Anthony Waruru, PhD - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - Surveillance Epidemiologist

Anthony Waruru

PhD

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Surveillance Epidemiologist

Nairobi | Kenya

Main Specialties: Epidemiology, Public Health, Statistics

Additional Specialties: Surveillance and spatial epidemiologist

ORCID logohttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-4281-6345


Top Author

Anthony Waruru, PhD - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - Surveillance Epidemiologist

Anthony Waruru

PhD

Introduction

Work history: Currently (2019) 7 years in surveillance epidemiology and more than 5 years in monitoring and evaluation of public health programs in Kenya. Jul’11 to date: Surveillance epidemiologist for Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Global HIV/AIDS & TB (DGHT) in Nairobi. Oct’09-Jun’11: Monitoring and Evaluation Technical Advisor for Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Global HIV/AIDS & TB (DGHT) in Nairobi. Jun’08-Oct’09: Monitoring, Evaluation and Research Manager for Nutrition and HIV Program, Academy for Educational Development in Nairobi. Jul’04-Jun’08: Research Officer/Epidemiologist/biostatistician (Deputy Section head for Global AIDS Program data project) KEMRI/CDC program in Kisumu. Mar’04-Jun’04: Senior data manager for GAP in Nairobi.
Education: 2015-2019: PhD, University of Bergen, Norway. 2005-2006: Post-graduate diploma in Project Planning and Management - Maseno University, Kenya. 2001-2003: Master of Philosophy (MPhil) in Health Sciences - University of Bergen, Norway. 2000-2001: Post-graduate fellowship in informatics - Uppsala University, Sweden. 1994-1998: Bachelor’s degree in Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics – Egerton University, Kenya.
Achievements: Data analyst and co-author of articles in peer-reviewed journals; first author of 5 manuscripts and co-author in 10. H-Index 8 (June 2019). Participated as a co-investigator in various national surveys and surveillance activities including protocol development and implementation. Contributed to major country survey and surveillance reports. Contributed as a co-author and analyst in various conference abstracts and manuscripts. Played a role of facilitator in CDC-led epidemiologic data analysis and writing workshops. Worked with National level laboratory teams to develop data management systems for laboratory specimen monitoring, quality improvement programs such as proficiency testing, and improvement of blood specimen tracking and repository. Volunteered in Liberia Ebola response under the Global Outbreak Response Network (GOARN). Developed monitoring and evaluation plans, funding opportunity announcements, including ensuring fidelity to HIV program tracking and reporting.

Primary Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - Nairobi , Kenya

Specialties:

Additional Specialties:

Research Interests:


View Anthony Waruru’s Resume / CV

Education

Jun 2019
University of Bergen, Norway
PhD
Center for International Health
May 2015 - May 2003
University of Bergen, Norway
MPhil (Health Sciences)
Center for International Health

Experience

Oct 2009 - Jul 2011
US. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Surveillance Epidemiologist
Division of Global HIV and TB
Oct 2009
US. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Technical Advisor, Monitoring and Evaluation
Division of Global HIV and TB
Aug 2008
Academy for Educational Development
Monitoring Evaluation and Research Manager

Publications

19Publications

472Reads

93Profile Views

123PubMed Central Citations

A review of completeness, correctness, and order of cause of death statements among decedents with documented causes of death and HIV status at two major mortuaries in Kenya, 2015

Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine

Abstract

Background

The cause of death (COD) statement is a vital statistic that refers to the disease(s) and process(es) that lead to death. Obtaining accurate COD is valuable for mortality prevention priorities. The statements are formulated using International Classification of Diseases and related health problems, version 10 (ICD-10) system. However, physicians may be unfamiliar with these standards or fail to use them and instead refer to mechanisms or manner of death when stating COD. We present results of an of assessment of quality of COD statements in decedent cases reviewed during a one-month mortuary-based surveillance at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and the City mortuaries in Nairobi, Kenya in 2015.

Methods

Quality elements reviewed were completeness, correctness and order of stating the immediate (ICOD), antecedent, underlying (UCOD), and other significant causes (OSCs) as per the ICD 10 standards, in all deaths reported among adolescents and adults aged 15 years or older at the two mortuaries. COD were assessed for correct sequencing from immediate, antecedent, to underlying compared with autopsy pathology and clinical findings where available. Errors in COD statements were classified as missing or containing incomplete information such as: lack of underlying cause of an injury; incorrect words or statements; presence of more than one competing COD; use of the mechanism of death or anatomic and physiologic processes or signs and symptoms, and or laboratory results as CODs. Pearson's χ-squared test was used to compare proportions.

Results

Out of 810, 610 (75.3%) deaths having HIV statuses were abstracted and 356 had at least one COD documented; 114 (32%) females and 242 (68%) males; 239 (67.1%) from KNH and 117 (32.9%) City mortuary. The cases from City mortuary had higher rates of correct statements on 116 (99.1%) ICOD, 90 (89.1%) UCOD, and 40 (81.6%) OSCs, compared to KNH Mortuary; 50 (20.9%), 200 (90.1%) and 62 (76.5%) respectively, p < 0.001. The most common type of errors was incomplete information and citing mechanisms of death as the COD.

Conclusions

In addition to revising national forms to conform to ICD-10, there is a need for periodic training of individuals responsible for completing death certificates. This will improve correctness and completeness of COD in order to provide reliable mortality data in Kenya.

View Article
June 2020

Use of viral load to improve survey estimates of known HIV-positive status and antiretroviral treatment coverage.

AIDS 2020 03;34(4):631-636

Division of Global HIV & TB, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002453DOI Listing
March 2020
5.554 Impact Factor

HIV-Related Deaths in Nairobi, Kenya: Results From a HIV Mortuary Surveillance Study, 2015.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 05;81(1):18-23

National AIDS and STI Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001975DOI Listing
May 2019
6 Reads
4.556 Impact Factor

Disclosure and Clinical Outcomes Among Young Adolescents Living With HIV in Kenya.

J Adolesc Health 2019 02 25;64(2):242-249. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Institute for Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.08.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375672PMC
February 2019
23 Reads
3.612 Impact Factor

Finding Hidden HIV Clusters to Support Geographic-Oriented HIV Interventions in Kenya.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 06;78(2):144-154

Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: In a spatially well known and dispersed HIV epidemic, identifying geographic clusters with significantly higher HIV prevalence is important for focusing interventions for people living with HIV (PLHIV).

Methods: We used Kulldorff spatial-scan Poisson model to identify clusters with high numbers of HIV-infected persons 15-64 years old. We classified PLHIV as belonging to either higher prevalence or lower prevalence (HP/LP) clusters, then assessed distributions of sociodemographic and biobehavioral HIV risk factors and associations with clustering.

Results: About half of survey locations, 112/238 (47%) had high rates of HIV (HP clusters), with 1.1-4.6 times greater PLHIV adults observed than expected. Richer persons compared with respondents in lowest wealth index had higher odds of belonging to a HP cluster, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.61 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13 to 2.3], aOR 1.66 (95% CI: 1.09 to 2.53), aOR 3.2 (95% CI: 1.82 to 5.65), and aOR 2.28 (95% CI: 1.09 to 4.78) in second, middle, fourth, and highest quintiles, respectively. Respondents who perceived themselves to have greater HIV risk or were already HIV-infected had higher odds of belonging to a HP cluster, aOR 1.96 (95% CI: 1.13 to 3.4) and aOR 5.51 (95% CI: 2.42 to 12.55), respectively; compared with perceived low risk. Men who had ever been clients of female sex worker had higher odds of belonging to a HP cluster than those who had never been, aOR 1.47 (95% CI: 1.04 to 2.08); and uncircumcised men vs circumcised, aOR 3.2 (95% CI: 1.74 to 5.8).

Conclusions: HIV infection in Kenya exhibits localized geographic clustering associated with sociodemographic and behavioral factors, suggesting disproportionate exposure to higher HIV risk. Identification of these clusters reveals the right places for targeting priority-tailored HIV interventions.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5959257PMC
June 2018
121 Reads
4.556 Impact Factor

Detectable HIV Viral Load in Kenya: Data from a Population-Based Survey.

PLoS One 2016 18;11(5):e0154318. Epub 2016 May 18.

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America.

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0154318PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871583PMC
July 2017
41 Reads
7 Citations
3.234 Impact Factor

Genetic Diversity of Cryptosporidium in Children in an Urban Informal Settlement of Nairobi, Kenya.

PLoS One 2015 21;10(12):e0142055. Epub 2015 Dec 21.

Centre for Microbiological Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0142055PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4687032PMC
June 2016
8 Reads
7 Citations
3.234 Impact Factor

Using information and communications technology in a national population-based survey: the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2014 May;66 Suppl 1:S123-9

*Division of Global HIV/AIDS Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya; †Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health Allan Rosenfield Global Health Fellowship, Nairobi, Kenya; ‡HIV Implementation Sciences and Services, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya; and §Directorate of Information and Communication Technology, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Nairobi, Kenya.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000000116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4786179PMC
May 2014
23 Reads
7 Citations
4.560 Impact Factor

Burden of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years in Kenya: results from a nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2014 May;66 Suppl 1:S82-8

*Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya; †National AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya; and ‡Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000000118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4784690PMC
May 2014
32 Reads
6 Citations
4.560 Impact Factor

Cryptosporidiosis: prevalence, genotype analysis, and symptoms associated with infections in children in Kenya.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2006 Jul;75(1):78-82

Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

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July 2006
14 Reads
51 Citations
2.700 Impact Factor

Audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) may avert socially desirable responses about infant feeding in the context of HIV.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2005 Aug 2;5:24. Epub 2005 Aug 2.

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6947-5-24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1190182PMC
August 2005
24 Reads
21 Citations
1.500 Impact Factor

Top co-authors

Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez
Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez

Colorado State University

6
Andrea A Kim
Andrea A Kim

University of California

6
Peter W Young
Peter W Young

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

5
Wanjiru Waruiru
Wanjiru Waruiru

University of California

4
Joyce Wamicwe
Joyce Wamicwe

Ministry of Health

4
Irene Mukui
Irene Mukui

University of Washington

4
Erastus Mulinge
Erastus Mulinge

Kenya Medical Research Institute

3
Thorkild Tylleskar
Thorkild Tylleskar

University of Bergen

3