Publications by authors named "Antonio G Bruno"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Target Lesion Failure With Current Drug-Eluting Stents: Evidence From a Comprehensive Network Meta-Analysis.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 12;13(24):2868-2878

Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, IRCCS Policlinico di St. Orsola, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of currently used drug-eluting stents (DES).

Background: Head-to-head comparisons among newer DES have shown conflicting results.

Methods: For this network meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials comparing different types of currently used DES were searched in PubMed, Scopus, and proceedings of international meetings. The primary endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF) at 1 year and at long-term follow-up.

Results: Seventy-seven trials with 99,039 patients were selected for this network meta-analysis. Among the 10 DES included in the meta-analysis, 4 received the most extensive investigation: Orsiro, XIENCE, Nobori/BioMatrix, and Resolute. At 1 year, the Orsiro stent was associated with lower rates of TLF compared with XIENCE (odds ratio [OR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 0.98; p = 0.03), Resolute (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.95; p = 0.01), and Nobori/BioMatrix (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.98; p = 0.03). Orsiro had the highest probability to be the best (70.8%), with a surface under the cumulative ranking curve value of 95.9%. However, after a median follow-up period of 50 months (range: 24 to 60 months), no significant difference was apparent in the rates of TLF between any DES, although Orsiro still ranked as the best stent (58.6% probability to be the best). In addition, Orsiro had a lower rate of long-term definite stent thrombosis compared with Nobori/BioMatrix (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.98; p = 0.04) and lower rates of definite and probable stent thrombosis compared with Resolute (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.99; p = 0.04). No differences in cardiac mortality between any DES were observed.

Conclusions: Orsiro is associated with a lower 1-year rate of TLF compared with XIENCE, Resolute, and Nobori/BioMatrix but with an attenuation of the efficacy signal at long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.09.014DOI Listing
December 2020

Optical coherence tomography assessment of macrophages accumulation in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2020 Nov;21(11):860-865

Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna.

Aims: To investigate in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) the prevalence and the features of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-detected macrophages accumulation in culprit plaques as compared with nonculprit plaques (NCP).

Methods: The study is a post-hoc analysis of a prospective study aimed at evaluating the relationship between aortic inflammation as assessed by F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET and features of coronary plaque vulnerability as assessed by OCT. We enrolled 32 patients with first NSTE-ACS who successfully underwent three-vessel OCT.

Results: The median age was 65 (54-72) years and 27 patients (84%) were men. Culprit plaques were clinically defined. Overall, the rate of lipid plaques and lipid plaques containing macrophages were 6.4 and 4.2 per patient, respectively. Culprit plaques had a smaller minimal luminal area, a higher extension of lipid component and a thinner fibrous cap than NCPs. Macrophages accumulations were more likely found in culprit plaque (84 vs. 61%, P = 0.015) in which they had also a higher circumferential extension. On univariable analysis, macrophages accumulation extension had a higher association with culprit plaques (odds ratio = 4.42; 95% confidence interval; 2.54-9.15, P < 0.001) than the mere presence of macrophages accumulation (odds ratio = 3.36; 95% confidence interval; 1.30-8.66, P = 0.012). Culprit plaques with thrombus had a lower distance between macrophages accumulation and the luminal surface than culprit plaque with no thrombus (0.06 vs. 0.1 mm; P = 0.04).

Conclusion: In patients with NSTE-ACS, macrophages accumulations are more likely present in culprit plaque in which they disclose also a greater extension compared with those observed in NCP. The distance between macrophages accumulation and the luminal surface is lower in thrombotic culprit plaque than that in nonthrombotic culprit plaque.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000001015DOI Listing
November 2020

Impact of Elective, Uncomplicated Target Lesion Revascularization on Cardiac Mortality After Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Disease.

Am J Cardiol 2020 08 13;128:94-100. Epub 2020 May 13.

Cardiology Unit, Cardio-Thoraco-Vascular Department, University Hospital of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

This study sought to investigate the impact of elective, uncomplicated target lesion revascularization (TLR) on long-term cardiac mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. Consecutive patients undergoing PCI for ULMCA disease between January 2003 and December 2015 in 1 interventional center in Northern Italy were included. Patients presenting with cardiogenic shock, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI), as well as those undergoing urgent or complicated TLR were excluded. The primary endpoint of the study was cardiac mortality. Among the 418 patients fulfilling the study criteria, 79 (18.46%) underwent elective, uncomplicated TLR. After a median follow-up of 5.5 years, there were 23 cardiac deaths among patients undergoing elective, uncomplicated TLR versus 50 in patients not undergoing TLR. After adjusting for possible confounders, TLR was an independent predictor of cardiac mortality (Hazard ratio [HZ] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 3.49; p = 0.03). Patients undergoing TLR had also significantly higher rates of the composite of cardiac death, MI and stroke compared with the no TLR group (adjusted HR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.72). In conclusion, elective, uncomplicated TLR after PCI of ULMCA disease is associated with increased risk of long-term cardiac mortality. Reducing the risk of TLR after PCI of ULMCA disease may potentially improve the survival of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.04.053DOI Listing
August 2020

Coronary Protection to Prevent Coronary Obstruction During TAVR: A Multicenter International Registry.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 03 12;13(6):739-747. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of coronary protection by preventive coronary wiring and stenting across the coronary ostia in patients at high risk for coronary obstruction after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Background: Coronary obstruction following TAVR is a life-threatening complication with high procedural and short-term mortality.

Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from a multicenter international registry between April 2011 and February 2019.

Results: Among 236 patients undergoing coronary protection with preventive coronary wiring, 143 had eventually stents implanted across the coronary ostia after valve deployment. At 3-year follow-up, rates of cardiac death were 7.8% in patients receiving stents and 15.7% in those not receiving stents (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.14 to 1.28; p = 0.13). There were 2 definite stent thromboses (0.9%) in patients receiving stents, both occurring after TAVR in "valve-in-valve" procedures. In patients not receiving stents, there were 4 delayed coronary occlusions (DCOs) (4.3%), occurring from 5 min to 6 h after wire removal. Three cases occurred in valve-in-valve procedures and 1 in a native aortic valve procedure. Distance between the virtual transcatheter valve and the protected coronary ostia <4 mm was present in 75.0% of patients with DCO compared with 30.4% of patients without DCO (p = 0.19).

Conclusions: In patients undergoing TAVR at high risk for coronary obstruction, preventive stent implantation across the coronary ostia is associated with good mid-term survival rates and low rates of stent thrombosis. Patients undergoing coronary protection with wire only have a considerable risk for DCO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2019.11.024DOI Listing
March 2020

Impact of coronary bypass or stenting on mortality and myocardial infarction in stable coronary artery disease.

Int J Cardiol 2020 06 23;309:63-69. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Italy.

Background: To assess whether coronary bypass (CABG) or stenting reduce the risk of mortality and myocardial infarction (MI) compared with optimal medical therapy (OMT) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of contemporary randomized controlled trials comparing OMT, CABG and different stent types in stable CAD. All-comer trials were included if the rate of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was≤20%. Endpoints were all-cause mortality and MI.

Results: Ninety-seven trials including 75,754 patients were analyzed at a weighted mean follow up of 42.5 months. Compared to OMT, CABG was associated with a lower risk of death (OR = 0.84; 95%CI:0.71-0.97). After exclusion of trials in left main and/or multivessel disease(LM/MVD) this benefit was not statistically significant (OR = 0.89; 95%CI:0.74-1.06). CABG was associated with a lower risk of MI (OR = 0.67;95%CI: 0.49-0.91) showing, however, a certain degree of inconsistency (p=0.10). None of the stent types included was associated with a lower risk of death. However, durable-polymer-CoCr-everolimus-eluting stent, by mixed evidence, after exclusion of either LM/MVD (OR = 0.73;95%CI: 0.54-0.98) or all-comer/post-MI trials (OR = 0.62;95%CI:0.39-0.98) was associated with a lower risk of MI than OMT. Similar findings, by indirect evidence, were confirmed for bio-absorbable-polymer-CoCr-sirolimus eluting stent (LMV/MVD trials excluded OR = 0.46; 95%CI = 0.29-0.74, all-comer/post-MI trials excluded: OR = 0.41;95%CI:0.22-0.79).

Conclusions: In stable CAD, CABG reduces the risk of mortality and MI compared to OMT, especially in patients with higher extent of CAD. Our study suggests that some of second and latest-generation drug-eluting stents may reduce the risk of MI. Future research should confirm these latter findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.01.054DOI Listing
June 2020

In vitro thrombogenicity of drug-eluting and bare metal stents.

Thromb Res 2020 01 14;185:43-48. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Columbia University Medical Center/New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY, United States.

Aims: We sought to investigate the thrombogenicity of different DES and BMS in an in vitro system of stent perfusion.

Material And Methods: The experimental model consisted of a peristaltic pump connected to 4 parallel silicone tubes in which different stents were deployed. Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers and the amount of stent surfaced-induced thrombus deposition was determined using I-fibrinogen.

Results: Compared to Resolute, Biomatrix and Vision, Xience was associated with the lowest amount of stent surface-induced thrombus formation, with a significant difference compared to Vision (I-fibrinogen median value deposition [IQ range]: 50 ng [25-98] versus 560 ng [320-1520], respectively, p < 0.05), but not to other DES. In the second set of experiments Fluoropolymer-coated BMS not eluting drug was associated with a significant 3-fold reduction in I-fibrinogen deposition (245 ng [80-300]) compared to Vision (625 ng [320-760], p < 0.05), but a 7-fold increase compared to Xience (35 ng [20-60], p < 0.05). Finally Xience was associated with a significantly greater absorption of albumin compared to BMS.

Conclusions: In an in vitro system of stent perfusion, Xience was associated with the lowest amount of stent surface-induced thrombus formation compared with Resolute, Biomatrix and Vision, with a noted synergistic effect between the fluoropolymer and the drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2019.11.016DOI Listing
January 2020

Coronary artery disease and reasonably incomplete coronary revascularization in high-risk patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2020 01 27;95(1):19-27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Cardiology Unit, Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, University Hospital of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate the long-term impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart team-guided incomplete coronary revascularization in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

Background: Revascularization strategy of CAD diagnosed with routine coronary angiography before TAVI is uncertain.

Methods: Five hundred and forty consecutive TAVI patients were classified as having CAD or normal coronary arteries (no-CAD). Within the CAD group, patients were further classified as those with complete (CR) versus incomplete revascularization (IR). Revascularization strategy was guided by the Heart Team following an algorithm largely based on current guidelines. Main outcome of interest was the incidence of 5-year cardiovascular (CV) death.

Results: Prevalence of CAD was 53.9%. CAD patients showed significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF: 55.8 ± 13.4% CAD vs. 61.4% ± 12.1 no-CAD, p < .0001), lower gradients, and larger ventricular volumes in comparison with the no-CAD group. Within the CAD group, 138 patients (47.4%) received CR and 153 (52.6%) IR. In-hospital mortality was 3.9%, without significant difference between groups (4.0% no-CAD vs. 3.8% CAD, p = .88; 2.9% CR vs. 4.6% IR, p = .45). Median follow-up was 57.8 months. Five-year survival free from CV death was 79.6% in the CAD versus 77.9% in the no-CAD group (p = .98), and 84.3% in the CR versus 74.3% in the IR groups (p = .25). These results were confirmed excluding patients with previous revascularization. At multivariable analyses, presentation with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was significantly associated with 5-year CV death.

Conclusions: CAD is frequent in patients undergoing TAVI but portends an adverse prognosis only when presenting with ACS. Heart-team directed complete or reasonably incomplete revascularization was associated with comparable outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.28211DOI Listing
January 2020

Risk-Benefit Profile of Longer-Than-1-Year Dual-Antiplatelet Therapy Duration After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation in Relation to Clinical Presentation.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2019 03;12(3):e007541

Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY (P.G., T.P.V., G.W.S.).

Background: We sought to determine whether the risks and benefits of prolonging dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) beyond 1 year after drug-eluting stent implantation depend on clinical presentation in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Methods And Results: Randomized controlled trials comparing ≤1- versus >1-year DAPT after drug-eluting stent placement were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and proceedings of international meetings. The primary efficacy end point was myocardial infarction, whereas the primary safety end point was major bleeding. Net clinical benefit was defined as the composite of myocardial infarction or major bleeding. Outcomes were analyzed according to patient presentation with stable ischemic heart disease versus acute coronary syndromes. The meta-analysis included 6 trials with a total of 21 457 patients, including 14 132 with stable ischemic heart disease and 7325 with acute coronary syndrome. After a median follow-up of 19.5 months, ≤1-year DAPT was associated with higher rates of myocardial infarction compared with >1-year DAPT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; 95% CI, 1.37-1.95), with no interaction apparent between treatment effect and clinical presentation. Shorter DAPT was associated with reduced rates of major bleeding compared with longer DAPT (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.99) with no significant interaction between treatment effect and clinical presentation. However, a net clinical benefit of >1-year DAPT was present in patients with acute coronary syndrome (HR of shorter versus longer DAPT, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.24-2.02) but not in those with stable ischemic heart disease (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.89-1.51; P=0.04). Shorter DAPT was also associated with lower rates of noncardiac mortality compared with longer DAPT (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.96), with no significant interaction between treatment effect and clinical presentation ( P=0.12).

Conclusions: Compared with ≤1-year DAPT, >1-year DAPT reduces the risk of myocardial infarction but increases the risk of major bleeding and noncardiac mortality. A net clinical benefit of extended DAPT was apparent for patients with acute coronary syndrome but not for those with stable ischemic heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.118.007541DOI Listing
March 2019

Mortality Following Nonemergent, Uncomplicated Target Lesion Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Individual Patient Data Pooled Analysis of 21 Randomized Trials and 32,524 Patients.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2018 05 18;11(9):892-902. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; Clinical Trials Center, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to investigate the impact of nonemergent, uncomplicated target lesion revascularization (TLR) on the risk of long-term mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: Restenosis requiring TLR after PCI is generally considered a benign event.

Methods: The study pooled patient-level data from 21 randomized trials. Subjects dying the same day as or the day after the TLR procedure as well as those with myocardial infarction (MI) the day before, the same day as or the day after TLR were excluded. The primary endpoint of the study was all-cause mortality.

Results: The dataset included 32,524 patients who were stratified according to whether repeat TLR was performed during follow-up. During a median follow-up of 37 months, 2,330 (7.2%) patients underwent a nonemergent, uncomplicated TLR procedure. After adjusting for potential confounders, TLR was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio: 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.45; p = 0.02). Patients undergoing nonemergent, uncomplicated TLR had significantly higher rates of non-procedure-related MI compared with those without TVR. Among patients undergoing elective TLR, MI occurring after TLR was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio: 3.82; 95% confidence interval: 2.44 to 5.99; p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Nonemergent, uncomplicated TLR after PCI is an independent predictor of long-term mortality, an association in part explained by higher rates of MI occurring after TLR. Efforts aimed at reducing TLR risk may translate into prognostic benefits including reduced rates of MI and survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2018.01.277DOI Listing
May 2018

Physical activity in the prevention of peripheral artery disease in the elderly.

Front Physiol 2014 3;5:12. Epub 2014 Mar 3.

Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II Naples, Italy.

Aging is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are estimated to be the most common cause of death in the elderly. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) represents an important clinical manifestation of CVD leading to increase morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly population. The correct management of PAD population includes the prevention of cardiovascular events and relief of symptoms, most commonly intermittent claudication. Progressive physical activity is an effective treatment to improve walking distance and to reduce mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with PAD, however the ability to effectively engage in physical activity often declines with increasing age. The maintenance and increase of reserve functional capacity are important concepts in the elderly population. Ultimately, the goal in participation of physical activity in the healthy elderly population is maintenance and development of physical functional reserve capacity. Therefore, for individuals suffering of PAD, appropriate physical activity in the form of supervised exercise may serve as a primary therapy. Although there are few direct comparisons of therapeutic exercise programs vs. pharmacological or surgical interventions, these increases in walking distance are greater than those reported for the most widely used agents for claudication, pentoxyphylline, and cilostazol. Despite a reduction in mortality and improvement of quality of life caused by physical activity in the PAD population, the molecular, cellular, and functional changes that occur during physical activity are not completely understood. Therefore, this review article aims at presenting an overview of recent established clinical and molecular findings addressing the role of physical activity on PAD in the older population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2014.00012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3939939PMC
June 2014