Publications by authors named "Antonis A Zorpas"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Study on the influence of advanced treatment processes on the surface properties of polylactic acid for a bio-based circular economy for plastics.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Aug 10;76:105627. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Clausthal Centre for Materials Technology (CZM), Clausthal University of Technology, Leibnizstr. 9, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany; School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechneiou St., Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

New biotechnological processes using microorganisms and/or enzymes to convert carbonaceous resources, either biomass or depolymerized plastics into a broad range of different bioproducts are recognized for their high potential for reduced energy consumption and reduced GHG emissions. However, the hydrophobicity, high molecular weight, chemical and structural composition of most of them hinders their biodegradation. A solution to reduce the impact of non-biodegradable polymers spread in the environment would be to make them biodegradable. Different approaches are evaluated for enhancing their biodegradation. The aim of this work is to develop and optimize the ultrasonication (US) and UV photodegradation and their combination as well as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma as pre-treatment technologies, which change surface properties and enhance the biodegradation of plastic by surface oxidation and thus helping bacteria to dock on them. Polylactic acid (PLA) has been chosen as a model polymer to investigate its surface degradation by US, UV, and DBD plasma using surface characterization methods like X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Confocal Laser Microscopy (CLSM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) as well as FT-IR and drop contour analysis. Both US and UV affect the surface properties substantially by eliminating the oxygen content of the polymer but in a different way, while plasma oxidizes the surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209739PMC
August 2021

Urban strategies evaluation for waste management in coastal areas in the framework of area metabolism.

Waste Manag Res 2021 Mar 9;39(3):448-465. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Environmental Conservation and Management, Laboratory of Chemical Engineering and Engineering Sustainability, Open University of Cyprus, Latsia, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Europe is considered one of the most attractive and safe prevalent tourist destinations in the entire world. Approximately half (47.4%) of European tourist visits occurred in coastal regions, defined "on the basis of and consist of local administrative units or municipalities that border the sea, or have at least half of their total surface area within a distance of 10 km from the sea." Destinations such as Malta, Greece, Cyprus, Spain and Croatia presented with an increased level of tourist accommodation establishments, as well as, the overall flow of tourism in the European Union is mostly concentrated on Mediterranean coastal regions (as nine out 10 tourists, in 2015, spent their holidays at coastal areas). This paper, is dealing with the assessment of a tourist area and how the concept of urban metabolism has been affected by touristic activities. Moreover, this research using several key performance indicators such as waste compositional analysis, the clean coast index, the accumulation rate, and accumulation index, etc., tries to measure the level of environmental performance, and furthermore, to assess the existing infrastructures and the waste management plan, that are being implemented. The results are very useful, for any policy-maker, as well as competent authorities and/or tourist organizations which are dealing with tourist activities and aim to propose or re-schedule any waste strategy targeting the goals of United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, European Green Deal, and the new circular economy strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0734242X20972773DOI Listing
March 2021

Measuring the level of environmental performance in insular areas, through key performed indicators, in the framework of waste strategy development.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 25;753:141974. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Open University of Cyprus, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Environmental Conservation and Management, Laboratory of Chemical Engineering and Engineering Sustainability, P.O. Box 12794, 2252, Latsia, Nicosia, Cyprus. Electronic address:

To measure "something that is not there", is not easy and at the same time not fully understandable and perceived by the citizens. Several elements (such as, waste production, waste management cost, social attitude and behaviour, etc.) interrupt and disturb any strategy in the framework of waste management. Additionally, through the European Green Deal (EGD), Europe is trying to achieve climate neutrality by 2050, taking into account the Circular Economy Strategy (CES) and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDGs). A Driving Force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) breakdown was applied, to establish and organize key information's on the environmental performance (E.P) taking into consideration the existing pollution, reviewing the contemporary knowledge and existing implemented waste strategies on the driving forces, pressures, states and impacts. This paper includes several key performed indicators (KPIs), in order to evaluate the E.P of an area, through hybrid approach which cover among others, the waste compositional analysis, SWOT and PESTEL analysis, waste recycling and waste accumulation index, prevention activities, awareness activities etc. The results indicate that, the selected areas implement periodic measures, but they need to put more effort to boost their citizens to participate in any proposed waste strategy. Furthermore, the results are very valuable and helpful to policy makers, consultants, scientists, competent authorities, stakeholders etc., in order to design and promote synergies and activities (mainly in Local Authorities), to reach the proposed figures that EGD, proposed in relation with the CES as well as with the SDGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141974DOI Listing
January 2021

Detailed municipal solid waste composition analysis for Nur-Sultan City, Kazakhstan with implications for sustainable waste management in Central Asia.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 7;28(19):24406-24418. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Environmental Science & Technology Group (ESTg), Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

A detailed characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) beyond a standard compositional analysis may offer insights useful for improving waste management systems. The present paper contributes to the scarce literature in the field by presenting new data from a rapidly developing Central Asian city, the capital of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan. Three sampling campaigns (each 1 week long) have been conducted at the city landfill over a 1-year period (2018-2019), and a detailed characterization for selected waste components and sub-components has been performed. The major fractions of MSW were organics (46.3%), plastics (15.2%), paper (12.8%), and diapers (5.9%). The detailed composition analysis showed high LDPE (low-density polyethylene) content (5.5%) mostly comprised of plastic bags (4.5%), transparent glass (3.2%), pharmaceuticals (0.4%), and fine (i.e., < 12 mm) organic fraction content (29%). The MSW generation rate of Nur-Sultan was estimated as 1.47 kg capita day based on the field collection as well as literature data. Among sustainable waste management recommendations addressed for Nur-Sultan and applicable to other cities in Central Asia, composting is recommended due to high organics fraction in MSW and its great potential to reduce the landfilled waste volume and to help valorizing the waste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08431-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Sustainable metropolitan areas perspectives through assessment of the existing waste management strategies.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 18;28(19):24305-24320. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Laboratory of Chemical Engineering and Engineering Sustainability, Environmental Conservation and Management, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Open University of Cyprus, 33 Giannou Kranidioti, Nicosia, 2252, Latsia, Cyprus.

Human activities are considered among the main producers of any kind of pollution. This paper, through a Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model analyses, focuses on the evaluation and assessment of the existing practices, procedures, and results obtained in order to determine whether the municipal solid waste (MSW) management implemented in three major Greek municipalities in the greater urban area of Attica, namely the municipalities of Nea Smirni, Vyronas, and Piraeus, could be considered viable and sustainable. The evaluation indicated that MSW in Greek cities have reduced over the last years, also suggesting a steady downward trend, which could be considered consistent with that of the per capita incomes in Greece due to the extended economic austerity, while at the same time the recycling indicator seems to optimize. The results are very useful for policymakers and local authorities towards taking actions related to the targets set from the circular economy strategies as well as the targets set from United Nation Development Program and the European Green Deal Strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07930-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Strategy development in the framework of waste management.

Authors:
Antonis A Zorpas

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 3;716:137088. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Open University of Cyprus, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Environmental Conservation and Management, Lab of Chemical Engineering and Engineering Sustainability, Giannou Kranidioti Ave 33, 2220 Latsia, Nicosia, Cyprus. Electronic address:

Taking into account the declaration from the Treaty of Rome (back in 1957), on environmental protection "the harmonization of environmental legislations and uniformity in the fight against certain forms of aid, so that technical barriers to the free circulation of goods would not arise due to different national links", there is a need to develop Strategy(ies) in the Framework of Waste Management in order to reach the targets on 2050. Those Strategies aim to increase quality of life and change the way that citizens react in the great debates. Those Strategies should reduce the impact of several processes on the environment through product, processes, and corporate policies using green applicable sustainable resources and environmental management systems (such as ISO 14001, EMAS) as well as a number of activities (prevention, reduced, reused etc) measuring at the same time the impact on society. This paper provides a holistic approach processing how to develop, implement, monitor and improve a strategy (even an existing one) in the framework of waste management at a local level and or at a central level. The proposed methodology could be a useful tool for any policy makers, consultants, engineers, urban planners, academics etc., in order to develop and apply strategy related with household and/or food waste prevention, material reuse, waste reduce (i.e plastics, food, recyclables etc)., in the framework of household solid waste management and beyond. Moreover, the adoption of Strategy(ies) also aims to protect and enhance the Union's natural capital and to turn the Union into a resource-efficient, green, and competitive low-carbon economy in the nearest future taking into acount also the European Green Deal stategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137088DOI Listing
May 2020

Quality protocol and procedure development to define end-of-waste criteria for tire pyrolysis oil in the framework of circular economy strategy.

Waste Manag 2019 Jul 11;95:161-170. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Open University of Cyprus, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Environmental Conservation and Management, Lab of Chemical Engineering and Engineering Sustainability, Giannou Kranidioti Ave 33, 2220, Latsia, Nicosia, Cyprus. Electronic address:

The requirements to define End-of-Waste Criteria (EWC) were set in the Waste Framework Directive (WFD), Article 6 and the detailed data collected are considered to be the baseline for the elaboration of the operational EWC through several steps. Such waste stream (which is produced from End of Life Tires-ELT) could be a valuable source for energy recovery and can be used on a pan-European basis as an alternative fuel, for co-incineration in cement plants or furthermore in internal compunctions engines. The exploration for sustainable energy is one of the most dynamic areas of research currently. This study aims to investigate the ability to manage and exploit the energy content of Tire Pyrolysis Oil (TPO), through pyrolysis technology as incineration/co-incineration technology for ELTs presents significant environmental issues. However, TPO, must be declassified from waste in order to be able to be use as an alternative fuel in internal combustion engines for power generation participating in the loop of circular economy and industrial symbiosis. This paper focus on the development of a Quality Protocol (QP) and the procedure how to develop EWC for the declassification of TPO in order to replace Light Fuel Oil (LFO).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.05.035DOI Listing
July 2019

Tire waste management system in Cyprus in the framework of circular economy strategy.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Dec 24;26(35):35445-35460. Epub 2019 May 24.

Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Environmental Conservation and Management, Laboratory of Chemical Engineering and Engineering Sustainability, Open University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 12794, Latsia, 2252, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Worldwide, waste raised from tires counts 1.3-1.5 billion tonnes/year and by the end of 2025, is expected to be more than 2.5 billion tonnes. On 2013, the EU countries reached 3.6 million tonnes of used tires. However, the cheapest treatment method since now is landfilling and is considered to be a major threat for the environment and the public health. In Cyprus, the total tires that were imported on 2015 was 835,142 pieces (5.8% more than the 2014), which were equal to 9638 t, while at the same time, the total waste from those tires were 6629 tonnes. Moreover, the cement industry used 6691 tonnes of tires as alternative fuel. Until now, there are three management systems in place in Cyprus, for the end-of-life tires (ELTs). The collection of ELTs on 2011 was 1817 tonnes while at the end of 2016 was 7201 tonnes. The main treatment methods in Cyprus are the use of ELTs as alternative fuel in cement industry or to produce rubber granules (609-2738 tonnes/year) to be used to construct artificial surfaces or substrate for artificial lawn grounds and limited to pyrolysis (324-837 tonnes/year). At the same time, the environmental fees for the collection of tires varies and depends on the tire category. Furthermore, the market share of ELTs is up to 1.5 million € and the total recovery index from the market is closed to 90% the last 6 years (2013-2017). This paper evaluates and assess the existing tire waste management system (TWMS) in Cyprus in order to promote strength and weakness as well as to propose a holistic management system in insular communities in order to adopt the targets set by the concept of circular economy. The SWOT analysis identified as the main weaknesses the absence from the legislation of specific target for the recovery index of tires and the absence of any centralized logistic system to control the existing management systems while the main threats includes bureaucracy and the absence of technical and economic data which will guarantee the financial viability of a centralized treatment unit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05131-zDOI Listing
December 2019

The use of wastes (organic and inorganic) in land restoration in relation to their characteristics and cost.

Waste Manag Res 2019 May 22;37(5):502-507. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

2 Laboratory of Chemical Engineering and Engineering Sustainability, Open University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

The great extent of degraded soils in southeast Spain makes it necessary to carry out restoration and rehabilitation strategies. In addition, the great amount of wastes produced need to be properly managed. Several types of wastes and amendments (organic and inorganic) can be applied for soil rehabilitation and land restoration. When large areas must be restored several aspects should be considered, such as availability of the waste, its characteristics, and transport. This research focuses on the characterization and the cost of 12 waste types and amendments (such as sewage sludge compost, brown peat, black peat, fertilized peat, earthworm humus, straw hay, palm tree leaves, pine bark, exfoliated vermiculite, expanded perlite, limestone outcrops, and volcanic crushed stones) obtained from four different sources. All of them were characterized following the UNE standards for soil amendments and the cost was obtained as a mean value of four different sources. The results indicate a great variability of properties between organic and inorganic materials, as was expected. Depending on the type of restoration, the characteristics, and the cost, the materials can be selected for an adequate purpose. Sewage sludge compost is a good alternative for application in large areas related to its characteristics (organic matter content and nutrient availability) and low cost. For inorganic amendments, natural limestone outcrops were the low-cost alternative. The use of both wastes (composted sewage sludge and limestone raw materials) for soil rehabilitation can facilitate the reduction of landfill disposal and add value for these wastes. Moreover, the results are very useful for scientists and engineers who deal with the development of rehabilitation and restoration strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0734242X19828171DOI Listing
May 2019

The concept of circular economy strategy in food waste management for the optimization of energy production through anaerobic digestion.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 May 30;26(15):14766-14773. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Environmental Conservation and Management, Laboratory of Chemical Engineering and Engineering Sustainability, Open University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 12794, 2252, Latsia, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Food waste management (FWM) is considered to be an extremely important social issue besides an environmental one. Worldwide, it is estimated that 1.3 billion t/year of foods are disposed of in landfills (including edible and inedible foods). Moreover, FAO indicated that if food waste (FW) was a country, it could be the 3rd biggest CO producer after China and the USA with more than 3.5-4.2 billion of t equivalence CO. Each citizen in the entire EU produces approximately 179 kg/year FW equal more or less with 600 €/year. This paper focuses on the concept of circular economy (CE) and how can we optimize and improve the production of biogas from UASB-R (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor) using FW and natural minerals (clinoptilolite). The study was elaborated through laboratory scale experiments using different mixtures of FW, liquid waste from slaughterhouse (LWS), and natural clinoptilolite (Cli). The amount of biogas produced and the methane content of biogas were used as indicators in order to monitor and asses the performance of the anaerobic digester. The results of the present study were encouraging towards the use of FW in existing anaerobic treatment plants, suggesting selective collection at source of FW, diversion from landfills, and use as a secondary resource for energy recovery through a transition to a CE. The results indicate that the use of FW with zeolite duplicates the production of CH within the same days of production compared with the control sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3519-4DOI Listing
May 2019

Passengers waste production during flights.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 20;25(36):35764-35775. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Environmental Conservation and Management, Laboratory of Chemical Engineering and Engineering Sustainability, Cyprus Open University, P.O.Box 12794, 2252, Latsia, Nicosia, Cyprus.

We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0800-xDOI Listing
December 2018

Disposal of household pharmaceuticals in insular communities: social attitude, behaviour evaluation and prevention activities.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Sep 25;25(27):26725-26735. Epub 2017 Jun 25.

Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Environmental Conservation and Management, Laboratory of Chemical Engineering and Engineering Sustainability, Cyprus Open University, P.O.Box 12794, 2252, Latsia, Nicosia, Cyprus.

The increase in medicine and drug consumption have resulted in identifying these emerging pollutants in all aquatic compartments, ranging from surface water and groundwater resources to the marine environment. Pharmaceuticals are an indispensable part of life today. A large number of pharmaceuticals are used in a daily basis in the treatment, prevention, cure or diagnosis of diseases or to otherwise enhance people's physical or mental well-being. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the attitude of citizens in Cyprus regarding the disposal of pharmaceuticals as well as to identify the main reasons why pharmaceutical wastes are produced. The result indicted that in Cyprus, there is lack of data regarding the amount of pharmaceutical wastes that are discarded into household waste and sinks. The survey audit showed that 86.6% of men's and 83.3% of women's used pharmacy with or without doctor's recipe. Social behaviour is considered to be the most significant reason that pharmaceutical are produced. The results indicated that, citizens mainly keep unused medicines and drugs at home in case they are needed again as well as patients use to cut-off or to reduce their treatment in case that on the first 3-6 days they feel better. The survey indicated that the main disposal method of unused or expired medicines and drugs is in household waste followed from the sink and the toilet. Furthermore, the main disposal solution of unused or expired medicines and drugs remain the household bin as well as the sewage system (sink or toilet), while a percentage more than 55% of the participants indicated that they will follow a specific waste management program if existing in place. Moreover, in order to reduce the production of pharmaceutical wastes, specific prevention activities must be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9551-yDOI Listing
September 2018

Effectiveness of waste prevention program in primary students' schools.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Jun 20;24(16):14304-14311. Epub 2017 Apr 20.

Department of Research and Development, I.E.S.T-EnviTech Ltd (Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, P.O.Box 34073, 5309, Paralimni, Cyprus.

Even though reducing waste is at the top of the waste hierarchy, no real decoupling between waste generation and consumption has been demonstrated. Several waste directives had been published from EU, but they have only brought minor changes within the key objective of reducing waste generation. Most efforts have been targeted towards greater amounts of recycling and better management of waste disposal. While these are necessary and socially beneficial goals, they are not adequate for the achievement of long-term sustainability goals. The purpose of this study is to understand students' knowledge, attitudes and behavioural changes in relation to the water plastic bottle of 500 ml. Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable schools' principals, local authorities and committees as well as decision makers to design and implement more effective policies for reducing the amount of specific waste streams that is generated. Students in a daily base bring their own water containers of 500 ml or buy water from the school as they do not feel safe to use other sources of water. Nine hundred ninety-eight refilling stainless steel water refilling bottles (SSWRB-of 600 ml) were shared to the students in four primary schools. The results indicated that the students are presented with different behaviours from class to class for many reasons; most of them are related with what their parents believe, and how themselves or the synergies between them reacts and affected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8968-7DOI Listing
June 2017

Sustainable waste management through end-of-waste criteria development.

Authors:
Antonis A Zorpas

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Apr 22;23(8):7376-89. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Environmental Conservation and Management, Cyprus Open University, Giannou Kranidioti str 22, Latsia-Nicosia, Cyprus.

The Waste Framework Directive 2000/98 (WFD) contains specific requirements to define end-of-waste criteria (EWC). The main goal of EWC is to remove and eliminate the administrative loads of waste legislation for safe and high-quality waste materials, thereby facilitating and assisting recycling. The target is to produce effective with high quality of recyclables materials, promoting product standardization and quality and safety assurance, and improving harmonization and legal certainty in the recyclable material markets. At the same time, those objectives aim to develop a plan in order to improve the development and wider use of environmental technologies, which reduce pressure on environment and at the same time address the three dimensions of the Lisbon strategy: growth, jobs and environment. This paper presents the importance of EWC, and the approach of setting EWC as EWC affect several management systems as well as sustainable and clean technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5990-5DOI Listing
April 2016

Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans.

Waste Manag 2015 Apr 15;38:3-11. Epub 2015 Feb 15.

Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea, Greece.

Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2015.01.030DOI Listing
April 2015

Measuring waste prevention.

Waste Manag 2013 May 1;33(5):1047-56. Epub 2013 Mar 1.

Cyprus Open University, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Environmental Conservation and Management, P.O. Box 12794, 2252 Latsia, Nicosia, Cyprus.

The Waste Framework Directive (WFD-2008/98/EC) has set clear waste prevention procedures, including reporting, reviewing, monitoring and evaluating. Based on the WFD, the European Commission and will offer support to Member States on how to develop waste prevention programmes through guidelines and information sharing on best practices. Monitoring and evaluating waste prevention activities are critical, as they constitute the main tools to enable policy makers, at the national and local level, to build their strategic plans and ensure that waste prevention initiatives are effective and deliver behaviour change. However, how one can measure something that is not there, remains an important and unresolved research question. The paper reviews and attempts to evaluate the methods that are being used for measuring waste prevention and the impact of relevant implemented activities at the household level, as the available data is still limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.12.017DOI Listing
May 2013

Combination of Fenton oxidation and composting for the treatment of the olive solid residue and the olive mile wastewater from the olive oil industry in Cyprus.

Bioresour Technol 2010 Oct;101(20):7984-7

Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, Department of Research and Development, Laboratory of Environmental Friendly Technology, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 Paralimni, Cyprus.

Co-composting of olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process has been studied as an alternative method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants in small olive oil industry in Cyprus. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of Fenton Process and the COD is reduced up to 70%. The final co-composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) is presented with optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose. The final product coming out from an in-Vessel reactor seems to mature faster than the product from the windrow system and is presented with a better soil conditioner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.05.030DOI Listing
October 2010

Sawdust and natural zeolite as a bulking agent for improving quality of a composting product from anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge.

Bioresour Technol 2008 Nov 24;99(16):7545-52. Epub 2008 Apr 24.

ENVITECH Ltd., Laboratory of Environmental Technology (Research Institute), Griva Digeni 37, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 Paralimni, Cyprus.

This study has dealt with the production of compost from dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) and sawdust (SWD). SWD is added in order to increase the humic substances in the final product. The DASPSS is mixed with clinoptilolite (Cli), which is used as a bulking agent at 20% w/w, and the mixture is amended with sawdust at 10%, 30% and 40% (w/w). The final results have indicated that by increasing the sawdust concentration in the initial mixture, the humic substances in the final product increase too. The natural zeolite that was added in the initial mixture takes up a significant amount of heavy metals. In order to observe the maturity of the final product, the germination index is used in oat cultivation. The results indicate that the substrate appears to be non-phytotoxic after 75 d of maturity. Also, in order to estimate the metal leachability of the final compost product, the generalized acid neutralization capacity procedure is applied, and it is found that by increasing the pH values, the heavy metal concentrations decrease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.02.014DOI Listing
November 2008

Heavy metals fractionation before, during and after composting of sewage sludge with natural zeolite.

Waste Manag 2008 Nov 26;28(11):2054-60. Epub 2007 Nov 26.

Environmental Technology Research Institute, Griva Digeni 37, P.O. BOX 34073, Paralimni, 5309, Cyprus.

The main limiting factor, in order to use compost in agriculture, is the total concentration of heavy metals. Natural zeolites, such as clinoptilolite, have the ability to take up and remove those metals by utilizing ion exchange. However, it is important to know about the fractionation of the heavy metals during the thermophilic phase and the maturation phase. The purpose of this work was to determine the changes in the fraction of heavy metals in sewage sludge compost in which clinoptilolite is used as a bulking agent to remove metals. The final result indicates that a significant (p < 0.05) percentage of the metals, which is not removed by the zeolite, is associated with the residual fraction which is considered as an inert form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2007.09.006DOI Listing
November 2008

Particle size effects on uptake of heavy metals from sewage sludge compost using natural zeolite clinoptilolite.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2002 Jun;250(1):1-4

Chemical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heeron Politechniou Street, Zografou Campus, Athens, 15780, Greece.

Land application of sewage sludge may be the least energy consuming and the most cost-effective means of sludge disposal or utilization. However, the major technical problem with land application of sludge concerns the high concentrations of heavy metals. These metals may be leached and enter the ecosystem, the food chain, and eventually the human population. This paper deals with the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge compost using natural zeolite clinoptilolite, in respect to the particle size. The final results indicate that heavy metals can be sufficiently removed by using 25% w/w of zeolite with particle size of 3.3-4.0 mm. Pore clogging and structural damage in smaller particle sizes is probably the reason for lower uptake of metals by the latter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2002.8246DOI Listing
June 2002

Waste paper and clinoptilolite as a bulking material with dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) for compost production.

Waste Manag 2003 ;23(1):27-35

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Environmental problems associated with sewage sludge disposal have prompted strict legislative actions over the past few years. At the same time, the upgrading and expansion of wastewater treatment plants have greatly increased the volume of sludge generated. The major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential for high heavy metal content in relation to the metal content of the original sludge. Composting of sewage sludge with natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) can enhance its quality and suitability for agricultural use. However, the dewatered anaerobically stabilized primary sewage sludge (DASPSS) contained a low concentration of humic substances (almost 2%), and the addition of the waste paper was necessary in order to produce a good soil conditioner with high concentrations of humics. The final results showed that the compost produced from DASPSS and 40-50% w/w of waste paper was a good soil fertilizer. Finally, in order to estimate the metal leachability of the final compost product, the generalized acid neutralization Capacity (GANC) procedure was used, and it was found that by increasing the leachate pH, the heavy metal concentration decreased. The application of the sequential chemical extraction indicated that metals were bound to the residual fraction characterized as a stabilize fractions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-053X(02)00042-9DOI Listing
June 2003
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