Publications by authors named "Antonio Calabrò"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prognostic Role of Mismatch Repair Status, Histotype and High-Risk Pathologic Features in Stage II Small Bowel Adenocarcinomas.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Feb 5;28(2):1167-1177. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Small bowel adenocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, often diagnosed in an advanced stage. In localized and resectable disease, surgery alone or in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. In the recently published National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice guidelines, criteria for selecting patients with stage II small bowel adenocarcinoma to receive adjuvant chemotherapy are provided, and they are mainly extrapolated from studies on colorectal cancer.

Patients And Methods: In the present study, we aimed to verify whether mismatch repair deficiency phenotype, high-risk pathologic features (including T4, positive resection margins and a low number of lymph nodes harvested), as well as tumor histologic subtype, were associated with cancer-specific survival in 66 stage II non-ampullary small bowel adenocarcinoma patients, collected through the Small Bowel Cancer Italian Consortium. A central histopathology review was performed. Mismatch repair deficiency was tested by immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2, and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction for microsatellite instability.

Results: We identified mismatch repair deficiency, glandular/medullary histologic subtype, and celiac disease as significant predictors of favorable cancer-specific survival using univariable analysis with retained significance in bivariable models adjusted for pT stage. Among the high-risk features, only T4 showed a significant association with an increased risk of death; however, its prognostic value was not independent of mismatch repair status.

Conclusions: Mismatch repair protein expression, histologic subtype, association with celiac disease, and, in the mismatch repair proficient subset only, T stage, may help identify patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08926-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801310PMC
February 2021

Correction: PD-L1 in small bowel adenocarcinoma is associated with etiology and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, in addition to microsatellite instability.

Mod Pathol 2020 07;33(7):1453

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Italy.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-0512-5DOI Listing
July 2020

PD-L1 in small bowel adenocarcinoma is associated with etiology and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, in addition to microsatellite instability.

Mod Pathol 2020 07 17;33(7):1398-1409. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Italy.

Small bowel adenocarcinomas (SBAs) are often associated with poor prognosis and have limited therapeutic options. Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway blockade is an effective treatment in many microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) solid tumors. We aimed at investigating PD-L1 and PD-1 expression in non-hereditary, non-ampullary SBAs, associated with celiac disease (CeD), Crohn's disease (CrD), or sporadic, recruited through the Small Bowel Cancer Italian Consortium. We assessed PD-L1 and PD-1 by immunohistochemistry in a series of 121 surgically resected SBAs, including 34 CeD-SBAs, 49 CrD-SBAs, and 38 sporadic SBAs. PD-L1 and PD-1 expression was correlated with several clinico-pathological features, such as the etiology, microsatellite instability status, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density. The prevalence of PD-L1 positivity according to combined positive score (CPS) was 26% in the whole cohort of SBAs, with significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage (35%) in both CeD-SBAs and CrD-SBAs in comparison with sporadic SBAs (5%). CPS ≥ 1 SBAs were significantly (p = 0.013) more frequent in MSI-H cases (41%) than in non-MSI-H ones (18%); however, 15 CPS ≥ 1 microsatellite stable SBAs were also identified. CPS ≥ 1 SBAs showed higher TIL and PD-1 immune cell density, more frequently medullary histotype, as well as a better outcome in comparison with CPS < 1 cases. This study demonstrates an increased proportion of PD-L1 cases in both CeD-SBAs and CrD-SBAs in comparison with sporadic SBAs. In addition, the identification of a subset of PD-L1 microsatellite stable SBAs supports the need to ascertain additional biomarkers of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors along with MSI-H.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-0497-0DOI Listing
July 2020

Small-bowel carcinomas associated with celiac disease: transcriptomic profiling shows predominance of microsatellite instability-immune and mesenchymal subtypes.

Virchows Arch 2020 May 6;476(5):711-723. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Unit of Pathology, Dept. of Medicine and Surgery and Research Center for the Study of Hereditary and Familial Tumors, University of Insubria, Via Rossi 9, 21100, Varese, Italy.

Celiac disease (CD) is a risk factor for developing small-bowel carcinoma with a 14-fold higher risk compared with general population. As small-bowel carcinomas associated with CD (CD-SBCs) are extremely rare, very few molecular data are available about their pathogenesis, and information about their transcriptomic profiling is lacking. We generated RNA-seq data on 13 CD-SBCs, taken from the largest well-characterized series published so far, collected by the Small Bowel Cancer Italian Consortium, and compared the tumor transcriptional signatures with the four Consensus Molecular Subtypes (CMS) of colorectal carcinoma by applying the "CMS classifier." CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) was evaluated using methylation-sensitive multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Up to 12 of 13 cancers fell within the two main subtypes exhibiting high immune and inflammatory signatures, i.e., subtypes 1 and 4. The first and predominant subset was commonly microsatellite unstable, and exhibited CIMP and high CD3+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration. Moreover, it showed increased expression of genes associated with T helper 1 and natural killer cell infiltration, as well as upregulation of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and proteasome pathways. By contrast, cancers falling in subtype 4 showed prominent transforming growth factor-β activation and were characterized by complement-associated inflammation, matrix remodeling, cancer-associated stroma production, and angiogenesis. Parallel histologic and histochemical analysis confirmed such tumor subtyping. In conclusion, two molecular subtypes have been consistently identified in our series of CD-SBCs, a microsatellite instability-immune and a mesenchymal subtype, the former likely associated with an indolent and the latter with a worse tumor behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-019-02675-wDOI Listing
May 2020

Intestinal Candida parapsilosis isolates from Rett syndrome subjects bear potential virulent traits and capacity to persist within the host.

BMC Gastroenterol 2018 May 2;18(1):57. Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Biology, University of Florence, Via Madonna del Piano 6, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy.

Background: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurological disorder mainly caused by mutations in MeCP2 gene. It has been shown that MeCP2 impairments can lead to cytokine dysregulation due to MeCP2 regulatory role in T-helper and T-reg mediated responses, thus contributing to the pro-inflammatory status associated with RTT. Furthermore, RTT subjects suffer from an intestinal dysbiosis characterized by an abnormal expansion of the Candida population, a known factor responsible for the hyper-activation of pro-inflammatory immune responses. Therefore, we asked whether the intestinal fungal population of RTT subjects might contribute the sub-inflammatory status triggered by MeCP2 deficiency.

Methods: We evaluated the cultivable gut mycobiota from a cohort of 50 RTT patients and 29 healthy controls characterizing the faecal fungal isolates for their virulence-related traits, antifungal resistance and immune reactivity in order to elucidate the role of fungi in RTT's intestinal dysbiosis and gastrointestinal physiology.

Results: Candida parapsilosis, the most abundant yeast species in RTT subjects, showed distinct genotypic profiles if compared to healthy controls' isolates as measured by hierarchical clustering analysis from RAPD genotyping. Their phenotypical analysis revealed that RTT's isolates produced more biofilm and were significantly more resistant to azole antifungals compared to the isolates from the healthy controls. In addition, the high levels of IL-1β and IL-10 produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the mixed Th1/Th17 cells population induced by RTT C. parapsilosis isolates suggest the capacity of these intestinal fungi to persist within the host, being potentially involved in chronic, pro-inflammatory responses.

Conclusions: Here we demonstrated that intestinal C. parapsilosis isolates from RTT subjects hold phenotypic traits that might favour the previously observed low-grade intestinal inflammatory status associated with RTT. Therefore, the presence of putative virulent, pro-inflammatory C. parapsilosis strains in RTT could represent an additional factor in RTT's gastrointestinal pathophysiology, whose mechanisms are not yet clearly understood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-018-0785-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5930502PMC
May 2018

The gliadin peptide 31-43 exacerbates kainate neurotoxicity in epilepsy models.

Sci Rep 2017 11 9;7(1):15146. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health (NeuroFarBa), Viale G. Pieraccini 6, 50139, Florence, Italy.

Many neurological disorders of gluten-related diseases (GRD), not directly referable to the gastrointestinal tract, have been reported in association with celiac disease (CD), including ataxia, neuropathy and epilepsy. In particular, people with epilepsy diagnosed with CD seems to be characterized by intractable seizure. In these patients, gluten restriction diet has resulted in a reduction of both seizure frequency and antiepileptic medication. Many hypotheses have been suggested, however, molecular mechanisms that associates GRD and epileptogenesis are yet unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of the toxic gliadin peptide 31-43 in in vivo and in vitro models of kainate-induced-epilepsy. We observed that p31-43 exacerbates kainate neurotoxicity in epilepsy models, through the involvement of the enzymatic activity of transglutaminases. Moreover, electrophysiological recordings in CA3 pyramidal neurons of organotypic hippocampal slices show that p31-43 increases the inward current induced by kainate, the average sEPSC amplitude and the total number of evoked action potentials when applicated alone, thus suggesting that p31-43 is able to influence CA3-CA1 neurotransmission and can potentiate postsynaptic kainate receptors. Our results suggest a possible mechanism underlying the relationship between GRD and epilepsy through a potentiation of kainate-induced neurotoxicity and links the toxic effects of gluten to epilepsy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-14845-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5680182PMC
November 2017

Small Bowel Carcinomas in Coeliac or Crohn's Disease: Clinico-pathological, Molecular, and Prognostic Features. A Study From the Small Bowel Cancer Italian Consortium.

J Crohns Colitis 2017 Aug;11(8):942-953

Internal Medicine, San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background And Aims: An increased risk of small bowel carcinoma [SBC] has been reported in coeliac disease [CD] and Crohn's disease [CrD]. We explored clinico-pathological, molecular, and prognostic features of CD-associated SBC [CD-SBC] and CrD-associated SBC [CrD-SBC] in comparison with sporadic SBC [spo-SBC].

Methods: A total of 76 patients undergoing surgical resection for non-familial SBC [26 CD-SBC, 25 CrD-SBC, 25 spo-SBC] were retrospectively enrolled to investigate patients' survival and histological and molecular features including microsatellite instability [MSI] and KRAS/NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, HER2 gene alterations.

Results: CD-SBC showed a significantly better sex-, age-, and stage-adjusted overall and cancer-specific survival than CrD-SBC, whereas no significant difference was found between spo-SBC and either CD-SBC or CrD-SBC. CD-SBC exhibited a significantly higher rate of MSI and median tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes [TIL] than CrD-SBC and spo-SBC. Among the whole SBC series, both MSI─which was the result of MLH1 promoter methylation in all but one cases─and high TIL density were associated with improved survival at univariable and stage-inclusive multivariable analysis. However, only TILs retained prognostic power when clinical subgroups were added to the multivariable model. KRAS mutation and HER2 amplification were detected in 30% and 7% of cases, respectively, without prognostic implications.

Conclusions: In comparison with CrD-SBC, CD-SBC patients harbour MSI and high TILs more frequently and show better outcome. This seems mainly due to their higher TIL density, which at multivariable analysis showed an independent prognostic value. MSI/TIL status, KRAS mutations and HER2 amplification might help in stratifying patients for targeted anti-cancer therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjx031DOI Listing
August 2017

New evidences on the altered gut microbiota in autism spectrum disorders.

Microbiome 2017 02 22;5(1):24. Epub 2017 Feb 22.

Institute of Agriculture Biology and Biotechnology, National Research Council (CNR), Via Moruzzi 1, 56124, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by social and behavioural impairments. In addition to neurological symptoms, ASD subjects frequently suffer from gastrointestinal abnormalities, thus implying a role of the gut microbiota in ASD gastrointestinal pathophysiology.

Results: Here, we characterized the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of autistic individuals demonstrating the presence of an altered microbial community structure. A fraction of 90% of the autistic subjects were classified as severe ASDs. We found a significant increase in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in autistic subjects due to a reduction of the Bacteroidetes relative abundance. At the genus level, we observed a decrease in the relative abundance of Alistipes, Bilophila, Dialister, Parabacteroides, and Veillonella in the ASD cohort, while Collinsella, Corynebacterium, Dorea, and Lactobacillus were significantly increased. Constipation has been then associated with different bacterial patterns in autistic and neurotypical subjects, with constipated autistic individuals characterized by high levels of bacterial taxa belonging to Escherichia/Shigella and Clostridium cluster XVIII. We also observed that the relative abundance of the fungal genus Candida was more than double in the autistic than neurotypical subjects, yet due to a larger dispersion of values, this difference was only partially significant.

Conclusions: The finding that, besides the bacterial gut microbiota, also the gut mycobiota contributes to the alteration of the intestinal microbial community structure in ASDs opens the possibility for new potential intervention strategies aimed at the relief of gastrointestinal symptoms in ASDs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-017-0242-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5320696PMC
February 2017

Age and Gender Affect the Composition of Fungal Population of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

Front Microbiol 2016 3;7:1227. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council Florence, Italy.

The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here, we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal (GI) tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C), to acidic and oxidative stress, and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals' life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics-based approaches to fungal gut populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4971113PMC
August 2016

Altered gut microbiota in Rett syndrome.

Microbiome 2016 07 30;4(1):41. Epub 2016 Jul 30.

Institute of Biometeorology (IBIMET), National Research Council (CNR), Via Giovanni Caproni 8, I-50145, Florence, Italy.

Background: The human gut microbiota directly affects human health, and its alteration can lead to gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammation. Rett syndrome (RTT), a progressive neurological disorder mainly caused by mutations in MeCP2 gene, is commonly associated with gastrointestinal dysfunctions and constipation, suggesting a link between RTT's gastrointestinal abnormalities and the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of RTT subjects integrating clinical, metabolomics and metagenomics data to understand if changes in the gut microbiota of RTT subjects could be associated with gastrointestinal abnormalities and inflammatory status.

Results: Our findings revealed the occurrence of an intestinal sub-inflammatory status in RTT subjects as measured by the elevated values of faecal calprotectin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. We showed that, overall, RTT subjects harbour bacterial and fungal microbiota altered in terms of relative abundances from those of healthy controls, with a reduced microbial richness and dominated by microbial taxa belonging to Bifidobacterium, several Clostridia (among which Anaerostipes, Clostridium XIVa, Clostridium XIVb) as well as Erysipelotrichaceae, Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Eggerthella, Escherichia/Shigella and the fungal genus Candida. We further observed that alterations of the gut microbiota do not depend on the constipation status of RTT subjects and that this dysbiotic microbiota produced altered short chain fatty acids profiles.

Conclusions: We demonstrated for the first time that RTT is associated with a dysbiosis of both the bacterial and fungal component of the gut microbiota, suggesting that impairments of MeCP2 functioning favour the establishment of a microbial community adapted to the costive gastrointestinal niche of RTT subjects. The altered production of short chain fatty acids associated with this microbiota might reinforce the constipation status of RTT subjects and contribute to RTT gastrointestinal physiopathology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-016-0185-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4967335PMC
July 2016

Synthetic peptides reproducing tissue transglutaminase-gliadin complex neo-epitopes as probes for antibody detection in celiac disease patients' sera.

J Med Chem 2015 Feb 26;58(3):1390-9. Epub 2015 Jan 26.

Laboratory of Peptide and Protein Chemistry and Biology, University of Florence , I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

Celiac disease (CD) patients usually present high levels of circulating IgA antibodies directed to different antigens, in particular tissue transglutaminase (tTG), gliadin (Glia), and endomysium. A series of synthetic peptide constructs containing cross-linked tTG and Glia deamidated peptides have been synthesized. Peptides were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays against celiac disease patients' sera versus normal blood donors, and their conformational features were evaluated by molecular modeling techniques. Four peptides were recognized as epitopes by autoantibodies (IgG class) circulating in CD patients' sera before gluten-free diet. The peptide II, containing Ac-tTG(553-564)-NH2 sequence cross-linked with deamidated Ac-α2-Glia(63-71)-NH2, was able to identify specific disease antibodies with a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 94.4%. Structural conformations of the linear fragments Ac-tTG(553-564)-NH2 and Ac-α2-Glia(63-71)-NH2 and the corresponding cross-linked peptide II were calculated by molecular modeling. Results showed that cross-linking is determinant to assume conformations, which are not accessible to the linear fragments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm5017126DOI Listing
February 2015

A metabolomic perspective on coeliac disease.

Autoimmune Dis 2014 9;2014:756138. Epub 2014 Feb 9.

Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM), University of Florence, Via L. Sacconi 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy ; FiorGen Foundation, Via L. Sacconi 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

Metabolomics is an "omic" science that is now emerging with the purpose of elaborating a comprehensive analysis of the metabolome, which is the complete set of metabolites (i.e., small molecules intermediates) in an organism, tissue, cell, or biofluid. In the past decade, metabolomics has already proved to be useful for the characterization of several pathological conditions and offers promises as a clinical tool. A metabolomics investigation of coeliac disease (CD) revealed that a metabolic fingerprint for CD can be defined, which accounts for three different but complementary components: malabsorption, energy metabolism, and alterations in gut microflora and/or intestinal permeability. In this review, we will discuss the major advancements in metabolomics of CD, in particular with respect to the role of gut microbiome and energy metabolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/756138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3934717PMC
June 2014

Non-Celiac Gluten sensitivity: the new frontier of gluten related disorders.

Nutrients 2013 Sep 26;5(10):3839-53. Epub 2013 Sep 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60121, Italy.

Non Celiac Gluten sensitivity (NCGS) was originally described in the 1980s and recently a "re-discovered" disorder characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected with either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). Although NCGS frequency is still unclear, epidemiological data have been generated that can help establishing the magnitude of the problem. Clinical studies further defined the identity of NCGS and its implications in human disease. An overlap between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and NCGS has been detected, requiring even more stringent diagnostic criteria. Several studies suggested a relationship between NCGS and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly autism and schizophrenia. The first case reports of NCGS in children have been described. Lack of biomarkers is still a major limitation of clinical studies, making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten related disorders. Recent studies raised the possibility that, beside gluten, wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors and low-fermentable, poorly-absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates can contribute to symptoms (at least those related to IBS) experienced by NCGS patients. In this paper we report the major advances and current trends on NCGS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu5103839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820047PMC
September 2013

Are patients with potential celiac disease really potential? The answer of metabonomics.

J Proteome Res 2011 Feb 13;10(2):714-21. Epub 2010 Dec 13.

Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM), University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder caused by a permanent sensitivity to gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Accurate diagnosis of CD at an early stage and its treatment with a gluten-free diet (GFD) are important for optimum treatment and prognosis. Recently, by employing a noninvasive metabonomic approach, we have shown that CD has a well-defined metabonomic signature. Here we address potential CD patients, defined as subjects who do not have, and have never had, a jejunal biopsy consistent with clear CD, and yet have immunological abnormalities similar to those found in celiac patients. Sixty-one overt CD patients at diagnosis, 29 patients with potential CD, and 51 control subjects were examined by (1)H NMR of their serum and urine: out of 29 potential CD patients, 24 were classified as CD and 5 as control subjects. Potential CD largely shares the metabonomic signature of overt CD. Most metabolites found to be significantly different between control and CD subjects were also altered in potential CD. Our results demonstrate that metabolic alterations may precede the development of small intestinal villous atrophy and provide a further rationale for early institution of GFD in patients with potential CD, as recently suggested by prospective clinical studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr100896sDOI Listing
February 2011

The metabonomic signature of celiac disease.

J Proteome Res 2009 Jan;8(1):170-7

Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM), University of Florence, Via L.Sacconi 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

Celiac disease (CD) is a multifactorial disorder involving genetic and environmental factors, thus, having great potential impact on metabolism. This study aims at defining the metabolic signature of CD through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) of urine and serum samples of CD patients. Thirty-four CD patients at diagnosis and 34 healthy controls were examined by (1)H NMR of their serum and urine. A CD patients' subgroup was also examined after a gluten-free diet (GFD). Projection to Latent Structures provided data reduction and clustering, and Support Vector Machines provided pattern recognition and classification. The classification accuracy of CD and healthy control groups was 79.7-83.4% for serum and 69.3% for urine. Sera of CD patients were characterized by lower levels (P < 0.01) of several metabolites such as amino acids, lipids, pyruvate and choline, and by higher levels of glucose and 3-hydroxybutyric acid, while urines showed altered levels (P < 0.05) of, among others, indoxyl sulfate, meta-[hydroxyphenyl]propionic acid and phenylacetylglycine. After 12 months of GFD, all but one of the patients were classified as healthy by the same statistical analysis. NMR thus reveals a characteristic metabolic signature of celiac disease. Altered serum levels of glucose and ketonic bodies suggest alterations of energy metabolism, while the urine data point to alterations of gut microbiota. Metabolomics may thus provide further hints on the biochemistry of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr800548zDOI Listing
January 2009

Usefulness of the organ culture system in the in vitro diagnosis of coeliac disease: a multicentre study.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2006 Feb;41(2):186-90

Department of Clinical Sciences, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Diagnosis of coeliac disease is based on the presence of villous atrophy which recovers following a gluten-free diet. The presence of circulating antiendomysial antibodies as well as their disappearance after a gluten-free diet supports the diagnosis. It has also been demonstrated that antiendomysial antibodies are detectable in supernatants of cultured intestinal biopsies from patients with coeliac disease. The objective of this study was to compare the histology and antiendomysial antibodies in culture supernatants of intestinal biopsies to validate the in vitro organ culture system as a future diagnostic tool for coeliac disease.

Material And Methods: Seventy-five antiendomysial serum-positive patients on a gluten-containing diet were evaluated. Patients underwent endoscopy with 5 biopsy fragments: 3 for histology, 1 cultured with and the other without gliadin-peptide activator. Antiendomysial antibodies were evaluated in all culture supernatants.

Results: Sixty-eight patients had evidence of villous atrophy, while 73 out of 75 were positive to the organ culture system. The agreement rate between organ culture and histology results was 94%.

Conclusions: As all the centres participating in the study obtained good agreement between organ culture and histology results, the new system could be considered a reliable tool for the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Nevertheless, it is possible to highlight cases with an organ culture-positive and -negative histology. This feature could be of considerable interest because, as the sensitivity of organ culture seems to be greater than the initial histology, the new system might be useful in uncertain cases where the risk of missing the diagnosis of coeliac disease is high.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365520510024151DOI Listing
February 2006

Spatial and temporal pattern of expression of interstitial collagenase, stromelysin/transin, gelatinase A, and TIMP-1 during experimental gastric ulcer healing.

Digestion 2004 16;70(2):127-38. Epub 2004 Sep 16.

Department of Clinical Pathophysiology, Gastroenterology Unit, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Background/aim: Controlled proteolysis is a prerequisite for cell migration, angiogenesis, and matrix remodelling during gastric ulcer healing. We studied the temporal and spatial expression of three matrix metalloproteinases, gelatinase A (MMP-2), interstitial collagenase (MMP-13), stromelysin (MMP-3), and their major inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) during experimental gastric ulcer healing induced in rats by acetic acid injection.

Methods: Gastric tissue specimens were hybridized with antisense (35)S-labelled RNA probes and the autoradiographic signal was analyzed by a computer aided image system. Gelatinase activity was analyzed by in situ and gel zymography.

Results: During gastric ulcer healing, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-13 RNA expression was increased in stromal cells of the gastric mucosa bordering the ulcer, suggesting a prevalent role of non-epithelial cells in pericellular proteolysis. Gelatinolytic activity was increased during ulcer healing and it was associated with extracellular matrix of the healing mucosa and newly formed vessels. In contrast to MMP-2 RNA, which was homogeneously distributed in all layers of the ulcer bed, MMP-3 and MMP-13 RNAs were confined to the upper layers of the granulation tissue. TIMP-1 RNA was detected in both epithelial and stromal cells of the gastric mucosa adjacent to the ulcer, as well as in the granulation tissue of the ulcer bed. Both MMP and TIMP-1 expression returned to basal levels during the late stages of tissue remodeling.

Conclusion: Gastric ulcer repair is associated with a transient expression of specific metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in a distinct anatomical pattern pointing to complex cellular and cell/matrix interactions in the various layers of the healing mucosa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000080931DOI Listing
February 2005