Publications by authors named "Antonio Caprioli"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Potential Therapeutic Value of a Novel FAAH Inhibitor for the Treatment of Anxiety.

PLoS One 2015 11;10(9):e0137034. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

School of Medicine, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Centro Europeo di Ricerca sul Cervello (CERC)/IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy.

Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric diseases with high personal costs and a remarkable socio-economic burden. However, current treatment of anxiety is far from satisfactory. Novel pharmacological targets have emerged in the recent years, and attention has focused on the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, given the increasing evidence that supports its central role in emotion, coping with stress and anxiety. In the management of anxiety disorders, drug development strategies have left apart the direct activation of type-1 cannabinoid receptors to indirectly enhance eCB signalling through the inhibition of eCB deactivation, that is, the inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme. In the present study, we provide evidence for the anxiolytic-like properties of a novel, potent and selective reversible inhibitor of FAAH, ST4070, orally administered to rodents. ST4070 (3 to 30 mg/kg per os) administered to CD1 male mice induced an increase of time spent in the exploration of the open arms of the elevated-plus maze. A partial reduction of anxiety-related behaviour by ST4070 was also obtained in Wistar male rats, which moderately intensified the time spent in the illuminated compartment of the light-dark box. ST4070 clearly inhibited FAAH activity and augmented the levels of two of its substrates, N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and N-palmitoylethanolamine, in anxiety-relevant brain regions. Altogether, ST4070 offers a promising anxiolytic-like profile in preclinical studies, although further studies are warranted to clearly demonstrate its efficacy in the clinic management of anxiety disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0137034PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4567375PMC
May 2016

Animal models of Parkinson׳s disease: Effects of two adenosine A2A receptor antagonists ST4206 and ST3932, metabolites of 2-n-Butyl-9-methyl-8-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-9H-purin-6-ylamine (ST1535).

Eur J Pharmacol 2015 Aug 30;761:353-61. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

Research & Development Area, Sigma-tau, Italy.

Antagonism of the adenosine A2A receptor represents a promising strategy for non-dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson׳s disease (PD). Previously, the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ST1535 was shown to possess potential beneficial effects in animal models of PD. Two metabolites of ST1535, namely ST3932 and ST4206, were tested in vitro to assess their affinity and activity on cloned human A2A adenosine receptors, and their metabolic profile. Additionally, ST3932 and ST4206 were investigated in vivo in animal models of PD following oral/intraperitoneal administration of 10, 20 and 40mg/kg using ST1535 as a reference compound. ST3932 and ST4206 displayed high affinity and antagonist behaviour for cloned human adenosine A2A receptors. The Ki values for ST1535, ST3932 and ST4206 were 8, 8 and 12nM, respectively, and their IC50 values on cyclic AMP were 427, 450 and 990nM, respectively. ST1535, ST3932 and ST4206 antagonized (orally) haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice, potentiated (intraperitoneally) the number of contralateral rotations induced by l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) (3mg/kg) plus benserazide (6mg/kg) in 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, and increased mouse motor activity by oral route. Thus, ST3932 and ST4206, two ST1535 metabolites, show a pharmacological activity similar to ST1535, both in vitro and in vivo, and may be regarded as an interesting pharmacological alternative to ST1535.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.070DOI Listing
August 2015

Discovery of potent inhibitors of human and mouse fatty acid amide hydrolases.

J Med Chem 2012 Aug 26;55(15):6898-915. Epub 2012 Jul 26.

European Research Centre for Drug Discovery and Development (NatSynDrugs), Università degli Studi di Siena , Via Aldo Moro 2, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, EC 3.5.1.99) is the main enzyme catabolizing endocannabinoid fatty acid amides. FAAH inactivation promotes beneficial effects upon pain and anxiety without the side effects accompanying agonists of type-1 cannabinoid receptors. Aiming at discovering new selective FAAH inhibitors, we developed a series of compounds (5a-u) characterized by a functionalized heteroaromatic scaffold. Particularly, 5c and 5d were identified as extremely potent, noncompetitive, and reversible FAAH inhibitors endowed with a remarkable selectivity profile and lacking interaction with the hERG channels. In vivo antinociceptive activity was demonstrated for 5c, 5d, and 5n at a dose much lower than that able to induce either striatal and limbic stereotypies or anxiolytic activity, thus outlining their potential to turn into optimum preclinical candidates. Aiming at improving pharmacokinetic properties and metabolic stability of 5d, we developed a subset of nanomolar dialyzable FAAH inhibitors (5v-z), functionalized by specific polyethereal lateral chains and fluorinated aromatic rings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm300689cDOI Listing
August 2012

The novel reversible fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor ST4070 increases endocannabinoid brain levels and counteracts neuropathic pain in different animal models.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2012 Jul 18;342(1):188-95. Epub 2012 Apr 18.

Sigma-Tau Industrie Farmaceutiche Riunite S.p.A., Via Pontina km. 30,400, 00040 Pomezia, Italy.

The effect of the enol carbamate 1-biphenyl-4-ylethenyl piperidine-1-carboxylate (ST4070), a novel reversible inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), was investigated for acute pain sensitivity and neuropathic pain in rats and mice. Brain enzymatic activity of FAAH and the endogenous levels of its substrates, anandamide (AEA; N-arachidonoylethanolamine), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), were measured in control and ST4070-treated mice. ST4070 (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to assess mechanical nociceptive thresholds and allodynia by using the Randall-Selitto and von Frey tests, respectively. Neuropathy was induced in rats by either the chemotherapeutic agent vincristine or streptozotocin-induced diabetes, whereas the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model was chosen to evaluate neuropathy in mice. ST4070 produced a significant increase of nociceptive threshold in rats and counteracted the decrease of nociceptive threshold in the three distinct models of neuropathic pain. In diabetic mice, ST4070 inhibited FAAH activity and increased the brain levels of AEA and PEA, without affecting that of 2-AG. The administration of ST4070 generated long-lasting pain relief compared with pregabalin and the FAAH inhibitors 1-oxo-1[5-(2-pyridyl)-2-yl]-7-phenylheptane (OL135) and cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-ylester (URB597) in CCI neuropathic mice. The antiallodynic effects of ST4070 were prevented by pretreatment with cannabinoid type 1 and cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonists and by the selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α antagonist [(2S)-2-[[(1Z)-1-methyl-3-oxo-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1-propenyl]amino]-3-[4-[2-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-4-oxazolyl)ethoxy]phenyl]propyl]-carbamic acid ethyl ester (GW6471). The administration of ST4070 generated long-lasting neuropathic pain relief compared with pregabalin and the FAAH inhibitors OL135 and URB597. Taken together, the reversible FAAH inhibitor ST4070 seems to be a promising novel therapeutic agent for the management of neuropathic pain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.111.191403DOI Listing
July 2012

An inhibitor of neuronal exocytosis (DD04107) displays long-lasting in vivo activity against chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2012 Jun 5;341(3):634-45. Epub 2012 Mar 5.

BCN Peptides, Sant Quintí de Mediona, Spain.

Small peptides patterned after the N terminus of the synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa, a member of the protein complex implicated in Ca(2+)-dependent neuronal exocytosis, inhibit in vitro the release of neuromodulators involved in pain signaling, suggesting an in vivo analgesic activity. Here, we report that compound DD04107 (palmitoyl-EEMQRR-NH(2)), a 6-mer palmitoylated peptide that blocks the inflammatory recruitment of ion channels to the plasma membrane of nociceptors and the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from primary sensory neurons, displays potent and long-lasting in vivo antihyperalgesia and antiallodynia in chronic models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, such as the complete Freund's adjuvant, osteosarcoma, chemotherapy, and diabetic neuropathic models. Subcutaneous administration of the peptide produced a dose-dependent antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic activity that lasted ≥24 h. The compound showed a systemic distribution, characterized by a bicompartmental pharmacokinetic profile. Safety pharmacology studies indicated that the peptide is largely devoid of side effects and substantiated that the in vivo activity is not caused by locomotor impairment. Therefore, DD04107 is a potent and long-lasting antinociceptive compound that displays a safe pharmacological profile. These findings support the notion that neuronal exocytosis of receptors and neuronal algogens pivotally contribute to chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain and imply a central role of peptidergic nociceptor sensitization to the pathogenesis of pain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.111.190678DOI Listing
June 2012

Social encounter with a novel partner in adolescent rats: activation of the central endocannabinoid system.

Behav Brain Res 2011 Jun 2;220(1):140-5. Epub 2011 Feb 2.

Section of Behavioural Neuroscience, Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy.

The endocannabinoid system is critically involved in the modulation of affect, motivation, and emotion. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that changes in the content of endocannabinoid levels might underlie adaptation to positive social conditions during adolescence. To this aim, separate pairs of adolescent (postnatal days 32-35) male Wistar rats were allowed to interact in a neutral cage under two different testing conditions, i.e. familiar (FAM) and non-familiar (NFAM) social partners. We found that adolescent rats that encountered a NFAM partner spent significantly more time Sniffing and Following the companion than subjects exposed to a FAM partner, whereas no changes in levels of rough-and-tumble play were observed. Notably, the NFAM social encounter significantly increased striatal anandamide (AEA) levels compared to both non-social controls and animals that encountered a FAM partner. Changes in AEA levels appeared to be region-specific, since no changes were observed in the other brain regions analysed, neither were they observed in the activity of the AEA-hydrolase (FAAH) nor in the content of the other major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol. In addition, animals that encountered a NFAM partner tended to explore less extensively the illuminated compartment of the light-dark box when compared to animals that had previously encountered a FAM companion. In conclusion, striatal AEA levels seem to participate in the emotional arousal resulting from a NFAM social encounter in adolescent rats, and to be particularly important for coping response to novel social contexts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2011.01.044DOI Listing
June 2011

A new group of oxime carbamates as reversible inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010 Aug 15;20(15):4406-11. Epub 2010 Jun 15.

DISMA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano, Italy.

A series of oxime carbamates have been identified as potent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an important regulatory enzyme of the endocannabinoid signaling system. Kinetic analysis indicates that they behave as non-competitive, reversible inhibitors, and show remarkable selectivity for FAAH over the other components of the endocannabinoid system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.06.050DOI Listing
August 2010

Effects of the increase in neuronal fatty acids availability on food intake and satiety in mice.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010 May 16;210(1):85-95. Epub 2010 Mar 16.

Institute of Neuroscience, National Research Council, Via del Fosso di Fiorano, 64-00143 Rome, Italy.

Rationale: Neurons detect free fatty acids (FFAs) availability and use this nutritional status to modulate feeding and control body weight.

Objectives: The work is designed to characterize the impact on feeding behavior of either oleic acid (OA) administration (experiment 1) or the inhibition (experiment 2) of the enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1). The structure of feeding behavior and satiation time course were examined through the behavioral satiety sequence (BSS) paradigm.

Methods: Adult male mice were initially habituated to a palatable diet, then subjected to intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of different doses of OA or the CPT-1 inhibitor ST1326. Food intake at different time points, duration, and frequencies of feeding and non-feeding-related behaviors were continuously monitored over 40 min and satiety development profiled according to BSS.

Results: Intra-i.c.v. infusion of oleic acid (300 nM) and ST1326 (50 and 75 pM) suppressed food intake. As indicated by the earlier leftward shifting of the normal transition from eating to resting, both strategies similarly accelerated the onset of satiety. The premature onset of satiety resulted in a dose-related fashion with 50 pM of ST1326 producing a marked premature onset than the lower dose. However, at the highest dose injected, the inhibition of CPT-1 disrupted the BSS profile.

Conclusions: The increased neuronal availability of FFAs mediates a significant anorectic response which is mirrored by an early occurrence of satiety onset. Besides supporting the role of central nutrient sensing in feeding, the present data demonstrate that the modulation of satiety enhancement can produce appetite suppressant effects within narrow range of neuronal FFAs availability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-010-1820-0DOI Listing
May 2010

30 days of continuous olanzapine infusion determines energy imbalance, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in mice.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2009 Dec;29(6):576-83

Institute of Neuroscience, National Research Council, Sigma-Tau Industrie Farmaceutiche Riunite S.p.A., Rome; Italy.

The aim of this study was to model in mice the association between metabolic syndrome and the administration of atypical antipsychotic (AAP). Two dosages (4 and 8 mg/kg per day) of olanzapine (OL) were infused in 36 female mice for 30 days by osmotic mini-pumps. This study was also designed to further extend the implications raised in other experiments by our model of AAP-induced metabolic dysregulation. Through the use of the osmotic mini-pumps, this model is aimed to circumvent the shorter (than in humans) half-life of AAPs in rodents and to chronically administer OL by a reliable and less disturbing method. Indirect calorimetry was used to evaluate metabolic rate (MR) and respiratory exchange ratio together with weight and caloric intake. Serum insulin, leptin, and glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test) were assessed. Pancreatic beta cells insulin levels, periuterine and liver fat content were also analyzed. Olanzapine-infused mice exhibited a reduction of overall MR (kilojoule per hour) and resting MR and respiratory exchange ratio, with periuterine fat significantly enlarged. All metabolic alterations were detected at the highest dose, with major effects found on weight gain and hyperphagia. Impaired glucose metabolism, associated with hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia were found. Insulin resistance was evidenced by the raise of HOMA-IR index. Increased insulin and lipid storage were detected at pancreatic and hepatic levels respectively. These findings illustrate the development of a cluster of risk factors (metabolic syndrome) and, for the first time, a decrease of energy expenditure (MR) due to chronic OL infusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181bfe13eDOI Listing
December 2009

Non-native glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase can be an intrinsic component of amyloid structures.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2008 Dec 6;1784(12):2052-8. Epub 2008 Aug 6.

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 119992 Moscow, Russia.

Interactions between different forms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and amyloid-beta peptide (1-42) were investigated by direct (surface plasmon resonance) and indirect (kinetics of spontaneous and GroEL/S-assisted reactivation of denatured GAPDH) methods. It was demonstrated that non-native forms of GAPDH obtained by different ways (cold denaturation, oxidation of the enzyme, and its unfolding in guanidine hydrochloride) efficiently bind to soluble amyloid-beta peptide (1-42) yielding a stable complex. Native tetrameric GAPDH does not interact with soluble amyloid-beta peptide (1-42), neither non-native forms of GAPDH interact with aggregated amyloid-beta peptide (1-42). The results suggest that non-native GAPDH species can be involved in the formation of amyloid structures during Alzheimer's disease, binding to soluble amyloid-beta peptide (1-42).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2008.07.013DOI Listing
December 2008

Sporadic autonomic dysregulation and death associated with excessive serotonin autoinhibition.

Science 2008 Jul;321(5885):130-3

Mouse Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Via Ramarini 32, 00015 Monterotondo, Italy.

Sudden infant death syndrome is the leading cause of death in the postneonatal period in developed countries. Postmortem studies show alterations in serotonin neurons in the brainstem of such infants. However, the mechanism by which altered serotonin homeostasis might cause sudden death is unknown. We investigated the consequences of altering the autoinhibitory capacity of serotonin neurons with the reversible overexpression of serotonin 1A autoreceptors in transgenic mice. Overexpressing mice exhibited sporadic bradycardia and hypothermia that occurred during a limited developmental period and frequently progressed to death. Moreover, overexpressing mice failed to activate autonomic target organs in response to environmental challenges. These findings show that excessive serotonin autoinhibition is a risk factor for catastrophic autonomic dysregulation and provide a mechanism for a role of altered serotonin homeostasis in sudden infant death syndrome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1157871DOI Listing
July 2008

Olanzapine (LY170053, 2-methyl-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno[2,3-b][1,5] benzodiazepine), but not the novel atypical antipsychotic ST2472 (9-piperazin-1-ylpyrrolo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazepine), chronic administration induces weight gain, hyperphagia, and metabolic dysregulation in mice.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2008 Sep 20;326(3):905-11. Epub 2008 Jun 20.

Institute of Neuroscience, National Research Council, Via del Fosso di Fiorano, 64-00143 Rome, Italy.

A mouse model of atypical antipsychotic-associated adverse effects was used to compare the liability to induce weight gain, food intake, and metabolic alterations after chronic olanzapine (OL; LY170053, 2-methyl-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno-[2,3-b][1,5] benzodiazepine) and ST2472 (ST; 9-piperazin-1-ylpyrrolo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazepine) administration. By adding two equipotent doses (3 and 6 mg/kg) of either OL or ST to a high-sweet, high-fat (HS-HF) diet, mice were allowed to self-administer drugs up to 50 days. Body weight and food intake were evaluated daily. Locomotor activity was recorded over 48 h at two different time points. Dyslipidemia was measured by central visceral obesity. Blood serum levels of insulin (IN), glucose (Glu), triglycerides (TGs), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), cholesterol (Ch), and ketone (Ke) bodies were quantified. OL treatment at 3 mg/kg enhanced body weight, whereas at the highest dose, the increase became evident only during the last 10 days of treatment. OL (3 mg/kg) increased HS-HF intake over time, whereas the highest dose reduced intake during the second 10 and final 10 days of administration. Both compounds induced nocturnal hypomotility at the highest dose. In contrast to ST, 3 mg/kg OL elevated serum levels of IN, Glu, TG, NEFA, Ch, and Ke, whereas 6 mg/kg OL elevated those of Glu, TG, and Ch. In contrast, ST did not affect weight gain, food intake, and metabolic markers. Given the similarities between OL-induced obesogenic effects and medical reports, this study further supports the view that ST may represent a new class of agents characterized by a low propensity to induce side effects with promising clinical safety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.108.137240DOI Listing
September 2008

The effect of early maternal separation on brain derived neurotrophic factor and monoamine levels in adult heterozygous reeler mice.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2008 Jul 7;32(5):1269-76. Epub 2008 Apr 7.

Section of Behavioral Neuroscience, Dept. Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy.

Objective And Methods: The reeler heterozygous (HZ) mice have provided a model for studying the relationship between reelin (a protein of extracellular matrix) haploinsufficiency and the emergence of neuropsychiatric diseases. In a neurodevelopmental framework, the enduring consequences of early maternal separation (5 h/day during the first postnatal week, or handling controls, H) were studied in reeler HZ and wild type (WT) mice at adulthood. The modulatory effects of a chronic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine (OLZ, 1.5 mg/kg for 40 days) were also investigated.

Results: Early maternal separation had long-term effects on brain plasticity, with a reduction of brain- and glial- derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and GDNF) in several brain areas of mice, but such a consequence was less marked in the HZ genotype. On the other hand, treatment with OLZ did not affect at all the GDNF but led to an increase of BDNF levels in maternally separated (SEP) mice, an effect which was far more marked in the HZ genotype. Brain levels of serotonin (5-HT) were markedly increased, striatal dopamine (DA) was increased, whereas metabolites and turnover were decreased, in SEP mice of both genotypes. The spontaneous home-cage activity was generally lower in HZ than WT mice, and OLZ treatment contrasted this hypoactivity profile. Maternal separation also decreased the interest toward an unknown mouse proposed as a social stimulus, but only in WT mice.

Conclusion: We investigated the interplay between genetic vulnerability (reelin haploinsufficiency), the outcome of early stressful experiences, and the efficacy of the antipsychotic drug therapy. The reeler HZ genotype exhibited a slightly lower sensitivity to the environmental insult as well as an enhanced response to the atypical antipsychotic treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2008.03.023DOI Listing
July 2008

Valproate and acetyl-L-carnitine prevent methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization in mice.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007 Dec;1122:260-75

National Research Council (C.N.R.), Institute of Neuroscience, Via del Fosso di Fiorano, 64-00143 Rome, Italy.

This study deals with the possible inhibitory role played by acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) against methamphetamine (METH)-induced behavioral sensitization. Because valproate (VAL) inhibits the behavioral sensitization exerted by different psychostimulants, we investigated ALC's potential to prevent the amplification of METH-mediated psychomotor effects. We therefore evaluated the locomotor effects of VAL or ALC alone or in combination with METH after acute (day 1) as well as repeated (day 7) drug challenge. Finally, to assess the induction of behavioral sensitization, we also recorded the METH-mediated locomotor response after 7 days of drug suspension (day 15). Results showed that both VAL and ALC prevented the METH-induced sensitization. Another interesting observation was the significantly higher METH-induced hyperactivity at day 15 (after a 7-day drug-free period), indicating that behavioral sensitization developed during the washout period. Results also showed that both the acute and repeated coadministration of METH with either VAL or ALC inhibited METH-induced hyperactivity. We present different hypotheses concerning similar but also peculiar mechanisms that might underlie the preventive action of VAL and ALC. These data add to a growing body of literature that illustrates the potential of ALC in protecting against the insult of dysfunctional mitochondrial metabolism and psychostimulant-mediated neurotoxicity. By demonstrating an in vivo action against one of the most abused drugs, these results raise the possibility of beneficial effects of ALC in abuse behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1403.019DOI Listing
December 2007

Decrease of dehydrogenase activity of cerebral glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in different animal models of Alzheimer's disease.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2007 May 4;1770(5):826-32. Epub 2007 Feb 4.

School of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992, Russia.

Recently, a relationship between glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP) in relationship with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been suggested. Therefore, we studied the specific activity of GAPDH in the different animal models of AD: transgenic mice (Tg2576) and rats treated with beta-amyloid, or thiorphan, or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and interferon gamma (INFgamma). We observed that GAPDH activity was significantly decreased in the brain samples from TG mice. The injection of beta-amyloid, or thiorphan, an inhibitor of neprilysin involved in beta-amyloid catabolism, in rat brains resulted in a pronounced reduction of the enzyme activity. The infusion of LPS and IFNgamma, which can influence the progression of the AD, significantly reduced the enzyme activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2007.01.014DOI Listing
May 2007

Motor impulsivity in APP-SWE mice: a model of Alzheimer's disease.

Behav Pharmacol 2006 Sep;17(5-6):525-33

Behavioural Neuroscience Section, Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

Among transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, APP-SWE mice have been shown to develop beta-amyloid plaques and to exhibit progressive impairment of cognitive function. Human Alzheimer's disease, however, also includes secondary clinical manifestations, spanning from hyperactivity to agitation. The aim of this study was a better characterization of motor impulsivity in APP-SWE mice, observed at 12 months of age, when levels of soluble beta-amyloid are elevated and beta-amyloid neuritic plaques start to appear. Mice were tested for spatial learning abilities in the Morris water maze (seven daily sessions, four trials per day). The distance traveled to reach the hidden platform showed a learning curve in both groups. This profile, however, was somewhat delayed in APP-SWE mice, thus confirming slightly impaired spatial capacities. To evaluate motor impulsivity, animals were trained to nose-poke for a food reward, which was delivered after a waiting interval that increased over days (15-60 s). Further nose-poking during this signaled waiting interval resulted in food-reward loss and electric-shock punishment. APP-SWE mice received an increased quantity of punishment and were able to earn fewer food rewards, suggesting inability to wait already at the lowest delay. After the animals were killed, prefrontal cortex samples were assessed for neurochemical parameters. Serotonin turnover was elevated in the prefrontal cortex of APP-SWE mice compared with controls. The results clearly confirm cognitive deficits, and are consistent with the hypothesis of reduced behavioral-inhibition abilities. Together with recent findings, APP-SWE mice emerge as a suitable animal model, characterized by a number of specific behavioral alterations, resembling primary and secondary symptoms of human Alzheimer's disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008877-200609000-00019DOI Listing
September 2006

Aspects of spatial memory and behavioral disinhibition in Tg2576 transgenic mice as a model of Alzheimer's disease.

Behav Brain Res 2005 Jan;156(2):225-32

Section of Behavioural Neuroscience, Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Roma, Italy.

Transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been recently advanced. Tg2576 mice have been shown to develop progressive beta-amyloid (Abeta) neuritic plaques and exhibit impairment of cognitive function. The aim of this study was a better characterization of different aspects of spatial memory performance of transgenic mice, observed at a time when levels of soluble Abeta are elevated and Abeta neuritc plaques start to appear. A general elevation of basal locomotory activity in the home cage was found in Tg2576 mice, which also exhibited an impairment of spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze test. Tg2576 mice were not flexible upon changes in the schedule and failed to codify spatially the testing environment. Consistently, a deficit of spatial memory was also observed when mice were assessed for levels of reactivity to spatial change in the modified open-field test with objects. Compared to controls, Tg2576 mice also exhibited an increased number of explorative approaches to the different objects, and failed to discriminate the displacement of the object. Consistently with the hypothesis of increased disinhibition, a differential behavioural response to the plus-maze paradigm was exhibited by Tg2576 mice. Results clearly indicate that Tg2576 mice are characterized by a number of specific behavioral cognitive alterations, compatible with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which make them a suitable animal model for testing of novel anti-AD drugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2004.05.028DOI Listing
January 2005

Preserved fronto-striatal plasticity and enhanced procedural learning in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease overexpressing mutant hAPPswe.

Learn Mem 2004 Jul-Aug;11(4):447-52

CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Laboratory of Psychobiology and Psychopharmacology, IRCCS S. Lucia Foundation, 00179 Rome, Italy.

Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene inducing abnormal processing and deposition of beta-amyloid protein in the brain have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although Tg2576 mice with the Swedish mutation (hAPPswe) exhibit age-related Abeta-plaque formation in brain regions like the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the cortex, these mice show a rather specific deficit in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks. In view of recent findings showing that neural systems subserving different forms of learning are not simply independent but that depressing or enhancing one system affects learning in another system, we decided to investigate fronto-striatal synaptic plasticity and related procedural learning in these mutants. Fronto-striatal long-term depression (LTD) induced by tetanic stimulation of the cortico-striatal input was similar in Tg2576 and wild-type control mice. Behavioral data, however, pointed to an enhancement of procedural learning in the mutants that showed robust motor-based learning in the cross maze and higher active avoidance scores. Thus, in this mouse model of AD, an intact striatal function associated with an impaired hippocampal function seems to provide neural conditions favorable to procedural learning. Our results suggest that focusing on preserved or enhanced forms of learning in AD patients might be of interest to describe the functional reorganization of the brain when one memory system is selectively compromised by neurological disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/lm.80604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC498330PMC
September 2004

Acetyl-L-carnitine reduces impulsive behaviour in adolescent rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004 Nov 8;176(3-4):296-304. Epub 2004 May 8.

Behavioural Neuroscience Section, Dept. Cell Biology & Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanita', viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.

The attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can affect human infants and adolescents. One important feature of this disorder is behavioural impulsivity. This study assessed the ability of chronic acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC, saline or 100 mg/kg SC, plus 50 mg/kg orally) to reduce impulsivity in a validated animal model for ADHD. Food-restricted rats were tested during adolescence (postnatal days, pnd, 30-45) in operant chambers with two nose-poking holes, one delivering one food pellet immediately, and the other five pellets after a delay. Delay length was increased over days (from 0 to 80 s). Individual differences in the preference-delay curve emerged, with the identification of two distinct subpopulations, i.e. one with a nearly horizontal curve and another with a very steep ("impulsive") slope. The impulsivity profile was slightly but consistently reduced by chronic ALC administration. Consistent results were also obtained with methylphenidate (MPH, saline or 3 mg/kg IP twice daily). Impulsive rats exhibited a lower metabolite/serotonin (5HIAA/5HT) ratio in the medial frontal cortex (MFC) and lower noradrenaline (NA) levels in the MFC and cingulate cortex (CC) when compared with the other subgroup. The ALC treatment increased NA levels in the CC and the 5HIAA/5HT ratio in both CC and MFC. Present data suggest that ALC, a drug devoid of psychostimulant properties, may have some beneficial effects in the treatment of ADHD children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-004-1892-9DOI Listing
November 2004

The spontaneously hypertensive-rat as an animal model of ADHD: evidence for impulsive and non-impulsive subpopulations.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2003 Nov;27(7):639-51

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanita', viale Regina Elena 299, Roma I-00161, Italy.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome, affecting human infants and adolescents. Two main behavioural features are reported: (1). impaired attention and (2). an impulsive-hyperactive behavioural trait. The latter has been studied in a series of experiments, using the spontaneously hypertensive-rat (SHR) strain (which is regarded as a validated animal model for ADHD) in operant tasks. Food-restricted SHRs and their Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) controls were tested during adolescence (i.e. post-natal days 30-45), in operant chambers provided with two nose-poking holes. Nose-poking in one hole (H1) resulted in the immediate delivery of a small amount of food, whereas nose-poking in the other hole (H5) delivered a larger amount of food after a delay, which was increased progressively each day (0-100 s). As expected, all animals showed a shift in preference from the large (H5) to the immediate (H1) reinforcer as the delay length increased. Impulsivity can be measured by the steepness of this preference-delay curve. The two strains differed in home-cage circadian activity, SHRs being more active than WKYs at several time-points. During the test for impulsivity, inter-individual differences were completely absent in the WKY strain, whereas a huge inter-individual variability was evident for SHRs. On the basis of the median value of average hole-preference, we found an 'impulsive' SHR subgroup, with a very quick shift towards the H1 hole, and a flat-slope ('non-impulsive') SHR subgroup, with little or no shift. The impulsive subpopulation also presented reduced noradrenaline levels in both cingulated and medial-frontal cortex, as well as reduced serotonin turnover in the latter. Also, cannabinoid CB1 receptor density resulted significantly lower in the prefrontal cortex of impulsive SHRs, when compared to both the non-impulsive subgroup and control WKYs. Interestingly, acute administration of a cannabinoid agonist (WIN 55,212, 2 mg/kg s.c.) normalized the impulsive behavioural profile, without any effect on WKY rats. Thus, two distinct subpopulations, differing for impulsive behaviour and specific neurochemical parameters, were evidenced within adolescent SHRs. These results support the notion that a reduced cortical density of cannabinoid CB1 receptors is associated with enhanced impulsivity. This behavioural trait can be positively modulated by administration of a cannabinoid agonist. Present results confirm and extend previous literature, indicating that adolescent SHRs represent a suitable animal model for the preclinical investigation of the early-onset ADHD syndrome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2003.08.007DOI Listing
November 2003