrology Research and Training Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a devastating clinical condition affecting at least two-thirds of critically ill patients, and, among these patients, it is associated with a greater than 60% risk of mortality. Kidney mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) are implicated in pathogenesis and healing in mouse models of AKI and, thus, have been the subject of investigation as potential targets for clinical intervention. We have determined that, after injury, F4/80hi-expressing kidney-resident macrophages (KRMs) are a distinct cellular subpopulation that does not differentiate from nonresident infiltrating MPs. However, if KRMs are depleted using polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), they can be reconstituted from bone marrow-derived precursors. Further, KRMs lack major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) expression before P7 but upregulate it over the next 14 days. This MHCII- KRM phenotype reappears after injury. RNA sequencing shows that injury causes transcriptional reprogramming of KRMs such that they more closely resemble that found at P7. KRMs after injury are also enriched in Wingless-type MMTV integration site family (Wnt) signaling, indicating that a pathway vital for mouse and human kidney development is active. These data indicate that mechanisms involved in kidney development may be functioning after injury in KRMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.125503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413788PMC
January 2019