Publications by authors named "Antonella Santillo"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

NETosis of Peripheral Neutrophils Isolated From Dairy Cows Fed Olive Pomace.

Front Vet Sci 2021 29;8:626314. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Resources, and Engineering, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Neutrophils represent primary mobile phagocytes recruited to the site of infection, and their functions are essential to enhance animals' health performance. Neutrophils have an essential role in innate immunity and are able to kill the pathogens the synthesis of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The objective of the present work was the study of the NETosis of peripheral neutrophils isolated from dairy cows supplemented with olive pomace. Dairy cows ( = 16) balanced for parity (3.67 ± 1.5 for CON, 3.67 ± 1.9 for OP), milk yield (24.3 ± 4.5 kg dfor CON and 24.9 ± 1.7 kg d for OP), the number of days in milk (109 ± 83.5 for CON and 196 ± 51 for OP), and body weight (647 ± 44.3 kg for CON and 675 ± 70.7 kg for OP) were divided into two experimental groups fed with a control diet (CON) and supplemented with 6% of olive pomace (OP). Peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated and stimulated with phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA) as a marker for activation and reactivity of the neutrophils. After isolation, both the viability and CD11b expression were analyzed by flow cytometry. Both NETosis by neutrophil elastase-DNA complex system and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated by ELISA. The specific antibodies against MPO and citrullination of Histone-H1 were used for investigating NETosis by immunofluorescence microscopy. The neutrophil elastase-DNA complexes produced during NETosis and MPO activity of neutrophil extracts were affected by OP supplementation. Furthermore, results from immunofluorescence analysis of NETosis depicted a similar result found by ELISA showing a higher expression of MPO and citrullination of Histone-H1 in OP than the CON neutrophils. In addition, all data showed that the OP diet resulted in a better response of neutrophils to PMA stimulation than the CON diet, which did not support the neutrophils' responses to PMA stimulation. Our results demonstrated that OP supplementation can enhance the neutrophil function in dairy cows leading to udder defense and inflammation response especially when an immunosuppression state can occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.626314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8118642PMC
April 2021

Synbiotic sheep milk ice cream reduces chemically induced mouse colon carcinogenesis.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jul 30;104(7):7406-7414. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Resources, and Engineering (DAFNE), University of Foggia (UNIFG), Foggia, 71122, Italy. Electronic address:

Sheep dairy products containing prebiotic and probiotic ingredients may have health-promoting properties. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of sheep milk ice cream [conventional full-fat (CONV), full-fat enriched with probiotic (PROB, 100 mg % wt/wt of Lacticaseibacillus casei 01), or nonfat synbiotic (SYNB, Lacticaseibacillus casei 01 and inulin, 10% wt/wt)] on carcinogen-induced colonic crypt cytotoxicity and premalignant lesion development. Male Swiss mice received 2 doses of colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM, 15 mg/kg of body weight) at wk 3 and 4. Two weeks before and during AOM administrations (4 wk) mice were treated with CONV, PROB, or SYNB by gavage (10 mL/kg). Mice were euthanized at wk 4 or 25 (n = 5 or 10 mice/group, respectively). At wk 4, a significant reduction in micronucleated colonocytes was observed in PROB and SYNB groups, and a significant decrease in both p53 expression and apoptosis indexes in colonic crypts was observed in SYNB group. At wk 25, both PROB and SYNB interventions reduced the mean number of colonic premalignant lesions. However, only SYNB group showed lower incidence and number of high-grade premalignant lesions in the colonic mucosa. These findings indicate that PROB or SYNB sheep milk ice cream, especially SYNB intervention, can reduce chemically induced mouse colon carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19979DOI Listing
July 2021

Nexus Between Immune Responses and Oxidative Stress: The Role of Dietary Hydrolyzed Lignin in Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Response.

Front Vet Sci 2020 20;7. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

The control of immune responses is particularly critical when an increase of oxidative stress occurs, causing an impairment of immune cell response and a condition of systemic inflammation, named oxinflammation. Nutritional strategies based on the use in the diet of phytochemicals extracted from plants, rich in antioxidants, could help restore the antioxidant/oxidant balance and obtain a modulation of immune response. Lignin represents a valuable resource of phenolic compounds, which are characterized by a corroborated antioxidant effect. To date, there are no studies reporting the effects of lignin in the diet on immune responses and oxidative stress in ruminants. The objective of the present experiment was the evaluation of the dietary inclusion of hydrolyzed lignin on the immune responses and oxidative stress biomarkers by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from beef steers. In order to test the effect during oxidative stress exposition, cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (HO). The proliferation test and the viability assay were carried out on cells, whereas, on supernatants, the cytokine profile and the oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated. The dietary inclusion with hydrolyzed lignin resulted in cytoprotection after HO exposition, increasing the number of viable monocytes and decreasing the reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production in supernatants. The cytokine profile indicated the modulatory role of hydrolyzed lignin on immune response, with a concomitant decrease of TNF-α and increase of IL-8 production, which are strictly connected with monocyte activation and antioxidant response pathway. These results demonstrated that hydrolyzed lignin may provide a modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in PBMCs; thus, the hydrolyzed lignin could be suggested as an innovative phytochemical in ruminant feed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045060PMC
February 2020

Effect of lipid fraction of digested milk from different sources in mature 3T3-L1 adipocyte.

J Dairy Res 2019 Feb 7;86(1):129-133. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture,Food and Environment (SAFE), University of Foggia,Via Napoli, 25, 71122 Foggia,Italy.

We evaluated the effect of in vitro digested milk on mature adipocytes 3T3-L1, paying particular attention to its fatty acid composition, and comparing human (HM), donkey (DM), bovine (BM), ovine (OM), caprine (CM) and formula (FM) milk. Cellular viability, apoptosis, oxidative response and gene expression levels of NF-κB p65, HMGB1, SREBP-1c and FAS were evaluated. Digested milk treatments significantly reduced 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes viability and caspase activity compared with control group, but no significant differences were observed among different sources of digested milk. In all digested milk samples, ROS level was higher than the control, however, the digested human and formula milk showed lower levels of ROS than DM, BM, OM and CM samples. Lower capacity of HM and FM to induce oxidative stress in mature adipocytes was ascribed to the peculiar free fatty acids profile of digested milk samples. All milk treatments elicited a significant over-expression of NF-κB p65 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to the control; the lowest gene expression was found in HM, BM, OM and CM, the highest in FM and an intermediate behavior was shown in DM. All digested milk treatments influenced the gene expression of SRBP-1c with FM and HM showing the highest levels. For FAS expression, BM showed the highest level, OM and CM intermediate and FM, HM and DM the lowest levels, however HM and DM had comparable levels to the control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029919000104DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of Diet Supplementation with Quinoa Seed and/or Linseed on Immune Response, Productivity and Meat Quality in Merinos Derived Lambs.

Animals (Basel) 2018 Nov 10;8(11). Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Agricultural Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25-71121 Foggia, Italy.

In the last years several studies have investigated the strong relation between nutrition and immune response in the livestock production, particularly in dairy cattle and sheep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation based on linseed, quinoa seeds and their combination on welfare, productivity and quality of meat from merinos derived lambs. 32 weaned lambs were divided into 4 experimental groups: quinoa (Q), linseed (LS) and combination of quinoa and linseed (LS + Q) that received the respective supplementation and control group (C) without supplementation. Lambs from all supplemented groups showed lower plasma urea, creatinine and cholesterol than control. Both linseed and quinoa supplementation enhanced the cell-mediated immune responses of lambs, furthermore, linseed supplementation resulted in the lowest level of cortisol secretion after handling, loading and transport. Meat from lambs supplemented with linseed and LS + Q showed the highest pH, at 1 and 3 h post-mortem, while, meat from all supplemented groups was more tender than meat from control. Results indicated that linseed and quinoa seeds supplementation can help the animal to cope with stressful events due to the close link between stress responses and the immune system and for improving meat quality in terms of better tenderness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani8110204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262584PMC
November 2018

Ultrasound processing of fresh and frozen semi-skimmed sheep milk and its effects on microbiological and physical-chemical quality.

Ultrason Sonochem 2019 Mar 19;51:241-248. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

University of Foggia (UNIFG), Department of the Science of Agriculture, Food and Environment (SAFE), Via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasound treatment on the microbiological quality, protein and free amino acid profile of fresh and frozen stored semi-skimmed sheep milk. Milk was treated as fresh or frozen and stored up to one, three and six months. Output power time and pulse time were the parameters combined to design four different ultrasound (US) treatments: power 78 W and duration 6 min (US1); power 78 W and duration 8 min (US2); power 104 W and duration 4 min (US3) power 104 W and duration 6 min (US4). Pulse duration was of 4 s for each treatment. Sample US1 was discarded due to non effectiveness of US treatment, while other samples showed interesting results. Also, it was verified a frost effect on microorganisms in all samples which were frozen before treatment. No relevant change was reported on amino acid profile. The study showed promising results: the ultrasound treatment inactivated or eliminated the studied contaminant bacteria in semi-skimmed sheep milk, while maintained acceptable amount of lactic bacteria, which could be advantageous for dairy products processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2018.10.017DOI Listing
March 2019

Focusing on fatty acid profile in milk from different species after in vitro digestion.

J Dairy Res 2018 May;85(2):257-262

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture,Food and Environment (SAFE),University of Foggia,Via Napoli,25, 71122 Foggia,Italy.

We report the fatty acid profile of raw milk and of the corresponding digested milk from different sources (human milk, formula milk and donkey, bovine, ovine and caprine milk) to gain information on the nutritional quality of different milk sources in infant nutrition.Short chain fatty acids (SC-FA) were higher in bovine and caprine milk, intermediate in ovine and donkey and lower in human and formula milk. Medium chain fatty acids (MC-FA) showed the highest values for bovine and caprine milk and the lowest for donkey and formula milk, whereas long chain fatty acids (LC-FA) were the highest in donkey and formula milk and intermediate in human milk.The percentage distribution of fatty acids liberated after in vitro digestion did not reflect the patterns found in the corresponding milk sources. In particular, MC free fatty acids (MC-FFA) showed the highest and the lowest values in donkey and in formula milk, LC-FFA showed the highest value in human milk. The total FFA was highest in human milk, lowest in formula milk and intermediate in donkey, bovine, ovine, and caprine milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029918000274DOI Listing
May 2018

Phytosterols from Dunaliella tertiolecta Reduce Cell Proliferation in Sheep Fed Flaxseed during Post Partum.

Mar Drugs 2017 Jul 6;15(7). Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25-71121 Foggia, Italy.

The post partum period is characterized by immunosuppression and increased disease susceptibility. Both phytosterols from microalga and dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influence cell proliferation and cytokine release during inflammation. The objective of this paper was the evaluation of the effects of physterols, extracted and purified from , on the in vitro immune responses of ewes supplemented with flaxseed during post partum. Twenty Comisana parturient ewes were divided in two balanced groups, and supplemented with flaxseed (FS, 250 g/day) or fed with a conventional diet (CON). Blood samples (15 mL) were collected for five weeks, starting from lambing, in order to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Stimulated PBMC were treated with a total sterols fraction from (TS), a mix of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol (purified extract, PE), and a mix of acetylated ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol (acetylated purified extract, AcPE), extracted and purified from at two concentrations (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL). Results of the experiment demonstrated that n-3 PUFA from flaxseed induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, with an increase of both IL-10, IL-6 and a decrease of IL-1β. TS, PE, and AcPE purified from showed an anti-proliferative effect on sheep PBMC regardless their chemical composition and concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md15070216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5532658PMC
July 2017

Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products.

Foods 2017 May 9;6(5). Epub 2017 May 9.

Department of Agricultural Food and Environmental Sciences (SAFE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation) of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods6050035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447911PMC
May 2017

Proteomic approach to investigate the impact of different dietary supplementation on lamb meat tenderness.

Meat Sci 2017 Sep 29;131:74-81. Epub 2017 Apr 29.

Department of Agricultural Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25-71121 Foggia, Italy.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of linseed and/or quinoa on tenderness and on proteome of lamb meat. Thirty-two Italian Merino lambs were distributed into 4 groups with different diet: control (CO) with no supplemental fat, linseed (LS), quinoa (QS) and QS+LS diets. Meat obtained by lamb fed linseed showed the lowest values of WBSF (P<0.001), hardness (P<0.01), gumminess (P<0.01) and chewiness (P<0.01). Proteomic changes of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins were estimated with SDS-PAGE, Western Blot and Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis. In linseed group proteomic analysis revealed a degradation of desmin and TnT proteins complex and a major number of spots and phosphorylation isoforms of fast MLC2 patterns. Meat obtained by lamb fed quinoa showed a minor effect on the instrumental evaluation of meat tenderness and a major number of spots ascribed to sarcoplasmic proteins and fMHC. Data suggest that dietary supplementation may act on meat tenderness and on proteolytic pattern of myofibrillar fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.04.235DOI Listing
September 2017

Lactoferrin Levels in Human Milk after Preterm and Term Delivery.

Am J Perinatol 2016 09 7;33(11):1085-9. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Department of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Ospedali Riuniti, Foggia, Italy.

Background Lactoferrin (LF) is a highly represented, functional glycoprotein in human milk, exerting a wide range of anti-infective, immunomodulatory, and prebiotic actions in the neonate. Limited data are available assessing the concentrations and levels of LF in maternal milk over time during lactation in mothers who delivered infants at different GAs. Our aim with the present study was to determine the levels of LF in human milk from mothers of preterm and term infants and to evaluate the variations at a different time from delivery, in colostrum and mature milk. Methods Mothers of preterm and term infants from the Neonatology Unit in Foggia, Italy, were approached and enrolled in this study. From each mother, milk samples were collected within the first 3 days after birth (group A, 0-72 hours), between the 5th and 7th day after delivery (group B, 120-168 hours), and after the 10th day (group C, > 240 hours). All milk samples were divided into five groups, according to the GA of the infants: 24 to 27.6 weeks of GA (I), 28 to 31.6 weeks of GA (II), 32 to 34.6 weeks of GA (III), 35 to 37.6 weeks of GA (IV), and > 38 weeks of GA (V). Milk samples were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the content of LF. Results A total of 84 milk samples were collected from 28 mothers. We found that infant's GA, as well as the time of sampling, affected the levels of LF in milk. On one hand, LF showed higher content in human milk from group I (GA: 24-27.6 weeks) compared with the other groups (p < 0.01), and the levels of LF in colostrum were significantly correlated with GA (r = -0.31; p < 0.05). On the other hand, the LF content of milk had a significant decreasing trend over time. Overall, the highest values of LF were detected in preterm infants' maternal milk with a baby birth weight, lower than 1,400 g. Approximately 350 µg/mL was identified as the mean, physiological LF content in human mature milk in our population. Conclusions Levels of LF in human milk vary significantly over time during lactation and according to GA. This variability in the LF content of human milk may reflect the different needs of different infants during the early days and weeks of life. These data might help to inform models to design tailored supplementation strategies of LF in the nurseries and after home discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1586105DOI Listing
September 2016

Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: effects of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer.

J Dairy Res 2016 Aug;83(3):289-97

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture,Food and Environment (SAFE),University of Foggia,Via Napoli,25,71122 Foggia,Italy.

The research reported in this Research Communication was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplemented in the diet on milk production and milk fatty acid profile of lactating ewes exposed to long term heat stress. The experiment was conducted during summer, involved 32 ewes divided into 4 groups of 8 each, and lasted 6 weeks. The ewes in all groups were fed twice daily and received 1·8 kg/d of oat hay and 1 kg/d of concentrate. Flaxseed group (FS) was supplemented with 250 g/d of whole flaxseed, Ascophyllum nodosum group (AG) was supplemented with 25 g/d of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, and the combination group (FS + AG) received both flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation. The control group (CON) was fed with 1 kg/d of pelleted concentrate without PUFA supplementation. Milk samples were collected twice daily per week, and analysed for fat, total protein, casein, and lactose content. At the beginning and then at 2, 4 and 6 week of the experiment each milk sample was analysed for milk fatty acids. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated daily. Supplementation of flaxseed and of the combination of flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum increased milk yield. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk decreased for ewes fed FS, followed by FS + AG. On the contrary, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased for ewes fed FS and FS + AG. The total n-3 FA was found higher in FS and FS + AG than in AG and CON groups mainly because of the increase in C 18 : 3 n-3 in FS and FS + AG milk. Milk from FS + AG resulted in the highest n-3/n-6 ratio and decreases in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The combination of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed can be suggested as an adequate supplementation to sustain milk production and milk fatty acid profile of sheep during summer season.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029916000431DOI Listing
August 2016

Immune response, productivity and quality of milk from grazing goats as affected by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

Res Vet Sci 2016 Apr 24;105:229-35. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment (SAFE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

This study was undertaken to assess how diet supplemented with fish oil and linseed improve the immune profile, the production performance, and milk quality of grazing goats by a diet supplementation of fish oil or linseed. Twenty-four Garganica grazing goats were divided into three groups named control (CON), fish oil (FO) and linseed (LIN) according to the fat supplement received in their diet. In vivo immune responses were evaluated by monitoring cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in order to verify the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on goats' health status. Goat milk samples were analysed weekly to determine milk chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and somatic cell count. Diet based on linseed supplementation (LIN) significantly increased milk yield by 30%, milk fat yield by 67%, protein yield by 34%, and casein yield by 41% as compared with CON. Fat content increased by 30% in LIN milk as compared with CON milk, and by 12% as compared with FO milk. Linseed modified milk fatty acid profile; LIN milk showed lower SFA and higher PUFA than FO milk. The modified fatty acid composition of LIN milk resulted in lower AI and TI indexes than FO and CON milk. Linseed and fish oil administration can reduce humoral immunity of goats, but has no effect in their cellular immunity. Dietary linseed supplementation in grazing dairy goat supports feeding programs to improve milk composition and quality, and a modulation of their immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2016.02.018DOI Listing
April 2016

Sensory Profile and Consumers' Liking of Functional Ovine Cheese.

Foods 2015 Nov 11;4(4):665-677. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences (SAFE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25, Foggia 71122, Italy.

The present research was undertaken to evaluate the sensory profile and consumers' liking of functional ovine cheese containing probiotic cultures. Ovine cheese was made from ewe's milk by animals reared in extensive conditions; cheesemaking trials were performed by using rennet paste containing probiotic cells. Experimental cheeses were denoted: cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste without probiotic (C), cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing a mix of and (BB), and cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing (LA). Ovine cheese containing probiotic strains highlighted a more intense proteolysis and a greater level of short chain free fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid due to the metabolic activity of the adjunct microflora. The sensorial profile of ovine cheese showed lower humidity and gumminess in cheeses containing probiotics as a consequence of differences in the maturing process; furthermore, probiotic cheeses scored higher ratings for salty and pungent attributes. An interaction effect of probiotic, gender, and age of the consumers was detected in the perceived and the expected liking. The higher rate of expected liking in all experimental cheeses is attributed to the information given, regarding not only the presence of probiotic strains but also the farming conditions and cheesemaking technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods4040665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5224561PMC
November 2015

Composition and textural properties of Mozzarella cheese naturally-enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

J Dairy Res 2013 Aug 23;80(3):276-82. Epub 2013 Apr 23.

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment SAFE, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

The effects of adding flaxseed or fish oil to the diet of dairy cows on the chemical and physical profile of Mozzarella cheese production were studied. The experiment involved 24 Friesian cows, divided into 3 groups accordingly fat supplementation: basal diet (CT), diet supplemented with flaxseed (FS) or fish oil (FO). Mozzarella cheeses were manufactured from bulk milk of each group. Bulk milk was analysed for chemical composition and renneting parameters. Mozzarella cheeses were analysed for chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and textural properties. Results suggest that Mozzarella cheese from cows receiving flaxseed supplementation showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFA), an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared with control Mozzarella cheese. The increased dietary intake of C18:3 in flaxseed supplemented cows resulted in increased levels of trans-11 C18:1, and of CLA cis-9 trans-11 C18:2, and in low Atherogenic and Trombogenic Indexes. FO Mozzarella cheese showed compositional and textural properties quite similar to CT Mozzarella cheese; however, increased levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in FO Mozzarella were found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002202991300023XDOI Listing
August 2013

Composition, indigenous proteolytic enzymes and coagulating behaviour of ewe milk as affected by somatic cell count.

J Dairy Res 2011 Nov 26;78(4):442-7. Epub 2011 Aug 26.

Department of Production Sciences and Innovation in Mediterranean Agriculture and Food Systems (PrIME), University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25, 71100 Foggia, Italy.

This study was undertaken to assess the effect of somatic cell count in ewe milk on i) composition and hygienic traits; ii) plasmin, cathepsin and elastase activities; iii) leukocyte differential count; iv) renneting parameters. Individual ewe milk samples were grouped according to somatic cell count (SCC) into five classes: SC300 (<300 000 cells/ml), SC500 (from 301 000 to 500 000 cells/ml), SC1000 (from 501 000 to 1 000 000 cells/ml), SC2000 (from 1 001 000 to 2 000 000 cells/ml) and SC>2000 (>2 001 000 cells/ml). Individual milk samples were analysed for pH, chemical composition, microbial features, indigenous proteolytic enzymes, differential leukocyte population, and renneting parameters. Milk yield, lactose, protein, non casein nitrogen, microbial features were affected by SCC level. Plasmin and elastase activities were the highest in samples with more than 1 000 000 cells/ml; plasmin had intermediate values in samples with 300 000 to 1 000 000 cells/ml and the lowest in samples with less than 300 000 cells/ml of milk. Cathepsin D showed significantly lower values in SC300 and SC1000 classes than in SC500, SC2000 and SC>2000 classes. The highest percentages of lymphocyte were found in samples with less than 1 000 000 cells/ml, while the highest levels of polymorphonuclear leukocyte were found in samples with more than 1 000 000 cells/ml of milk. Longer clotting time was found in SC>2000 samples, while reduced clot firmness was observed in SC500 and SC>2000 samples. Results on milk yield and on compositional parameters evidenced an impairment of udder efficiency in ewe milk samples starting from 300 000 cells/ml. Plasmin activity in milk can be considered as a marker of the synthetic and secreting ability of the mammary gland; furthermore plasmin and elastase were consistent with the health status of the udder. Finally cathepsin D played a role in the worsening of renneting properties of ewe milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029911000525DOI Listing
November 2011

Influence of milk quality and production protocol on proteolysis and lipolysis in Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheese.

J Dairy Res 2010 Nov 19;77(4):385-91. Epub 2010 May 19.

Dipartimento PRIME, Università di Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71100 Foggia, Italy.

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of milk source and of cheese production protocol on proteolytic and lipolytic pattern of cheese during ripening. The study involved six dairy factories located in Monti Dauni Meridionali area of Southern Italy; three dairy factories processed the milk produced by their own cow herds, while the other three dairy factories processed the milk collected in other dairy farms located in the neighbouring area. Cow milk processed to cheese had different nutritional parameters and hygienic quality. Caciocavallo cheese showed differences in the evolution of proteolysis during ripening and in the intensity of the lipolytic process detected at the end of ripening. The main factors influencing Caciocavallo cheese features were the quality of the starting milk, differences in technological steps such as milk heating, type of starter cultures and coagulant used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029910000269DOI Listing
November 2010

Focusing on casein gene cluster and protein profile in Garganica goat milk.

J Dairy Res 2009 Feb 5;76(1):83-9. Epub 2009 Jan 5.

Dipartimento PRIME. Università di Foggia, Italy.

A survey was carried out in eight goat dairy farms, a total of 71 individual Garganica goat milk samples were collected for genomic DNA extraction. Casein alleles and haplotype frequencies of Garganica population were estimated. Individual milks were also analysed for chemical composition, rheological properties, and protein profile. The strong A* allele of CSN1S1 was predominant in the population investigated, the weak allele F of CSN1S1 showed a relatively high frequency and the null alleles N and 01 were first observed in this breed. At CSN1S2 locus the strong A* allele was the most frequent, followed by the F allele and the null allele. The strong A* allele was predominant at CSN2 locus, and relatively high incidence of null allele 0 was observed. CSN3 locus was monomorphic for B* allele. The exact test of sample differentiation based on haplotype frequencies discriminate the farms into two groups characterized by the highest frequency of strong (S-CSN1S1) or weak (W-CSN1S1) alleles at CSN1S1. Protein and casein contents were higher in the group characterized by strong allele than in the group with weak allele at CSN1S1. The 2D electrophoresis technique was performed to screen goat casein variability at the protein level and to evaluate global casein genotype (alphas1, alphas2, beta and kappa-CN). Gels displayed the protein profile associated with casein genotype, and demonstrated differences in the protein expression deriving from interactions between loci. The variability of goat casein loci in Garganica goat breed could be exploited to differentiate the population on the basis of milk utilization and could represent a strategy to preserve the genotype of this autochthonous breed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029908003853DOI Listing
February 2009

Effects of ventilation rate and of dietary protein level in an intensive dairy sheep system on the features of Canestrato Pugliese cheese.

J Dairy Res 2007 Feb 15;74(1):26-33. Epub 2006 Sep 15.

Dipartimento PRIME. Università di Foggia, Italy.

Effects of ventilation rate and of dietary protein level in an intensive dairy sheep system on the features of Canestrato Pugliese cheese were studied. Cheeses were manufactured from the bulk milk obtained from ewes subjected to four different experimental treatments: (1) low dietary crude protein (CP) of 13% in dry matter (DM) at a low ventilation rate (23.5 m3/h per ewe) (LPLV); (2) low dietary CP at a moderate ventilation rate (47 m3/h per ewe) (LPMV), (3) moderate dietary CP of 16% DM at a low ventilation rate (MPLV); and (4) moderate dietary CP dietary at a moderate ventilation rate (MPMV). Bulk milk and cheeses (at 1, 15, 45 and 90 d of ripening) were analysed for chemical composition, N fractions and plasmin-plasminogen activities. The pH 4.6-soluble and insoluble N fractions were analysed by urea-PAGE. Bulk milk from ewes receiving the low CP diet displayed higher casein and lower urea contents. Ewes subjected to the low ventilation rate displayed a higher plasminogen activity in milk, whereas no differences emerged among treatments in the conversion of zymogen to plasmin. During ripening the plasmin-plasminogen system in cheese did not display significant changes across treatments. At 90 d of ripening, the cheese produced with milk from ewes receiving the low CP diet and exposed to the low ventilation rate displayed more markedly stained bands in the area of gamma-caseins in pH 4.6-insoluble N fraction. As from 15 d of ripening, the pH 4.6-soluble fraction showed a greater number of bands in the LPMV and MPMV than in the LPLV and MPLV cheeses. The results showed that Canestrato Pugliese cheese manufactured with milk from ewes fed the low CP diet and exposed to the moderate ventilation rate was characterized by higher protein and casein content in the fresh cheese and by a greater proteolysis after 90 d of ripening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029906002111DOI Listing
February 2007

Effects of dietary protein level on ewe milk yield and nitrogen utilization, and on air quality under different ventilation rates.

J Dairy Res 2006 May 14;73(2):197-206. Epub 2006 Feb 14.

Dipartimento Pr.I.M.E., Facoltà di Agraria di Foggia, via Napoli, 25, 71100 Foggia, Italy.

The experiment, which lasted 53 d, was conducted during the winter (February and March) of 2004 and used 48 Comisana ewes in mid lactation. A 2 x 2 factorial design was used, with ewes receiving two levels of dietary crude protein (CP) (moderate, 16% CP v. low, 13% CP) in the dry matter (DM) and being exposed to two ventilation rates (moderate, 47 m3/h v. low, 23.5 m3/h per ewe) for each dietary treatment. Air concentrations of NH3 and of microorganisms were measured twice weekly. Milk yield was recorded daily. Individual milk samples were analysed weekly for composition and fortnightly for bacteriological characteristics. After the last milk sampling (day 49 of the study period), four animals from each group were placed in a metabolism box and their individual faeces and urine were collected for three consecutive days. Amounts of urine and faeces excreted, and urinary and faecal N outputs were measured. The 16% CP diet resulted in a lower milk casein content and a higher milk urea concentration than the 13% CP diet, as well as in a reduced gross efficiency of utilization of dietary N, a greater amount of N excreted and a higher total coliform concentration in milk. The moderate ventilation rate resulted in higher yields of milk, irrespective of CP content. Significant interactions of CP level x ventilation rate were found for the amounts of urine, of total water and of faecal N, and for mesophilic concentration in milk, the highest values being displayed by the ewes fed the 16% CP diet and exposed to the low ventilation rate. The moderate dietary CP level and low ventilation rate had a deleterious effect on air concentrations of microorganisms and ammonia. Results suggested that a reduction of dietary CP level from 16 to 13% of DM had no detrimental effect on ewe milk yield in mid lactation and could even improve some of its nutritional and hygienic characteristics. Our findings also indicate that the choice of a proper ventilation rate is critical for high efficiency of production in the lactating ewe, especially in intensively managed flocks receiving diets high in CP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029905001469DOI Listing
May 2006

Effect of different ventilation regimens on ewes' milk and Canestrato Pugliese cheese quality in summer.

J Dairy Res 2005 Nov;72(4):447-55

Dipartimento PRIME, Università degli Studi di Foggia, Via Napoli, 25, 71100 Foggia, Italy.

The influence of three different ventilation regimens on air pollution in sheep houses and on the quality of ewe milk and of Canestrato Pugliese cheese was investigated during the summer season. The experimental treatments were low ventilation regimen (VR=35 m3/h per ewe) split in 30-min ventilation cycles (LOV-30); moderate ventilation regimen (VR=70 m3/h per ewe) split in 30-min ventilation cycles (MOV-30); moderate ventilation regimen (VR=70 m3/h per ewe) split in 60-min ventilation cycles (MOV-60). The LOV-30 milk had higher microbial load and bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and resulted in a weaker casein matrix in the curd compared with the MOV-30 and MOV-60 treatments. At 45 d of ripening, the LOV-30 cheeses had a lower casein content and higher non-casein nitrogen (NCN) and water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) contents than the MOV-30 and MOV-60 cheeses. Urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (urea-PAGE) of the pH 4.6-soluble N extract showed that the MOV-60 cheeses had fewer bands derived from casein (CN) hydrolysis than the LOV-30 or MOV-30 cheeses, despite its having exhibited the highest plasmin (PL) activity levels. Our results suggest that the ventilation regimen is critical in dairy sheep housing for optimizing the hygienic quality of ewe milk and the proteolytic processes occurring in Canestrato Pugliese cheese during ripening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029905001305DOI Listing
November 2005

Proteolytic patterns and plasmin activity in ewes' milk as affected by somatic cell count and stage of lactation.

J Dairy Res 2005 Feb;72(1):86-92

Dipartimento PRIME, Università di Foggia, Via Napoli, 25, 71100 Foggia, Italy.

A total of 120 milk samples were collected from Comisana ewes throughout lactation. The ewes were ranked into two somatic cell count (SCC) categories: normal milk (N Milk) with SCC lower than 5.00x 10(5)/ml and high somatic cell milk (HSC Milk) with SCC higher than 1.00 x 10(6)/ml. Milk samples were analysed in triplicate for pH, fat and protein contents, renneting parameters, and plasmin and plasminogen activities. The peptide profile due to total proteolytic activity (endogenous and exogenous enzymes) on alpha- and beta-CNs were determined using urea-PAGE on sodium caseinate (pH 8.0 and pH 5.0) incubated at 37 degrees C for 4 d after sampling. The peptide profile due to non-plasmin enzyme activities at pH 5.0 was also determined using urea-PAGE. Plasmin activity was higher in the HSC milk than in the N milk throughout the study period. A decrease in plasmin activity was observed in the N milk during mid-lactation, which was probably related to decrease in pH, and in the HSC milk during late lactation, which may be ascribed to an enhanced influx of plasmin inhibitors from the blood stream. Proteolytic patterns in Comisana ewe milk were mainly affected by plasmin activity that increased with the SCC in milk. Also non-plasmin proteolytic activity was strongly enhanced by elevated SCC and resulted in a higher degradation of alpha-casein than of beta-casein. In general, plasmin activity did not increase with the advancement of lactation and exhibited a different trend in HSC and N milk, suggesting that physiological factors did not play a key role in regulating the plasminogen-plasmin system in ewes' milk. Plasmin activity, detected with the colorimetric assay was consistent with proteolytic activity on sodium caseinate shown in urea-PAGE electrophoregram.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0022029904000676DOI Listing
February 2005

Quality of milk and of Canestrato Pugliese cheese from ewes exposed to different ventilation regimens.

J Dairy Res 2004 Nov;71(4):434-43

Dipartimento PRIME Università di Foggia, Italy.

Effects of ventilation regimen on the quality of ewes' milk and on proteolysis in Canestrato Pugliese cheese during ripening were studied. Cheeses were manufactured from the bulk milk of Comisana ewes subjected to three different ventilation regimens, which were designated low (LOV, 23 m3/h per ewe), moderate (MOV, 47 m3/h per ewe) and programmed ventilation regimen (PROV, 73 m3/h per ewe; fan set to maintain 70% relative humidity). Bulk milk was analysed for chemical and microbial composition, renneting parameters and plasmin-plasminogen activities. At 1, 15, 30 and 45 d of ripening, the cheeses were analysed for gross chemical composition, nitrogen fractions, and plasmin and plasminogen activities. The pH 4.6-insoluble nitrogen fractions were analysed by urea-PAGE. Free amino acid content was determined at the end of ripening. Lower concentrations of bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and of mesophilic bacteria were found in the MOV group than in the LOV and the PROV groups. A lower plasminogen (PG) to plasmin (PL) ratio (PG/PL) was observed in the MOV and PROV than in the LOV cheeses. Irrespective of treatment, PL activity in cheeses was higher at 15d of ripening, while a sudden decrease of PL and PG activities was observed at 30 d, which was associated with a marked increase in non-protein nitrogen. The peptide profile characterized in the urea-PAGE showed a greater intensity of alpha- and beta-CN hydrolysis in the MOV than in the PROV and LOV cheeses. The results provide evidence that a proper ventilation regimen is critical for optimizing the hygienic quality of milk and the proteolysis of Canestrato Pugliese cheese during ripening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0022029904000330DOI Listing
November 2004
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