Publications by authors named "Antonella Riva"

108 Publications

In vitro (poly)phenol catabolism of unformulated- and phytosome-formulated cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extracts.

Food Res Int 2021 Mar 18;141:110137. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, Via Volturno, 39 - 43125 Parma, Italy. Electronic address:

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) represent an important source of anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. This study aimed at investigating in vitro the human microbial metabolism of (poly)phenols, principally flavan-3-ols, of unformulated- and phytosome-formulated cranberry extracts. After powder characterization, a 24-h fermentation with human faecal slurries was performed, standardizing the concentration of incubated proanthocyanidins. Cranberry (poly)phenol metabolites were quantified by uHPLC-MS analyses. The native compounds of both unformulated- and phytosome-formulated cranberry extracts were metabolized under faecal microbiota activity, resulting in twenty-four microbial metabolites. Although some differences appeared when considering different classes of colonic metabolites, no significant differences in the total amount of metabolites were established after 24 h of incubation period. These results suggested that a different formulation had no effect on flavan-3-ol colonic metabolism of cranberry and both unformulated- and phytosome-formulated extract. Both formulations displayed the capability to be a potential source of compounds which could lead to a wide array of gut microbiota metabolites in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110137DOI Listing
March 2021

Maternal dietary supplementation with grape seed extract in reproductive hens increases fertility in females but decreases semen quality in males of the F1 generation.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(2):e0246750. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

INRAE Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements (PRC) - UMR85 CNRS, IFCE, INRAE, Université de Tours, PRC, Nouzilly, France.

Genetic selection in parental broiler breeders has increased their susceptibility to metabolic disorders and reproductive dysfunction. We have recently shown that maternal dietary grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation in hens improves fertility parameters, egg quality, oxidative stress in different tissues and the quality of F1 chicks. Here, we analysed the growth and fertility (both female and male) of the F1 generation animals and the quality of their offspring (F2 generation). Eggs issued from hens supplemented with GSE presented lower ROS production than control hens, suggesting a change in the embryonic environment. However, this did not affect the growth nor the body composition of male and female F1s from hatching to adulthood (37 weeks of age). At 37 weeks of age, the biochemistry analysis of the GSE-F1 muscle has revealed an increase in sensitivity to oxidative stress and a slight change in lipid composition. Both male and female F1-GSE groups presented a delay in puberty with a lower testis volume at 30 weeks of age and lower ovary development at 26 weeks of age. Adult GSE-F1 males did not present histological alterations of seminiferous tubules or semen production, but the semen quality was degraded due to higher oxidative stress and DNA-damaged spermatozoa compared with control F1 animals. In adult GSE-F1 females, despite the delay in puberty, the females laid more eggs of better quality (fewer broken eggs and a higher hatching rate). At hatching, the weight of the chicks from GSE-F1 females was reduced, and this effect was stronger in F2 male chicks (F2) compared with F2 control chicks (F2), because of the lower muscle volume. In conclusion, we can raise the hypothesis that maternal dietary GSE supplementation produces eggs with change in embryonic metabolism, which may affect in adulthood the fertility. The data obtained from the F1-GSE group pointed to a sex-specific modification with higher egg quality in females but semen sensitive to stress in males. Finally, male F2 chicks were leaner than control chicks. Thus, maternal dietary grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation in hens may impact on the fertility of the offspring in a sex-specific manner in subsequent generations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246750PLOS
February 2021

Where to Find Leucine in Food and How to Feed Elderly With Sarcopenia in Order to Counteract Loss of Muscle Mass: Practical Advice.

Front Nutr 2020 26;7:622391. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona "Istituto Santa Margherita", University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

The term sarcopenia refers to the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that generally occurs during aging. The interventions that have proved most effective in reducing the severity and preventing the worsening of sarcopenia include physical exercise, especially resistance, and the administration of dietary supplements in association with a targeted diet; nutritional intervention is the main therapeutic approach for elderly people, since they are very often sedentary (also due to possible disabilities). Among the various nutrients, high biological value proteins and leucine are of particular interest for their demonstrated effects on the health of skeletal muscle. The intake of food containing proteins and leucine during meals stimulates muscle protein synthesis. Lower blood levels of leucine were associated with lower values of the skeletal muscle index, grip strength and performance. The international guidelines recommended that a leucine intake of 3 g at three main meals together with 25-30 g of protein is the goal to be achieved to counteract loss of lean mass in elderly. Food composition databases rarely show the amounts of leucine contained in foods and therefore it becomes difficult to build a diet that follows these guidelines. A table was therefore created for the first time in the literature to collect all the foods richest in leucine, thanks to the union of the most important Italian food databases. Moreover, in order to implement a diet that follows the right recommendations, another tables shows nutritional composition of breakfast, lunch and dinner (that each provide 3 grams of leucine and 25 grams of protein) for seven days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.622391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874106PMC
January 2021

Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease management: an innovative food-grade formulation of and extracts.

Drugs Context 2020 14;9. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, 27100 Italy.

Background: The treatment of symptomatic uncomplicated colonic diverticular disease (SUDD) is still under debate, and new data show a pathogenic role of dysbiosis and low-grade inflammation in intestinal mucosa. Recent research has highlighted the anti-inflammatory effects of botanical extracts such as L. and Roxb. ex Colebr. The aim of this work is to investigate the potential role of a new delivery formulation of the association of curcumin and boswellia phytosome extracts (CBP) in SUDD.

Methods: In a 30-day one-group longitudinal explanatory study, patients (men and women) were treated with an innovative association of CBP standardized extracts, 500 mg bid.

Results: Treatment of SUDD with the association of CBP was followed by a significant decrease in abdominal pain (p<0.0001). The study group showed that CBP supplementation was efficacious within 10 days and that efficacy was maintained almost constant until the 30th day of intervention.

Conclusion: A phytosome of curcumin and boswellia extracts may be useful for the relief of SUDD pain. However, controlled studies should be performed for final conclusions to be drawn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7573/dic.2020-9-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747791PMC
December 2020

Exploring treatments for drooling in children with neurological disorders.

Expert Rev Neurother 2021 Feb 6;21(2):179-187. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Pediatric Neurology and Muscular Diseases Unit, IRRCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini , Genova, Italy.

: Drooling represents a major problem in the every-day life of pediatric patients with neurological disorders. The significant burden, both physical and socio-psychological, of the disorder requires adequate clinical evaluation and proper management. However, treating drooling remains a challenge for clinicians. This is a review of the most up-to-date therapeutic options for the treatment of drooling in the pediatric population, hence both conservative, pharmacological, and surgical approaches are discussed. : Randomized clinical trials (RCTs), structured reviews, and case reports are included. Special focus is paid on the methods used to evaluate the efficacy and safety outcomes in the selected RCTs, trying to promote the use of more validated scales to assess drooling in the future. : The lack of reliable metrics to assess efficacy and safety outcomes in drooling limits researchers from identifying the best patient-suitable treatment. The relatively small number of clinical trials carried out over the last two decades is also due to the difficulty in assessing drooling using subjective scales. A key enabler for new efficient therapies stands in the introduction of accurate and robust metrics to measure treatment effectiveness on drooling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737175.2021.1855146DOI Listing
February 2021

DC. Lipophilic Extract Patch for Skin Application: Preparation, In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Nov 16;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, P. le Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy.

Dodeca-2,4,8,10/-tetraenoic isobutylamide (tetraene) is the main component of DC. lipophilic extract, the bioavailability and immunomodulatory effect after oral administration in soft gel capsules in healthy volunteers of which we have already demonstrated. In the present work, we assessed the transdermal administration as an alternative route of administration of such an alkamide. The first step, therefore, encompassed the preparation of a drug-in-adhesive patch with an area of 868 mm and containing a dose of 0.64 mg of tetraene. In vitro skin permeation studies in Franz-type diffusion chambers resulted in a tetraene flux of (103 ± 10) ng × cm × h with a very good linearity (r = 0.99). The relatively low lag time of just 13 min indicates low binding and the accumulation of tetraene in the skin. Finally, the patch was administered to six healthy volunteers, and the pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by nonlinear mixed effects modelling with soft gel oral capsules serving as the reference formulation. The in vivo results correlated well with the in vitro permeation and indicated an initial burst tetraene absorption from the patch that was in parallel with the zero-order kinetics of absorption. The rate of the latter process was in good agreement with the one estimated in vitro. The tetraene absorption rate was therefore slow and prolonged with time, resulting in a bioavailability of 39% relative to the soft gel capsules and a very flat plasma concentration profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12111096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697022PMC
November 2020

Bergamot phytosome improved visceral fat and plasma lipid profiles in overweight and obese class I subject with mild hypercholesterolemia: A randomized placebo controlled trial.

Phytother Res 2020 Nov 13. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Biology, University of Bahrain, College of Science, Sakhir, Bahrain.

Bergamot has been traditionally used for the relief of diseases related to oxidative stress. Our aim was to investigate the effect of bergamot phytosome on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and on metabolic profile, in overweight and obese subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia. A total of 64 participants were randomized into two groups for 12 weeks: a supplemented group (33 individuals, BMI 27 ± 3 kg/m receiving 500 mg of bergamot phytosome, two daily tablets) and placebo group (31 subjects, BMI 28 ± 3 kg/m , two daily tablets). As to the within differences, the parameters of VAT, total and LDL-cholesterol were significantly decreased in the bergamot phytosome group, but not in the placebo group. As to between-group differences, a statistically significant interaction between time and group, that is, the change in score over time differs between the two groups was observed 30 days after supplementation for VAT (p-value = .005), total cholesterol (p-value <.0002), and LDL (p = .004) in respect to placebo. The other parameters (glucose, insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fat free mass, fat mass) were not significant. In conclusion, this clinical study gives evidence that bergamot phytosome provides beneficial effects, such as decrease of VAT and modulation of metabolic alterations, after just 30 days of supplementation, resulting a very promising protection of cardiovascular health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6950DOI Listing
November 2020

The Metabolic Effects of Supplementation in Overweight and Obese Class I Subjects with Newly Detected Impaired Fasting Glycemia: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 28;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Biology, Sakhir Campus, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Sakheer P.O. Box 32038, Bahrain.

Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is a condition that precedes diabetes and increases the risk of developing it. Studies support the hypoglycemic effect of (Cs) extracts due to the content of chlorogenic acid, which is a potent inhibitor of glucose 6-phosphate translocase and of dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives that modulate the activity of alpha-glucosidase. Given this background, we investigated whether a new highly standardized Cs extract could improve glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) Triglycerides, Apolipo protein B (ApoB), Apolipo protein A (ApoA), waist circumference, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in overweight subjects with newly diagnosed IFG. Fifty-four subjects (females/males 26/28, mean ± SD age 51.5 ± 6.2) were randomly assigned to the supplemented group ( = 27) and placebo ( = 27). After multiple testing correction, statistically significant interactions between time and group were observed for the primary endpoint glycemia (β = 0.36, < 0.0001) and for the secondary endpoints HDL (β = -0.10, < 0.0001), total cholesterol/HDL (β = 0.27, < 0.0001), LDL (β = 0.15, = 0.005), LDL/HDL (β = 0.23, = 0.001), insulin (β = 1.28, = 0.04), glycated hemoglobin (β = 0.21, = 0.0002), A1c-derived average glucose (β = 0.34, = 0.0002), ApoB (β = 6.00, = 0.01), ApoA (β = -4.50, = 0.04), ApoB/ApoA (β = 0.08, = 0.003), waist circumference (β = 1.89, = 0.05), VATβ = 222.37, = 0.005). In conclusion, these results confirm that Cs supplementation has a significant effect on metabolic parameters in IFG patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693737PMC
October 2020

Ideal food pyramid for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A narrative review.

Clin Nutr 2020 Sep 2. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona ''Istituto Santa Margherita'', University of Pavia, Pavia, 27100 Italy. Electronic address:

Emerging literature suggests that diet plays an important modulatory role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because diet is an environmental factor that affects inflammation, antigen presentation, antioxidant defense mechanisms and gut microbiota. Patients with RA frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Given this background, the aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence to date regarding the ideal dietary approach for management of RA in order to reduce the counteracting inflammation, and to construct a food pyramid for patients with RA. The pyramid shows that carbohydrates should be consumed every day (3 portions of whole grains, preferably gluten free), together with fruits and vegetables (5 portions; among which fruit, berries and citrus fruit are to be preferred, and among the vegetables, green leafy ones.), light yogurt (125 ml), skim milk (200 ml), 1 glass (125 ml) of wine and extra virgin olive oil; weekly, fish (3 portions), white meat (3 portions), legumes (2 portions) eggs (2 portions), seasoned cheeses (2 portions), and red or processed meats (once a week). At the top of the pyramid, there are two pennants: one green means that subjects with RA need some personalized supplementation (vitamin D and omega 3) and one red means that there are some foods that are banned (salt and sugar). The food pyramid allows patients to easily figure out what to eat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.08.020DOI Listing
September 2020

Supplementation with a new food grade delivery system of Boswellia and Centella in the intervertebral discs registry: the Sager study.

Panminerva Med 2020 Sep 8. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Indena SpA, Milan, Italy.

Background: The aim of this registry study was to investigate the potential of a new food-grade formulation of the association of Boswellia serrata and Centella asiatica extracts (Boswellia/Centella Phytosome, [BCP]) in combination with standard management (SM) to produce a faster re-expansion of the intervertebral disks in symptomatic subjects with "flattened" disks in the lower spine, due to wrong posture and compression after repeated trauma.

Methods: The study was designed as a 3-6 months pilot registry. Three groups of subjects were comparable for characteristics and symptoms at baseline: SM+BCP; SM; SM+glucosamine.

Results: No side effects were observed. Regarding target measurements at 3 and 6 months, height increased in the BCP group vs. the other two groups. The total spine length improved in the BCP group (P<0.05); in particular at 6 months the increase was doubled with BCP. SM was effective in producing elongation but the association with BCP made spinal elongation faster, more effective, with a better expansion of the intervertebral disks. Regarding ultrasound measurements, BCP was able to significantly ameliorate the posterior disk space (P<0.05) and decreased disk density more than the other groups of the study. Signs/symptoms and mobility were improved with BCP (P<0.05), while rescue medications decreased. The loss of working days was reduced with all managements (significantly more in BCP group than in the other two).

Conclusions: The relative effects on spinal elongation, disk space, signs/symptoms of BCP appeared to double the efficacy of SM, improving symptoms associated to a very good tolerability of BCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0031-0808.20.04028-8DOI Listing
September 2020

A sport cream (Harpago-Boswellia-ginger-escin) for localized neck/shoulder pain.

Minerva Med 2020 Sep 3. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Irvine3 Labs, Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, Chieti-Pescara University, IAPSS, Pescara, Italy.

Background: Neck/shoulder, sudden pain, or muscular pain (not associated to structural or bone/joints components), due to fascial or muscular strain is common in active subjects, in non-professional athletes and sports performers. The aim of this supplement registry was the evaluation of a cream based on natural, active ingredients for topical application in supporting the improvement of pain and improving head/neck mobility, possibly minimizing the use of systemic drugs.

Methods: The cream includes standardized active ingredients of natural origin as an extract of Harpagophytum procumbes, an extract from Boswellia serrata, a CO2 extract of ginger and escin. Subjects were divided into three groups, all using the standard management (SM) in combination with the Sport Cream or in addition to Flector (diclofenac) patch.

Results: The groups were comparable and homogeneous at the baseline. No side effects or skin tolerability issues were observed with the Sport Cream nor with the SM or diclofenac patches. Subjects receiving sport cream + SM reported a significant improvement in pain, stiffness, altered mobility and altered working capacity, with a reduced need for rescue medication (diclofenac) compared to subjects in the other two groups.

Conclusions: Finally, subjects receiving sport cream + SM reported a more remarkable decrease in skin temperature in the affected area associated to an improvement in clinical symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.20.06819-6DOI Listing
September 2020

DXA-Derived Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT) in Elderly: Percentiles of Reference for Gender and Association with Metabolic Outcomes.

Life (Basel) 2020 Aug 24;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Unit of Human and Clinical Nutrition, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

This study aimed to establish the Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)-derived Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) reference values for gender and assess the metabolic outcomes associated to the VAT in a cohort of elderly patients. The sample included 795 elderly patients (226/569: men/women) aged 65-100 years (mean age 80.9 ± 7.5ys). Body composition measures and VAT were assessed by DXA and Core-Scan software. Biochemical analysis and a multidimensional comprehensive geriatric assessment were performed. VAT percentiles at the level of 5, 25, 50, 75, 95 were found in males at the following levels: 246, 832, 1251, 1769, 3048 cm and for females at 99, 476, 775, 1178, 2277 cm. Moreover, this study showed that DXA-VAT was associated to a worsening of lipid, glycemic, hematocrit and kidney profile. Further studies will be needed in order to implement these findings in order to define the (DXA)-derived VAT levels associated to the frailty related risk factors in elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life10090163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554982PMC
August 2020

Intramuscular Midazolam for treatment of Status Epilepticus.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Jan 25;22(1):37-44. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Pediatrics, University of L'Aquila , L'Aquila, Italy.

Introduction: Status epilepticus (SE) is a common neurological and medical emergency. It has high mortality and morbidity rates, which typically correlate with seizure semiology and duration; therefore, prompt and proper pharmacological intervention is paramount. In a pre-hospital setting, establishing venous access can be difficult, so other routes of drug administration should be considered.

Areas Covered: The paper summarizes the data from the literature and provides an evaluation of the efficacy and safety of intramuscular midazolam (IM MDZ) as it pertains to the management of acute seizures and SE.

Expert Opinion: The cascade of events involved in the genesis and sustenance of seizures, if not promptly stopped, lead to the perpetuation of the condition and may contribute to the refractoriness of pharmacological treatment. Hence, non-venous routes for drug administration were developed to allow untrained personnel to rapidly stop seizures. Among benzodiazepines (BDZs), IM MDZ is at least as effective and safe as other intravenously administered BDZs. Moreover, thanks to IM MDZ's favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile, it is a promising alternative to other non-venous drugs such as intranasal-MDZ, buccal-MDZ, and rectal-diazepam in the pre-hospital management of SE cases with motor features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2020.1810236DOI Listing
January 2021

The Human Microbial Metabolism of Quercetin in Different Formulations: An In Vitro Evaluation.

Foods 2020 Aug 14;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Food and Drugs, University of Parma, 43124 Parma, Italy.

Quercetin is one of the main dietary flavonols, but its beneficial properties in disease prevention may be limited due to its scarce bioavailability. For this purpose, delivery systems have been designed to enhance both stability and bioavailability of bioactive compounds. This study aimed at investigating the human microbial metabolism of quercetin derived from unformulated and phytosome-formulated quercetin through an in vitro model. Both ingredients were firstly characterized for their profile in native (poly)phenols, and then fermented with human fecal microbiota for 24 h. Quantification of microbial metabolites was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (uHPLC-MS) analyses. Native quercetin, the main compound in both products, appeared less prone to microbial degradation in the phytosome-formulated version compared to the unformulated one during fecal incubation. Quercetin of both products was bioaccessible to colonic microbiota, resulting in the production of phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid and benzoic acid derivatives. The extent of the microbial metabolism of quercetin was higher in the unformulated ingredient, in a time-dependent manner. This study opened new perspectives to investigate the role of delivery systems on influencing the microbial metabolism of flavonols in the colonic environment, a pivotal step in the presumed bioactivity associated to their intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9081121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466208PMC
August 2020

Challenges and management of neurological and psychiatric manifestations in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients.

Neurol Sci 2020 Sep 6;41(9):2353-2366. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Pediatric Neurology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by human coronavirus (HCoV) SARS-CoV-2, which originated in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and spread globally during 2020. Due to the difficulty of clinical decision-making during this period, our study group reviewed current literature focusing on the neurological and psychiatric aspects of COVID-19. Despite the knowledge on this newly discovered virus which is constantly evolving, different pieces of evidence reported an association between COVID-19 and neurological symptoms like headache, dizziness, taste and smell disorders and complications involving the nervous system eventually triggered by the pathologic processes elicited by SARS-CoV-2. It seems that younger patients are less prone to develop severe forms of COVID-19. However, neurological signs have been reported in paediatric patients as well, and in some cases, the infection presented neurological sequelae. Furthermore, children with particular neurological diseases or treated with specific drugs (e.g. immune-suppressant therapies) must be carefully monitored during this pandemic. Neurologists should be aware of the main drug-drug interactions and the neurological side effects of COVID-19 treatments. Notably, adverse mental health impact has been reported in patients with SARS-CoV-2, which could be related either to the social strain or to the eventual neurotropic effects of the virus, which in other infections have been proven to promote the onset of psychiatric symptoms. Further, psychiatric population may be more vulnerable to the infection and at higher risk for adverse outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04544-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410516PMC
September 2020

Microbiota Changes Due to Grape Seed Extract Diet Improved Intestinal Homeostasis and Decreased Fatness in Parental Broiler Hens.

Microorganisms 2020 Jul 28;8(8). Epub 2020 Jul 28.

INRAE UMR85 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, 37380 Nouzilly, France.

In poultry, the selection of broilers for growth performance has induced a deterioration in the health of the parental hens associated with poor reproductive efficiency. To improve these parameters, we administered to laying parental broiler hens a regular diet supplemented or not (Control) with a moderate (1%) or a high level (2%) of grape seed extract (GSE). The 1% GSE diet was administered from a young age (from 4 to 40 weeks of age) and the high level of 2% GSE was administered only during a 2-week period (from 38 to 40 weeks of age) in the laying period. The analysis of 40-week-old hens showed that 2% GSE displayed a reduction in the fat tissue and an improvement in fertility with heavier and more resistant eggs. Seven monomer phenolic metabolites of GSE were significantly measured in the plasma of the 2% GSE hens. GSE supplementation increased the relative abundance of the following bacteria populations: and . In conclusion, a supplementation period of only 2 weeks with 2% GSE is sufficient to improve the metabolic and laying parameters of breeder hens through a modification in the microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465624PMC
July 2020

Clinical spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations in PRRT2 Italian patients.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Sep 23;28:193-197. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Pediatric Neurology and Muscular Diseases Unit, IRCCS "G. Gaslini" Institute, Genova, Italy; Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genoa, Italy.

Prrt2 is a neuron-specific protein expressed at axonal and pre-synaptic domains, involved in synaptic neurotransmitter release and modulation of intrinsic excitability. Mutations in PRRT2 cause a spectrum of autosomal dominant paroxysmal neurological disorders including epilepsy, movement disorders, and hemiplegic migraine and show incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. We assessed the diagnostic rate of PRRT2 in a cohort of Italian patients with epilepsy and/or paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) and evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations. Clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Twenty-seven out of 55 (49.1%) probands carried PRRT2 heterozygous pathogenic variants, including six previously known genotypes and one novel missense mutation. A family history of epilepsy starting in the first year of life and/or PKD was strongly suggestive of a PRRT2 pathogenic variant. Epilepsy patients harbouring PRRT2 pathogenic variants showed earlier seizure onset and more frequent clusters compared with PRRT2-negative individuals with epilepsy. Moreover, we did also identify individuals with PRRT2 pathogenic variants with atypical age at onset, i.e. childhood-onset epilepsy and infantile-onset PKD. However, the lack of a clear correlation between specific PRRT2 genotypes and clinical manifestations and the high incidence of asymptomatic carriers suggest the involvement of additional factors in modulating expressivity of PRRT2-related disorders. Finally, our study supports the pleiotropic and multifaceted physiological role of PRRT2 gene which is emerging from experimental neuroscience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.06.005DOI Listing
September 2020

Development of an HPLC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Silybin in Human Plasma, Urine and Breast Tissue.

Molecules 2020 Jun 24;25(12). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Research and Development Department, Indena S.p.A., Viale Ortles 12, 20139 Milan, Italy.

Silybin is a flavonolignan extracted from with chemopreventive activity against various cancers, including breast. This study was designed to develop an HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of silybin in human plasma, urine and breast tissue in early breast cancer patients undergoing Siliphos supplementation, an oral silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex. The determination of silybin was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction with methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE); total silybin concentration was determined by treating the samples with β-glucuronidase, while for the determination of free silybin, the hydrolytic step was omitted. Naringenin and naproxen were selected as internal standards. The detection of the analyte was carried out by mass spectrometry and by chromatography. The HPLC-MS/MS method was evaluated in terms of selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision and accuracy, and carryover. The method proved to be selective, linear, precise and accurate for the determination of silybin. To the best of our knowledge, this presents the first analytical method with the capacity to quantify the major bioactive components of milk thistle in three different biological matrices with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ng/mL for plasma. Silybin phosphatidylcholine, taken orally, can deliver high blood concentrations of silybin, which selectively accumulates in breast tumor tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356828PMC
June 2020

Loss of Wwox Perturbs Neuronal Migration and Impairs Early Cortical Development.

Front Neurosci 2020 11;14:644. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Pediatric Neurology and Muscular Diseases Unit, IRCCS Istituto "Giannina Gaslini", Genoa, Italy.

Mutations in the gene cause a broad range of ultra-rare neurodevelopmental and brain degenerative disorders, associated with a high likelihood of premature death in animal models as well as in humans. The encoded Wwox protein is a WW domain-containing oxidoreductase that participates in crucial biological processes including tumor suppression, cell growth/differentiation and regulation of steroid metabolism, while its role in neural development is less understood. We analyzed the exomes of a family affected with multiple pre- and postnatal anomalies, including cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, severe neurodevelopmental impairment and refractory epilepsy, and identified a segregating homozygous mutation leading to a premature stop codon. Abnormal cerebral cortex development due to a defective architecture of granular and molecular cell layers was found in the developing brain of a -deficient human fetus from this family. A similar disorganization of cortical layers was identified in rats (carrying a homozygous truncating mutation which disrupts the active Wwox C-terminal domain) investigated at perinatal stages. Transcriptomic analyses of Wwox-depleted human neural progenitor cells showed an impaired expression of a number of neuronal migration-related genes encoding for tubulins, kinesins and associated proteins. These findings indicate that loss of Wwox may affect different cytoskeleton components and alter prenatal cortical development, highlighting a regulatory role of the gene in migrating neurons across different species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300205PMC
June 2020

Comparison between Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Index DXA Defined by EWGSOP1 and 2 versus BIA Tengvall Criteria among Older People Admitted to the Post-Acute Geriatric Care Unit in Italy.

Nutrients 2020 Jun 18;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

IRCCS Mondino Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

This study aims to assess the agreement between the appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a single frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess criteria. Moreover, we used the European working group on sarcopenia in older people 1 (EWGSOP1), EWGSOP2, and the Tengvall equation to estimate a low prevalence in ASMI (under the cutoff criteria). We examined a sample of 765 elderly individuals (27.8% male and 72.2% female, aged 82 ± 8.2 years). Based on the cutoff identified by Tengvall, EWGSOP1, and EWGSOP2, the results showed that the prevalence of low ASMI in females was 10.1%, 11.4%, and 9.2%, respectively, and 98.1%, 30.5%, and 23.5% in males, respectively. Moreover, low ASMI prevalence under each diagnostic criterion and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. For BMI < 25 kg/m, the ASMI prevalence was 39.9%, 25.9%, and 20.6%, as determined using Tengvall, EWGSOP1, and EWGSOP2, respectively, and for BMI > 25 kg/m, the ASMI prevalence was 29.0%, 6.6%, and 5.2%. The percentage of agreement and Cohen's Kappa with the corresponding -value between Tengvall and EWGSOP1 was 70.1% ( < 0.001). Between Tengvall and EWGSOP2, it was 69.4% ( < 0.001). Between EWGSOP1 and EWGSOP2, it was 96.5% ( < 0.001). Regarding gender, low ASMI prevalence in males was higher than in females. Moreover, in females, the prevalence was comparable among the three diagnostic criteria, while in males, it was significantly higher under Tengvall than the other two criteria. The application of the Tengvall formula with a single frequency BIA should be revised in terms of application for assessing low ASMI in elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12061818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7353304PMC
June 2020

Targeted re-sequencing in malformations of cortical development: genotype-phenotype correlations.

Seizure 2020 Aug 3;80:145-152. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Unit of Medical Genetics, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy; Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DINOGMI), University of Genoa, Italy.

Purpose: Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, for which the diagnostic rate of genetic testing in a clinical setting remains to be clarified. In this study we aimed to assess the diagnostic rate of germline and pathogenic variants using a custom panel in a heterogeneous group of subjects with MCD and explore genotype-phenotype correlations.

Methods: A total of 84 subjects with different MCD were enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood. Fifty-nine tartget genes were assessed using a custom next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel.

Results: Genetic causes were identified in one-fourth of our cohort (21.4 %). Overall, we identified 19 pathogenic or likely pathogenic single-nucleotide variants in 11 genes among 18 subjects, including PAFAH1B1 (LIS1) (n = 3), TUBA1A (n = 3), DYNC1H1 (n = 3), ACTG1 (n = 2), TUBB2B (n = 1), TUBB3 (n = 1), DCX (n = 1), FLNA (n = 1), LAMA2 (n = 1), POMGNT2 (n = 1) and VLDLR (n = 1). The diagnostic yield was higher in patients with lissencephaly/pachygyria (60 %) (p = 0.001), cobblestone malformation (50 %), and subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) (40 %). Furthermore, five out of six subjects with suspect tubulinopathies on imaging harboured pathogenic variants in tubulin genes. Overall, germline pathogenic variants were more likely to be identified if MCD were diffuse (p = 0.002) and associated with other central nervous system malformations (p = 0.029). Moderate to severe intellectual disability was also more commonly associated with pathogenic variants (p = 0.044).

Conclusion: Customized gene panels may support the diagnostic work-up for some specific MCD, especially when these are diffuse, bilateral and associated with other brain malformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2020.05.023DOI Listing
August 2020

Pivotal role of boron supplementation on bone health: A narrative review.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2020 Dec 6;62:126577. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona "Istituto Santa Margherita'', University of Pavia, Pavia, 27100, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Boron is a trace element that plays an important role in numerous biological functions, including calcium metabolism, growth and maintenance of bone tissue. However, there are still no precise indications regarding a possible role of boron supplementation, and its amount of supplementation, to maintain bone health. So the aim of this narrative review was to consider the state of the art on the effectiveness of boron supplementation (alone or with other micronutrients) on growth and maintenance of bone in humans through control of calcium, vitamin D and sex steroid hormone metabolism in order to suggest a daily dosage of boron supplementation.

Main Findings: This review included 11 eligible studies: 7 regarding the supplementation with boron alone and 4 regarding supplementation with boron and other nutrients. Despite the number of studies considered being low, the number of subjects studied is high (594) and the results are interesting.

Conclusions: The studies considered in this narrative review have evaluated the positive effectiveness on bone, in humans, through control of calcium, vitamin D and sex steroid hormone metabolism, considering a dietary supplementation of 3 mg/day of boron (alone or with other nutrients); this supplementation is demonstrably useful to support bone health (in order to prevent and maintain adequate bone mineral density), also considering the daily dose of 3 mg is much lower than the Upper Level indicated by EFSA in the daily dose of 10 mg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2020.126577DOI Listing
December 2020

A food pyramid, based on a review of the emerging literature, for subjects with inflammatory bowel disease.

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2021 Jan 1;68(1):17-46. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

University of Pavia, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Section of Human Nutrition, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona, Pavia 27100, Italy.

Emerging literature suggests that diet plays an important modulatory role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through the management of inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this narrative review is to evaluate the evidence collected up till now regarding optimum diet therapy for IBD and to design a food pyramid for these patients. The pyramid shows that carbohydrates should be consumed every day (3 portions), together with tolerated fruits and vegetables (5 portions), yogurt (125ml), and extra virgin olive oil; weekly, fish (4 portions), white meat (3 portions), eggs (3 portions), pureed legumes (2 portions), seasoned cheeses (2 portions), and red or processed meats (once a week). At the top of the pyramid, there are two pennants: the red one means that subjects with IBD need some personalized supplementation and the black one means that there are some foods that are banned. The food pyramid makes it easier for patients to decide what they should eat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.endinu.2020.01.004DOI Listing
January 2021

Clinical trials on pain lowering effect of ginger: A narrative review.

Phytother Res 2020 Nov 20;34(11):2843-2856. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Zallaq, Bahrain.

Ginger has a pain-reducing effect and it can modulate pain through various mechanisms: inhibition of prostaglandins via the COX and LOX-pathways, antioxidant activity, inibition of the transcription factor nf-kB, or acting as agonist of vanilloid nociceptor. This narrative review summarizes the last 10-year of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which ginger was traditionally used as a pain reliever for dysmenorrhea, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), osteoarthritis (AO), chronic low back pain (CLBP), and migraine. Regarding dysmenorrhea, six eligible studies suggest a promising effect of oral ginger. As concerned with DOMS, the four eligible RCTs suggested a reduction of inflammation after oral and topical ginger administration. Regarding knee AO, nine RCTs agree in stating that oral and topical use of ginger seems to be effective against pain, while other did not find significant differences. One RCT considered the use of ginger in migraine and suggested its beneficial activity. Finally, one RCT evaluated the effects of Swedish massage with aromatic ginger oil on CLBP demonstrated a reduction in pain. The use of ginger for its pain lowering effect is safe and promising, even though more studies are needed to create a consensus about the dosage of ginger useful for long-term therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754412PMC
November 2020

A grape seed extract maternal dietary supplementation improves egg quality and reduces ovarian steroidogenesis without affecting fertility parameters in reproductive hens.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(5):e0233169. Epub 2020 May 14.

INRAE UMR85 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, Nouzilly, France.

In broiler hens, the genetic selection increased susceptibility to metabolic disorders and reproductive dysfunctions. In human ovarian cells, grape seed extracts (GSE) improved steroid production. Here, we investigated the effects of a GSE dietary supplementation on egg production and quality, fertility parameters, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and steroid content in yolk egg associated to plasma adipokines in broiler hens. For this, we designed two in vivo experiments, the first one included three groups of hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with GSE at 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition, respectively, since week 4), and the second one used two groups of hens: A (control) and D (supplemented with GSE at 1% of the total diet composition since hatching). We assessed the egg production from 23th to 40th weeks and quality at 33th week. After artificial inseminations, the fertility parameters were calculated. In egg yolk, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level and steroid production were evaluated by Ros-Glo H202 and ELISA assay, respectively. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and adipokines and their receptors was determined by RT-qPCR in ovarian cells and plasma adipokines (RARRES2, ADIPOQ and NAMPT) were evaluated by specific ELISA assays. The fertility parameters and egg production were unaffected by GSE supplementation whatever the experiment (exp.). However, the rate of double-yolk eggs decreased for all GSE supplemented groups (exp. 1 P <0.01, exp.2, P<0.02). In exp.1, C group eggs were bigger and larger (P<0.0001) and the shell elasticity was higher for both B and C (P<0.0003) as compared to control. In the egg yolk, GSE supplementation in both exp. reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis consistent with a decrease in P450 aromatase and StAR mRNA expression and basal in vitro progesterone secretion in granulosa cells (P<0.001). Interestingly, in both exp. RARRES2 plasma levels were positively correlated while ADIPOQ and NAMPT plasma levels were negatively correlated, with steroids and ROS in yolk (P<0.0001). Taken together, maternal dietary GSE supplementation did not affect egg production and fertility parameters whereas it reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis in yolk egg. Furthermore, it ameliorated egg quality by decreasing the number of double-yolk eggs and by improving the size of normal eggs and the elasticity of the shell. Taken together, our data suggest the possibility of using dietary maternal GSE to improve egg quality.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233169PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224513PMC
August 2020

The Use of a New Food-Grade Lecithin Formulation of Highly Standardized Ginger () and Extracts for the Treatment of Pain and Inflammation in a Group of Subjects with Moderate Knee Osteoarthritis.

J Pain Res 2020 21;13:761-770. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Sakhir Campus, Kingdom of Bahrain.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a new food-grade lecithin formulation of standardized extracts of and  on pain and inflammation.

Patients And Methods: Pilot study with one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in which 50 subjects with moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA) (mean age: 62.46±8.45) were supplied for four weeks with two tablets/day.

Results: Primary outcomes were 1) the evaluation of pain intensity, by a 30-day visual analogue scale (VAS) and 2) the assessment of knee function by WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis) Index and by Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring collected at baseline, at 15 and 30 days after treatment. Secondary outcomes were 3) health-related quality of life, by the ShortForm36 (SF-36); 4) inflammation grade by C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); and 5) body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured at baseline and 30 days after treatment. Data showed significant effects of supplement intake for WOMAC (β=-3.27, p<0.0001), Lysholm (β=1.06, p=0.0003), CRP (β=-0.13, p=0.006), ESR (β=-3.09, p=0.004), physical activity (β=4.3, p=0.009) and fat-free mass (β=376.7, p=0.046). A significant VAS's decrease over time was observed in both knees (left: β=-0.08, p<0.0001; right: β=-0.07, p<0.0001).

Conclusion: The tested formulation seems to be effective and also free of side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S214488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183537PMC
April 2020

The effect of Berberine on weight loss in order to prevent obesity: A systematic review.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Jul 27;127:110137. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, 27100, Italy; IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, 27100, Italy.

This study provides a critical overview of experimental studies in vitro, in humans, and in animals that evaluated the efficacy of Berberine and its effect on management of obesity and the related metabolic consequences. As a result of this review, we summarized the effects of Berberine in different models and the related mechanism of actions. In preclinical models, Berberine demonstrates that it affects gut microbiota by reducing diversity of microbes starting at a dosage of 100 mg/kg/day. Moreover, in animal models, Berberine explicates an action on glucose through the inhibition of α-glycosidase at a dose of 200 mh/kg/day. Berberine is also known to be effective against differentiation of adipocytes through a decrease in LXRs, PPARs, and SREBPs expression at 150 mg/kg/day. Other mechanism ascribed to Berberine are related to its inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis through the Phospheoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), Glucose-6-phosphate (G6Pase) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Furthermore, Berberine (associated to Red Yeast Rice) is effective in decreasing lipid levels in rats, which consequently lowers the change of weight gain at dosage of 40 mg/kg to 380 mg/kg/day. All the above preclinical data are confirmed in human studies where Berberine can modulate the diversity of gut microbes at the dose of 500 mg/day. In addition, Berberine is found to have a beneficial impact on gene regulation for the absorption of cholesterol at a daily dose of 300 mg in humans, an amelioration on glucose accumulation at 1.0 g daily dose was also observed. For all these reasons, this review gives an important good account of the impact of Berberine in obesity treatment and prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110137DOI Listing
July 2020

Association between des-acyl ghrelin at fasting and predictive index of muscle derangement, metabolic markers and eating disorders: a cross-sectional study in overweight and obese adults.

Nutr Neurosci 2020 Apr 15:1-7. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Unit of Human and Clinical Nutrition, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

This study aimed to analyse the impact of des-acyl and acyl ghrelin (AG) on a wide range of muscular and metabolic markers and in order to discover the possible relationships and interactions of des-acylated ghrelin (DAG) on eating disorders. A total of 88 subjects (64 women and 24 men, with a mean age of 43 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 30.20 ± 3.27 kg/m) were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. The findings showed that for each unit of increase of free fat mass index (FFMI), levels of DAG decreased by -41.11 pg/mL ( < 0.05). Moreover, similar associations with DAG were found for insulin ( = -30.67; < 0.001), leptin ( = -0.64; < 0.05), body weight ( = -14.36; < 0.001), and free fat mass (FFM) ( = -30.67; < 0.001). In addition, associations were found between DAG and resting energy expenditure (REE) ( = -0.84; = 0.05) and the binge eating scale (BES) in which a unit increase of the BES score Q3 (depression) correlated with a decrease of DAG levels ( = -9.98; = 0.08). Further, a unit increase of AG/DAG ratio correspond with an increase in body weight ( = 12.20; < 0.05), BMI ( = 4.70; < 0.05) and fat mass ( = 7.30; < 0.05). However, the AG/DAG ratio was not associated with FFMI ( = 2.61; = 0.165) and FFML/BMI ( = -0,064; = 0.625). This study suggests that higher levels of DAG at fasting are indices of poor muscle mass, insulin resistance and depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2020.1752997DOI Listing
April 2020

Risk factors for 5-year mortality in a cohort of elderly patients with sarcopenia.

Exp Gerontol 2020 07 11;136:110944. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia 27100, Italy; IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia 27100, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: The association between multiple risk factors and the mortality of sarcopenic patients has not been studied. This study's aim is to report the prevalence of sarcopenia among a sample of Italian hospitalized older adults, describe the physical function, body fat composition, cognitive, inflammatory and nutritional status of sarcopenic compared with non-sarcopenic subjects, and determine the risk factors associated with mortality in sarcopenic patients.

Method: A total of 462 patients were enrolled and followed up for a period of 5 years. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the EWGSOP2 criteria. Factors associated with sarcopenia were identified with linear regression analysis. Logistic regression was applied to explore the association between the risk factors and mortality in sarcopenic subjects. Survival analyses and predictors of mortality were identified using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression.

Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia was 33.5%. Linear regression showed that sarcopenia was associated with Barthel index (B -9.63, p0.004), BMI (B -3.19, p<0.001) and android fat (B 1.85, p0.004). Of these factors, only the number of co-morbidities (OR 1.394 C95% 1.023-1.862 p 0.025) and MMSE scores (OR 0.857 C95% 0.79-0.930 p <0.001) were associated with mortality in sarcopenia. Kaplan-Meier and the log-rank tests showed the negative prognostic effect of low BMI (p0.007), albumin (p<0.001) and Barthel index (p 0.018). The Cox regression showed that mortality hazard is reduced with BMI >24.9 (HR 0.287 C95% 0.095-0.866 p 0.027).

Conclusion: Sarcopenia is associated with low physical function and BMI but higher android fat. Low Barthel, BMI and albumin can significantly decrease the survival rate in sarcopenic patients. Whereas BMI >24.9 is associated with lower mortality hazard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.110944DOI Listing
July 2020

A grape seed extract maternal dietary supplementation in reproductive hens reduces oxidative stress associated to modulation of plasma and tissue adipokines expression and improves viability of offsprings.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(4):e0231131. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

INRAE UMR85 Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, Nouzilly, France.

In reproductive hens, a feed restriction is an usual practice to improve metabolic and reproductive disorders. However, it acts a stressor on the animal. In mammals, grape seed extracts (GSE) reduces oxidative stress. However, their effect on endocrine and tissue response need to be deepened in reproductive hens. Here, we evaluated the effects of time and level of GSE dietary supplementation on growth performance, viability, oxidative stress and metabolic parameters in plasma and metabolic tissues in reproductive hens and their offsprings. We designed an in vivo trial using 4 groups of feed restricted hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition in GSE since week 4, respectively) and D (supplemented with 1% of GSE since the hatch). In hens from hatch to week 40, GSE supplementation did not affect food intake and fattening whatever the time and dose of supplementation. Body weight was significantly reduced in D group as compared to control. In all hen groups, GSE supplementation decreased plasma oxidative stress index associated to a decrease in the mRNA expression of the NOX4 and 5 oxidant genes in liver and muscle and an increase in SOD mRNA expression. This was also associated to decreased plasma chemerin and increased plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels. Interestingly, maternal GSE supplementation increased the live body weight and viability of chicks at hatching and 10 days of age. This was associated to a decrease in plasma and liver oxidative stress parameters. Taken together, GSE maternal dietary supplementation reduces plasma and tissue oxidative stress associated to modulation of adipokines without affecting fattening in reproductive hens. A 1% GSE maternal dietary supplementation increased offspring viability and reduced oxidative stress suggesting a beneficial transgenerational effect and a potential use to improve the quality of the progeny in reproductive hens.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231131PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7153862PMC
July 2020