Publications by authors named "Anthony W Tolcher"

109 Publications

A Phase I Study of an MPS1 Inhibitor (BAY 1217389) in Combination with Paclitaxel Using a Novel Randomized Continual Reassessment Method for Dose Escalation.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Monopolar spindle 1 (MPS1) kinase inhibitor, BAY 1217389 (BAY) synergizes with paclitaxel. This phase I study assessed the combination of BAY with paclitaxel using a novel randomized continuous reassessment method (rCRM) to improve dose determination.

Patients And Methods: Patients with solid tumors were randomized to receive oral BAY (twice daily 2-days-on/5-days-off) with weekly paclitaxel (90 mg/m) or paclitaxel monotherapy in cycle 1. Dose escalation was guided by CRM modeling. Primary objectives were to assess safety, establish the MTD of BAY, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles for both compounds. Simulations were performed to determine the contribution of the rCRM for dose determination.

Results: In total, 75 patients were enrolled. The main dose-limiting toxicities were hematologic toxicities (55.6%). The MTD of BAY was established at 64 mg twice daily with paclitaxel. Inclusion of a control arm enabled the definitive attribution of grade ≥3 neutropenia to higher BAY exposure [AUC (< 0.001)]. After determining the MTD, we included 19 patients with breast cancer at this dose for dose expansion. Other common toxicities were nausea (45.3%), fatigue (41.3%), and diarrhea (40.0%). Overall confirmed responses were seen in 31.6% of evaluable patients. Simulations showed that rCRM outperforms traditional designs in determining the true MTD.

Conclusions: The combination of BAY with paclitaxel was associated with considerable toxicity without a therapeutic window. However, the use of the rCRM design enabled us to determine the exposure-toxicity relation for BAY. Therefore, we propose that the rCRM could improve dose determination in phase I trials that combine agents with overlapping toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4185DOI Listing
September 2021

First-in-Human Study of PF-06647020 (Cofetuzumab Pelidotin), an Antibody-Drug Conjugate Targeting Protein Tyrosine Kinase 7, in Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Aug 3;27(16):4511-4520. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

START Madrid-CIOCC, HM Hospital Sanchinarro, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: We investigated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of the protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7)-targeted, auristatin-based antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) PF-06647020/cofetuzumab pelidotin (NCT02222922).

Patients And Methods: Patients received PF-06647020 intravenously every 3 weeks at 0.2-3.7 mg/kg or every 2 weeks at 2.1-3.2 mg/kg, in sequential dose escalation, following a modified toxicity probability interval method. In dose expansion, pretreated patients with advanced, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), or triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) received PF-06647020 2.8 mg/kg every 3 weeks.

Results: The most common, treatment-related adverse events for PF-06647020 administered every 3 weeks were nausea, alopecia, fatigue, headache, neutropenia, and vomiting (45%-25%); 25% of patients had grade ≥ 3 neutropenia. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (grade 3 headache and fatigue) at the highest every 3 weeks dose evaluated. The recommended phase II dose was 2.8 mg/kg every 3 weeks. The overall safety profile observed with PF-06647020 administered every 2 weeks was similar to that of the every 3 weeks regimen. Systemic exposure for the ADC and total antibody generally increased in a dose-proportional manner. Antitumor activity was observed in treated patients with overall objective response rates of 27% in ovarian cancer ( = 63), 19% in NSCLC ( = 31), and 21% in TNBC ( = 29). Responders tended to have moderate or high PTK7 tumor expression by IHC.

Conclusions: This PTK7-targeted ADC demonstrated therapeutic activity in previously treated patients with ovarian cancer, NSCLC, and TNBC at a dose range of 2.1-3.2 mg/kg, supporting further clinical evaluation to refine dose, schedule, and predictive tissue biomarker testing in patients with advanced malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-3757DOI Listing
August 2021

Phase I study of ABBV-428, a mesothelin-CD40 bispecific, in patients with advanced solid tumors.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 02;9(2)

Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: CD40 agonist immunotherapy can potentially license antigen-presenting cells to promote antitumor T-cell activation and re-educate macrophages to destroy tumor stroma. Systemic administration of CD40 agonists has historically been associated with considerable toxicity, providing the rationale for development of tumor-targeted immunomodulators to improve clinical safety and efficacy. This phase I study assessed the safety, tolerability, preliminary antitumor activity, and preliminary biomarkers of ABBV-428, a first-in-class, mesothelin-targeted, bispecific antibody designed for tumor microenvironment-dependent CD40 activation with limited systemic toxicity.

Methods: ABBV-428 was administered intravenously every 2 weeks to patients with advanced solid tumors. An accelerated titration (starting at a 0.01 mg/kg dose) and a 3+3 dose escalation scheme were used, followed by recommended phase II dose cohort expansions in ovarian cancer and mesothelioma, tumor types associated with high mesothelin expression.

Results: Fifty-nine patients were treated at doses between 0.01 and 3.6 mg/kg. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached, and 3.6 mg/kg was selected as the recommended phase II dose. Seven patients (12%) reported infusion-related reactions. Treatment-related grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse events were pericardial effusion, colitis, infusion-related reaction, and pleural effusion (n=1 each, 2%), with no cytokine release syndrome reported. The pharmacokinetic profile demonstrated roughly dose-proportional increases in exposure from 0.4 to 3.6 mg/kg. Best response was stable disease in 9/25 patients (36%) treated at the recommended phase II dose. CD40 receptor occupancy >90% was observed on peripheral B-cells starting from 0.8 mg/kg; however, no consistent changes from baseline in intratumoral CD8+ T-cells, programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1+) cells, or immune-related gene expression were detected post-ABBV-428 treatment (cycle 2, day 1). Mesothelin membrane staining showed greater correlation with progression-free survival in ovarian cancer and mesothelioma than in the broader dose escalation population.

Conclusions: ABBV-428 monotherapy exhibited dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and an acceptable safety profile, particularly for toxicities characteristic of CD40 agonism, illustrating that utilization of a tumor-targeted, bispecific antibody can improve the safety of CD40 agonism as a therapeutic approach. ABBV-428 monotherapy had minimal clinical activity in dose escalation and in a small expansion cohort of patients with advanced mesothelioma or ovarian cancer.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02955251.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-002015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898862PMC
February 2021

The Evolution of Antibody-Drug Conjugates: A Positive Inflexion Point.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2020 Mar;40:1-8

New Experimental Therapeutics (NEXT), San Antonio, TX.

In 2019, an important inflection point occurred when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved three new antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) for the treatment of malignancies, including urothelial cancer (enfortumab vedotin-ejfv), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (polatuzumab vedotin-piiq), and HER2 breast cancer (fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki), and expanded the indication for ado-trastuzumab emtansine to early breast cancer. This near doubling in the number of approved ADCs within 1 year validates the ADC platform and represents a successful evolution over the past 30 years. ADCs were born in an era when systemic therapy for cancer was largely cytotoxic chemotherapy. Many of the investigational cytotoxic agents were determined to be too toxic for oral and intravenous use. The agents were especially potent, with inhibitory concentrations that inhibited 50% of cells in the nanomolar and picomolar range but had poor therapeutic indexes when administered systemically. Now, over the last 30 years, we have seen an evolution of the many aspects of this complex platform with better antigen target selection, more sophisticated chemistry for the linkers, a growing diversity of payloads from cytotoxic chemotherapy to targeted therapies and immunostimulants, and, with the recent series of regulatory approvals, a buoyed sense of optimism for the technology. Nonetheless, we have not fully realized the full potential of this platform. In this review, the many components of ADCs will be discussed, the difficulties encountered will be highlighted, the innovative strategies that are being used to improve them will be assessed, and the direction that the field is going will be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/EDBK_281103DOI Listing
March 2020

A phase 1 study evaluating safety and pharmacokinetics of losatuxizumab vedotin (ABBV-221), an anti-EGFR antibody-drug conjugate carrying monomethyl auristatin E, in patients with solid tumors likely to overexpress EGFR.

Invest New Drugs 2020 10 18;38(5):1483-1494. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

START San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Losatuxizumab vedotin (formerly ABBV-221) is a second-generation antibody-drug conjugate targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this multicenter phase 1 study, eligible patients with EGFR-dependent solid tumors received losatuxizumab vedotin (3 + 3 design) intravenously at starting dose of 0.3 mg/kg over 3 h per 21-day cycle, with alternate dosing schedules utilized (2 weeks on/1 week off or weekly) to mitigate infusion reactions. Forty-five patients received ≥1 doses of losatuxizumab vedotin (13 colon, 6 non-small cell lung cancer, 5 head and neck [HNC], 5 glioblastoma multiforme, 2 breast, 14 other). Tumor samples were evaluated for EGFR protein expression by immunohistochemistry, EGFR and EGFR ligand mRNA expression by RNAseq, and results compared with outcome. Most common adverse events were infusion-related reaction (22/45; 49%) and fatigue (20/45; 44%). While most infusion reactions were grade ≤ 2, four patients experienced grade ≥3 infusion reactions. Several infusion reaction mitigation strategies were explored. Because of the high incidence of infusion reactions, the trial was stopped and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The last cleared dose: 6 mg/kg/cycle. Nineteen patients (42%) had stable disease; 4 remained on study >6 months. One HNC patient with increased levels of EGFR and EGFR ligands (amphiregulin, epiregulin) achieved a confirmed partial response. Pharmacokinetic analysis of losatuxizumab vedotin showed exposures appeared to be approximately dose-proportional. The high frequency of infusion reactions necessitated early closure of this trial. The detailed mitigation strategies used in this protocol for infusion-related reactions may provide beneficial information for trial design of agents with high infusion reaction rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-00908-3DOI Listing
October 2020

Phase I dose-escalation trial of the oral AKT inhibitor uprosertib in combination with the oral MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor trametinib in patients with solid tumors.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 04 15;85(4):673-683. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA.

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the safety, tolerability, and recommended phase II doses of trametinib plus uprosertib (GSK2141795) in patients with solid tumors likely to be sensitive to MEK and/or AKT inhibition.

Methods: This was a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation, and dose-expansion study in patients with triple-negative breast cancer or BRAF-wild type advanced melanoma. The primary outcome of the expansion study was investigator-assessed response. Among 126 enrolled patients, 63 received continuous oral daily dosing of trametinib and uprosertib, 29 received various alternative dosing schedules, and 34 were enrolled into expansion cohorts. Doses tested in the expansion cohort were trametinib 1.5 mg once daily (QD) + uprosertib 50 mg QD.

Results: Adverse events (AEs) were consistent with those reported in monotherapy studies but occurred at lower doses and with greater severity. Diarrhea was the most common dose-limiting toxicity; diarrhea and rash were particularly difficult to tolerate. Overall, 59% and 6% of patients reported AEs with a maximum severity of grade 3 and 4, respectively. Poor tolerability prevented adequate delivery of uprosertib with trametinib at a concentration predicted to have clinical activity. The study was terminated early based on futility in the continuous-dosing expansion cohorts and a lack of pharmacological or therapeutic advantage with intermittent dosing. The objective response rate was < 5% (1 complete response, 5 partial responses).

Conclusions: Continuous and intermittent dosing of trametinib in combination with uprosertib was not tolerated, and minimal clinical activity was observed in all schedules tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-020-04038-8DOI Listing
April 2020

A Phase I Study of ASTX660, an Antagonist of Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins, in Adults with Advanced Cancers or Lymphoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 06 3;26(12):2819-2826. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Clinical Research, South Texas Accelerated Research Therapeutics (START), San Antonio, Texas.

Purpose: This first-in-human, phase I study evaluated ASTX660, an oral, small-molecule antagonist of cellular/X-linked inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphoma.

Patients And Methods: ASTX660 was administered orally once daily on a 7-day-on/7-day-off schedule in a 28-day cycle. Dose escalation followed a standard 3+3 design to determine the MTD and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Dose expansion was conducted at the RP2D.

Results: Forty-five patients received ASTX660 (range 15-270 mg/day). Dose-limiting toxicity of grade 3 increased lipase with or without increased amylase occurred in 3 patients at 270 mg/day and 1 patient at 210 mg/day. The MTD was determined to be 210 mg/day and the RP2D 180 mg/day. Common treatment-related adverse events included fatigue (33%), vomiting (31%), and nausea (27%). Grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 7 patients, most commonly anemia (13%), increased lipase (11%), and lymphopenia (9%). ASTX660 was rapidly absorbed, with maximum concentration achieved at approximately 0.5-1.0 hour. An approximately 2-fold accumulation in AUC exposures was observed on day 7 versus 1. ASTX660 suppressed cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which was maintained into the second cycle beyond the off-therapy week at the 180-mg/day RP2D and above. Clinical activity was seen in a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

Conclusions: ASTX660 demonstrated a manageable safety profile and exhibited evidence of pharmacodynamic and preliminary clinical activity at the 180-mg/day RP2D. The phase II part of the study is ongoing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1430DOI Listing
June 2020

A phase I, dose-escalation study of PF-06650808, an anti-Notch3 antibody-drug conjugate, in patients with breast cancer and other advanced solid tumors.

Invest New Drugs 2020 02 18;38(1):120-130. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

START Center for Cancer Care, 4383 Medical Dr., San Antonio, TX, 78229, USA.

Background PF-06650808 is a novel anti-Notch3 antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) able to deliver an auristatin-based cytotoxic payload to target cells. In this first-in-human, dose-finding, phase I study (NCT02129205), we investigated safety, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and preliminary antitumor activity of single-agent PF-06650808 in 40 patients with advanced breast cancer (BC) and other solid tumors unselected for Notch3 expression. Primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). PF-06650808 was administered intravenously every 3 weeks at a starting dose of 0.2 mg/kg, escalated up to 6.4 mg/kg following the modified continual reassessment method. An additional dose level, 2.0 mg/kg, was evaluated in patients with advanced, estrogen receptor-positive (ER) BC. Results The majority of patients had advanced BC (60%) and almost all (90%) had received ≥3 prior lines of anticancer therapy. Treatment with PF-06650808 was generally well tolerated at dose levels ≤2.0 mg/kg with no DLTs. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was estimated to be 2.4 mg/kg. The most common treatment-related AEs in all patients were fatigue (40.0%), decreased appetite (37.5%), nausea (35.0%), alopecia (32.5%), abdominal pain (25.0%), pruritus (25.0%), and vomiting (25.0%). Five patients achieved a partial response (PR), including 2 unconfirmed PRs; 4 of the responders had ER/PR/HER2 BC. Sixteen (51.6%) patients achieved stable disease, including 8 (57.1%) of 14 patients with ER BC. Tumor samples from all responders tested positive for NOTCH3 expression in a retrospective, exploratory analysis. Conclusions The anti-Notch3 ADC PF-06650808 has demonstrated a manageable safety profile and early signs of antitumor activity in patients with advanced BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-019-00754-yDOI Listing
February 2020

Efficacy and safety results of depatuxizumab mafodotin (ABT-414) in patients with advanced solid tumors likely to overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor.

Cancer 2018 05 13;124(10):2174-2183. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

South Texas Accelerated Research Therapeutics, San Antonio, Texas.

Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) alterations are associated with multiple cancers. Current EGFR-directed therapies have led to increased efficacy but are associated with specific side effects. The antibody-drug conjugate depatuxizumab mafodotin (depatux-m) targets EGFR with a monoclonal antibody linked to a cytotoxin, and is highly tumor-specific.

Methods: This phase 1/2 study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of depatux-m in patients who had advanced solid tumors with known wild-type EGFR overexpression, amplification, or mutated EGFR variant III. A 3 + 3 dose escalation was used, and 2 dosing schedules were evaluated. Depatux-m also was manufactured under an alternate process to reduce the drug load and improve the safety profile, and it was tested at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). In another cohort, prolonged infusion time of depatux-m was evaluated; and a cohort with confirmed EGFR amplification also was evaluated at the MTD.

Results: Fifty-six patients were treated. The MTD and the recommended phase 2 dose for depatux-m was 3.0 mg/kg. Common adverse events (AEs) were blurred vision (48%) and fatigue (41%). A majority of patients (66%) experienced 1 or more ocular AEs. Grade 3 or 4 AEs were observed in 43% of patients. One patient with EGFR-amplified, triple-negative breast cancer had a partial response. Stable disease was observed in 23% of patients. Pharmacokinetics revealed that depatux-m exposures were approximately dose-proportional.

Conclusions: Depatux-m resulted in infrequent nonocular AEs but increased ocular AEs. Patient follow-up confirmed that ocular AEs were reversible. Lowering the drug-antibody ratio did not decrease the number of ocular AEs. A partial response in 1 patient with EGFR-amplified disease provides the opportunity to study depatux-m in diseases with a high incidence of EGFR amplification. Cancer 2018;124:2174-83. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5969257PMC
May 2018

Improving combination cancer therapy: the CombiPlex development platform.

Future Oncol 2018 Jun 24;14(13):1317-1332. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Jazz Pharmaceuticals, plc, Suite 250, 887 Great Northern Way, Vancouver, British Columbia V5T 4T5, Canada.

Current combination therapy approaches assume that better outcomes are achieved by combining drugs at their maximally tolerated doses. However, administration of individual agents cannot consistently deliver synergistic drug ratios to tumor cells due to differences in pharmacokinetics of the individual drugs. Further, the toxicity of combination regimens often necessitates administration of suboptimal dosages. Delivery technologies, such as the CombiPlex platform, can enable efficient and sustained delivery of combination treatments at a synergistic ratio. The CombiPlex platform determines synergistic drug ratios in vitro and identifies an appropriate nanoscale carrier to maintain that ratio in vivo and enhance its delivery to tumor cells. CPX-351, a dual-drug liposomal encapsulation of cytarabine and daunorubicin, is the first clinical proof-of-concept example of the CombiPlex platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2017-0607DOI Listing
June 2018

Rational Approaches for Combination Therapy Strategies Targeting the MAP Kinase Pathway in Solid Tumors.

Mol Cancer Ther 2018 01;17(1):3-16

START Madrid-CIOCC, Centro Integral Oncológico Clara Campal, Medical Oncology Division, Hospital Universitario Madrid Norte Sanchinarro, Madrid, Spain.

Molecular characterization of oncogenic mutations within genes in the MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways has led to the rational development of targeted therapies. Combining BRAF and MEK inhibitors to target two steps in the MAPK pathway (vertical inhibition) is now standard of care in advanced-stage melanoma harboring V600 mutation. Encouraging results have been seen in several tumor types with the same mutation, including V600-mutant non-small cell lung cancer. Yet similar results in other tumors, such as colorectal cancer, have not been observed, highlighting the unique nature of different tumors. Furthermore, considerable cross talk occurs between signaling pathways, and cancer cells usually harbor multiple aberrations and/or develop compensatory mechanisms that drive resistance. Therefore, it is logical to target multiple pathways simultaneously (horizontal inhibition) by combining selective inhibitors or engineering multitargeted agents. Yet horizontal inhibition has proven to be a significant challenge, primarily due to dose-limiting toxicities. This review focuses on ongoing or completed clinical trials with combination targeted therapies for solid tumors and highlights the successes and ongoing challenges. Novel strategies to overcome these obstacles include new delivery technologies, combinations with emerging agents, and treatment schedule optimization. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-17-0349DOI Listing
January 2018

First-in-Class ERK1/2 Inhibitor Ulixertinib (BVD-523) in Patients with MAPK Mutant Advanced Solid Tumors: Results of a Phase I Dose-Escalation and Expansion Study.

Cancer Discov 2018 02 15;8(2):184-195. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Ulixertinib (BVD-523) is an ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor with potent preclinical activity in BRAF- and RAS-mutant cell lines. In this multicenter phase I trial (NCT01781429), 135 patients were enrolled to an accelerated 3 + 3 dose-escalation cohort and six distinct dose-expansion cohorts. Dose escalation included 27 patients, dosed from 10 to 900 mg twice daily and established the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of 600 mg twice daily. Ulixertinib exposure was dose proportional to the RP2D, which provided near-complete inhibition of ERK activity in whole blood. In the 108-patient expansion cohort, 32% of patients required dose reduction. The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea (48%), fatigue (42%), nausea (41%), and dermatitis acneiform (31%). Partial responses were seen in 3 of 18 (17%) patients dosed at or above maximum tolerated dose and in 11 of 81 (14%) evaluable patients in dose expansion. Responses occurred in patients with -, V600-, and non-V600 -mutant solid tumors. Here, we describe the first-in-human dose-escalation study of an ERK1/2 inhibitor for the treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors. Ulixertinib has an acceptable safety profile with favorable pharmacokinetics and has shown early evidence of clinical activity in - and V600- and non-V600-mutant solid-tumor malignancies. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-1119DOI Listing
February 2018

Phase 1 and pharmacokinetic study of LY3007113, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, in patients with advanced cancer.

Invest New Drugs 2018 08 1;36(4):629-637. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

South Texas Accelerated Research Therapeutics, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Background The signaling protein p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulates the tumor cell microenvironment, modulating cell survival, migration, and invasion. This phase 1 study evaluated the safety of p38 MAPK inhibitor LY3007113 in patients with advanced cancer to establish a recommended phase 2 dose. Methods In part A (dose escalation), LY3007113 was administered orally every 12 h (Q12H) at doses ranging from 20 mg to 200 mg daily on a 28-day cycle until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was reached. In part B (dose confirmation), patients received MTD. Safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tumor response data were evaluated. Results MTD was 30 mg Q12H. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events (>10%) were tremor, rash, stomatitis, increased blood creatine phosphokinase, and fatigue. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events included upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and increased hepatic enzyme, both occurring at 40 mg Q12H and considered dose-limiting toxicities. LY3007113 exhibited an approximately dose-proportional increase in exposure and time-independent pharmacokinetics after repeated dosing. Maximal inhibition (80%) of primary biomarker MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not reached, and sustained minimal inhibition (60%) was not maintained for 6 h after dosing to achieve a biologically effective dose (BED). The best overall response in part B was stable disease in 3 of 27 patients. Conclusions The recommended phase 2 dosage of LY3007113 was 30 mg Q12H. Three patients continued treatment after the first radiographic assessment, and the BED was not achieved. Further clinical development of this compound is not planned as toxicity precluded achieving a biologically effective dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-017-0532-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6061137PMC
August 2018

First-in-Human Study of AMG 820, a Monoclonal Anti-Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor Antibody, in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2017 Oct 27;23(19):5703-5710. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

Medical Oncology/Hematology, Greenville Health System Cancer Institute, Greenville, South Carolina.

Binding of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) ligand to the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R) regulates survival of tumor-associated macrophages, which generally promote an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. AMG 820 is an investigational, fully human CSF1R antibody that inhibits binding of the ligands CSF1 and IL34 and subsequent ligand-mediated receptor activation. This first-in-human phase I study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity of AMG 820. Adult patients with relapsed or refractory advanced solid tumors received intravenous AMG 820 0.5 mg/kg once weekly or 1.5 to 20 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression, adverse event (AE), or consent withdrawal. Twenty-five patients received ≥1 dose of AMG 820. AMG 820 was tolerated up to 20 mg/kg; the MTD was not reached. One dose-limiting toxicity was observed (20 mg/kg; nonreversible grade 3 deafness). Most patients (76%) had treatment-related AEs; the most common were periorbital edema (44%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 28%), fatigue (24%), nausea (16%), increased blood alkaline phosphatase (12%), and blurred vision (12%). No patients had serious or fatal treatment-related AEs; 28% had grade ≥3 treatment-related AEs. Grade 3 AST elevations resolved when treatment was withheld. AMG 820 showed linear pharmacokinetics, with minimal accumulation (<2-fold) after repeated dosing. Pharmacodynamic increases in serum CSF1 concentrations and reduced numbers of skin macrophages were observed. Best response was stable disease in 8 patients (32%). AMG 820 was tolerated with manageable toxicities up to 20 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Pharmacodynamic response was demonstrated, and limited antitumor activity was observed. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-3261DOI Listing
October 2017

Phase Ib Study of Utomilumab (PF-05082566), a 4-1BB/CD137 Agonist, in Combination with Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2017 Sep 20;23(18):5349-5357. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

This phase Ib study (NCT02179918) evaluated the safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of utomilumab, a fully human IgG2 mAb agonist of the T-cell costimulatory receptor 4-1BB/CD137 in combination with the humanized, PD-1-blocking IgG4 mAb pembrolizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors. Utomilumab (0.45-5.0 mg/kg) and pembrolizumab (2 mg/kg) were administered intravenously every 3 weeks. Utomilumab dose escalation was conducted using the time-to-event continual reassessment method. Twenty-three patients received combination treatment with no dose-limiting toxicities. Treatment-emergent adverse events were mostly grades 1 to 2, without any treatment-related discontinuations. Six patients (26.1%) had confirmed complete or partial responses. Pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity of utomilumab and pembrolizumab were similar when administered alone or in combination. A trend toward higher levels of activated memory/effector peripheral blood CD8 T cells was observed in responders versus nonresponders. The safety, tolerability, and clinical activity demonstrated by utomilumab in combination with pembrolizumab support further investigation in patients with advanced solid tumors. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-1243DOI Listing
September 2017

A phase 1 study of anti-TGFβ receptor type-II monoclonal antibody LY3022859 in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2017 04 9;79(4):673-680. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Purpose: LY3022859 is an anti-TGFβRII IgG monoclonal antibody that inhibits receptor-mediated signaling activation. The primary objective of this phase I study was to determine a phase II dose in patients with advanced solid tumors. Secondary objectives were to assess safety and pharmacokinetics (PK).

Methods: LY3022859 was infused intravenously (IV) at 1.25 mg/kg over 1 h every 2 weeks (Q2W) (cohort 1A) and at flat doses of 12.5 mg (cohort 1B) and 25 mg (cohort 2) over 3 h Q2W.

Results: Fourteen patients were enrolled in cohorts 1A (n = 2), 1B (n = 5), and 2 (n = 7). DLTs were experienced by both patients in cohort 1A (infusion-related reaction) and 2 patients in cohort 2 (cytokine release syndrome and infusion-related reaction). No MTD was determined. At the 25 mg dose level (cohort 2), after fifth infusion, LY3022859 had a short t (4.37-7.80 h) and rapid clearance (CL, 0.412 L/h). Exposure increased twofold (from 28.5 to 60.2 μg·h/mL) with increase in dose from 12.5 to 25 mg. No accumulation was observed after repeat administration.

Conclusions: The MTD for LY3022859 was not determined. Dose escalation beyond 25 mg was considered unsafe due to worsening symptoms (uncontrolled cytokine release) despite prophylaxis (corticosteroids and antihistamines).

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01646203.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-017-3245-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5893148PMC
April 2017

A phase 1 dose-escalation and expansion study of binimetinib (MEK162), a potent and selective oral MEK1/2 inhibitor.

Br J Cancer 2017 Feb 2;116(5):575-583. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Clinical Research, South Texas Accelerated Research Therapeutics (START), 4383 Medical Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

Background: Binimetinib (MEK162; ARRY-438162) is a potent and selective oral MEK 1/2 inhibitor. This phase 1 study determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, and preliminary anti-tumour activity of binimetinib in patients with advanced solid tumours, with expansion cohorts of patients with biliary cancer or KRAS- or BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer.

Methods: Binimetinib was administered twice daily. Expansion cohorts were enroled after MTD determination following a 3+3 dose-escalation design. Pharmacokinetic properties were determined from plasma samples. Tumour samples were assessed for mutations in RAS, RAF, and other relevant genes. Pharmacodynamic properties were evaluated in serum and skin punch biopsy samples.

Results: Ninety-three patients received binimetinib (dose-escalation phase, 19; expansion, 74). The MTD was 60 mg twice daily, with dose-limiting adverse events (AEs) of dermatitis acneiform and chorioretinopathy. The dose for expansion patients was subsequently decreased to 45 mg twice daily because of the frequency of treatment-related ocular toxicity at the MTD. Common AEs across all dose levels included rash (81%), nausea (56%), vomiting (52%), diarrhoea (51%), peripheral oedema (46%), and fatigue (43%); most were grade 1/2. Dose-proportional increases in binimetinib exposure were observed and target inhibition was demonstrated in serum and skin punch biopsy samples. Three patients with biliary cancer had objective responses (one complete and two partial).

Conclusions: Binimetinib demonstrated a manageable safety profile, target inhibition, and dose-proportional exposure. The 45 mg twice daily dose was identified as the recommended phase 2 dose. The three objective responses in biliary cancer patients are encouraging and support further evaluation in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2017.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5344293PMC
February 2017

Two Phase 1 dose-escalation studies exploring multiple regimens of litronesib (LY2523355), an Eg5 inhibitor, in patients with advanced cancer.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2017 Feb 17;79(2):315-326. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose: This first-in-human report examined the recommended Phase 2 dose and schedule of litronesib, a selective allosteric kinesin Eg5 inhibitor.

Methods: Two concurrent dose-escalation studies investigated litronesib across the dose range of 0.125-16 mg/m/day, evaluating the following schedules of administration on a 21-day cycle: Days 1, 2, 3; Days 1, 5, 9; Days 1, 8; Days 1, 5; or Days 1, 4, with or without pegfilgrastim. Best overall response was defined per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST Version 1.0). Pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluations were performed. Exploratory PK/pharmacodynamic analyses investigated the relationship between litronesib plasma exposure and changes in phosphohistone H3 (pHH3) levels.

Results: One hundred and seventeen patients with advanced malignancies were enrolled. Neutropenia was the primary dose-limiting toxicity. Prophylactic pegfilgrastim reduced neutropenia frequency and severity, allowing administration of higher litronesib doses, but increases in the incidences of mucositis and stomatitis were observed. Among 86 response-evaluable patients, 2 patients (2%) achieved partial response, both on the Days 1, 2, 3 regimen (5 and 6 mg/m/day with pegfilgrastim), and 17 patients (20%) maintained stable disease for ≥6 cycles. Dose-dependent increases in litronesib plasma exposure were observed, with minor intra- and inter-cycle accumulation, along with exposure-dependent increases in pHH3 expression in tumor and skin biopsies.

Conclusions: On the basis of the results of these studies, two regimens were selected for Phase 2 exploration: 6 mg/m/day on Days 1, 2, 3 plus pegfilgrastim and 8 mg/m/day on Days 1, 5, 9 plus pegfilgrastim, both on a 21-day cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-016-3205-5DOI Listing
February 2017

A Phase I Clinical Trial and Independent Patient-Derived Xenograft Study of Combined Targeted Treatment with Dacomitinib and Figitumumab in Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2017 Mar 12;23(5):1177-1185. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

START Madrid, Centro Integral Oncológico Clara Campal, Madrid, Spain.

This phase I, open-label, single-arm trial assessed the safety and tolerability of dacomitinib-figitumumab combination therapy in patients with advanced solid tumors. A standard 3 + 3 dose escalation/de-escalation design was utilized. Starting doses were figitumumab 20 mg/kg administered intravenously once every 3 weeks and dacomitinib 30 mg administered orally once daily. We also performed an independent study of the combination in patient-derived xenograft (avatar mouse) models of adenoid cystic carcinoma. Of the 74 patients enrolled, the most common malignancies were non-small cell lung cancer (24.3%) and colorectal cancer (14.9%). The most common treatment-related adverse events in the 71 patients who received treatment across five dose levels were diarrhea (59.2%), mucosal inflammation (47.9%), and fatigue and acneiform dermatitis (45.1% each). The most common dose-limiting toxicity was mucosal inflammation. Dosing schedules of dacomitinib 10 or 15 mg daily plus figitumumab 20 mg/kg every 3 weeks after a figitumumab loading dose were tolerated by patients over multiple cycles and considered recommended doses for further evaluation. Objective responses were seen in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and salivary gland cancer. Pharmacokinetic analysis did not show any significant drug-drug interaction. In the adenoid cystic carcinoma xenograft model, figitumumab exerted significant antitumor activity, whereas dacomitinib did not. Figitumumab-sensitive tumors showed downregulation of genes in the insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 pathway. Dacomitinib-figitumumab combination therapy was tolerable with significant dose reductions of both agents to less than the recommended single-agent phase II dose of each drug. Preliminary clinical activity was demonstrated in the potential target tumor adenoid cystic carcinoma. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2301DOI Listing
March 2017

Efficacy and Safety of Abemaciclib, an Inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6, for Patients with Breast Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, and Other Solid Tumors.

Cancer Discov 2016 07 23;6(7):740-53. Epub 2016 May 23.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Unlabelled: We evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetic profile, pharmacodynamic effects, and antitumor activity of abemaciclib, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4 and 6, in a multicenter study including phase I dose escalation followed by tumor-specific cohorts for breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), glioblastoma, melanoma, and colorectal cancer. A total of 225 patients were enrolled: 33 in dose escalation and 192 in tumor-specific cohorts. Dose-limiting toxicity was grade 3 fatigue. The maximum tolerated dose was 200 mg every 12 hours. The most common possibly related treatment-emergent adverse events involved fatigue and the gastrointestinal, renal, or hematopoietic systems. Plasma concentrations increased with dose, and pharmacodynamic effects were observed in proliferating keratinocytes and tumors. Radiographic responses were achieved in previously treated patients with breast cancer, NSCLC, and melanoma. For hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, the overall response rate was 31%; moreover, 61% of patients achieved either response or stable disease lasting ≥6 months.

Significance: Abemaciclib represents the first selective inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6 with a safety profile allowing continuous dosing to achieve sustained target inhibition. This first-in-human experience demonstrates single-agent activity for patients with advanced breast cancer, NSCLC, and other solid tumors. Cancer Discov; 6(7); 740-53. ©2016 AACR.See related commentary by Lim et al., p. 697This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 681.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-16-0095DOI Listing
July 2016

A Phase I Dose-Escalation Study Evaluating the Safety Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of CUDC-427, a Potent, Oral, Monovalent IAP Antagonist, in Patients with Refractory Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2016 Sep 13;22(18):4567-73. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee.

Purpose: To determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), adverse events (AE), pharmacokinetics, and preliminary evidence of antitumor activity of CUDC-427 (formerly GDC-0917), a selective antagonist of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins.

Experimental Design: Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with escalating doses of CUDC-427 orally on a daily 14-day on/7-day off schedule in 21-day cycles using a modified continuous reassessment method design. Blood samples were assayed to determine the pharmacokinetic properties, pharmacodynamic alterations of cellular IAP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels.

Results: Forty-two patients received 119 cycles of CUDC-427. Overall, the most common treatment-related toxicities were fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and rash. One DLT (grade 3 fatigue) occurred in a patient at 450 mg dose level during cycle 1, and 5 patients experienced AEs related to CUDC-427 that led to discontinuation and included grade 3 pruritus, and fatigue, and grade 2 drug hypersensitivity, pneumonitis, rash, and QT prolongation. The maximum planned dose of 600 mg orally daily for 2 weeks was reached, which allometrically scaled to exceed the IC90 in preclinical xenograft studies. Significant decreases in cIAP-1 levels in PBMCs were observed in all patients 6 hours after initial dosing. Responses included durable complete responses in one patient with ovarian cancer and one patient with MALT lymphoma.

Conclusions: CUDC-427 can be administered safely at doses up to 600 mg daily for 14 days every 3 weeks. The absence of severe toxicities, inhibition of cIAP-1 in PBMC, and antitumor activity warrant further studies. Clin Cancer Res; 22(18); 4567-73. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-0308DOI Listing
September 2016

A first-in-human dose-escalation study of the oral proteasome inhibitor oprozomib in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Invest New Drugs 2016 Apr 29;34(2):216-24. Epub 2016 Feb 29.

South Texas Accelerated Research Therapeutics (START), San Antonio, TX, USA.

Purpose: To determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of the tripeptide epoxyketone proteasome inhibitor oprozomib in patients with advanced refractory or recurrent solid tumors.

Methods: Patients received escalating once daily (QD) or split doses of oprozomib on days 1-5 of 14-day cycles (C). The split-dose arm was implemented and compared in fasted (C1) and fed (C2) states. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected during C1 and C2. Proteasome inhibition was evaluated in red blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Results: Forty-four patients (QD, n = 25; split dose, n = 19) were enrolled. The most common primary tumor types were non-small cell lung cancer (18%) and colorectal cancer (16%). In the 180-mg QD cohort, two patients experienced DLTs: grade 3 vomiting and dehydration; grade 3 hypophosphatemia (n = 1 each). In the split-dose group, three DLTs were observed (180-mg cohort: grade 3 hypophosphatemia; 210-mg cohort: grade 5 gastrointestinal hemorrhage and grade 3 hallucinations (n = 1 each). In the QD and split-dose groups, the MTD was 150 and 180 mg, respectively. Common adverse events (all grades) included nausea (91%), vomiting (86%), and diarrhea (61%). Peak concentrations and total exposure of oprozomib generally increased with the increasing dose. Oprozomib induced dose-dependent proteasome inhibition. Best response was stable disease.

Conclusions: While generally low-grade, clinically relevant gastrointestinal toxicities occurred frequently with this oprozomib formulation. Despite dose-dependent increases in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, single-agent oprozomib had minimal antitumor activity in this patient population with advanced solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-016-0327-xDOI Listing
April 2016

A First-in-Human Phase I Study of the Oral p38 MAPK Inhibitor, Ralimetinib (LY2228820 Dimesylate), in Patients with Advanced Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2016 Mar 18;22(5):1095-102. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Purpose: p38 MAPK regulates the production of cytokines in the tumor microenvironment and enables cancer cells to survive despite oncogenic stress, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies. Ralimetinib (LY2228820 dimesylate) is a selective small-molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK. This phase I study aimed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of ralimetinib, as a single agent and in combination with tamoxifen, when administered orally to patients with advanced cancer.

Experimental Design: The study design consisted of a dose-escalation phase performed in a 3+3 design (Part A; n = 54), two dose-confirmation phases [Part B at 420 mg (n = 18) and Part C at 300 mg (n = 8)], and a tumor-specific expansion phase in combination with tamoxifen for women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer refractory to aromatase inhibitors (Part D; n = 9). Ralimetinib was administered orally every 12 hours on days 1 to 14 of a 28-day cycle.

Results: Eighty-nine patients received ralimetinib at 11 dose levels (10, 20, 40, 65, 90, 120, 160, 200, 300, 420, and 560 mg). Plasma exposure of ralimetinib (Cmax and AUC) increased in a dose-dependent manner. After a single dose, ralimetinib inhibited p38 MAPK-induced phosphorylation of MAPKAP-K2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The most common adverse events, possibly drug-related, included rash, fatigue, nausea, constipation, pruritus, and vomiting. The recommended phase II dose was 300 mg every 12 hours as monotherapy or in combination with tamoxifen. Although no patients achieved a complete response or partial response,19 patients (21.3%) achieved stable disease with a median duration of 3.7 months, with 9 of these patients on study for ≥ 6 cycles.

Conclusions: Ralimetinib demonstrated acceptable safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics for patients with advanced cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1718DOI Listing
March 2016

A Phase I First-in-Human Study of Nesvacumab (REGN910), a Fully Human Anti-Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2016 Mar 21;22(6):1348-55. Epub 2015 Oct 21.

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario.

Purpose: Nesvacumab (REGN910) is a fully human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) monoclonal antibody that specifically binds and inactivates the Tie2 receptor ligand Ang2 with high affinity, but shows no binding to Ang1. The main objectives of this trial were to determine the safety, tolerability, dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of nesvacumab.

Experimental Design: Nesvacumab was administered intravenously every two weeks with dose escalations from 1 to 20 mg/kg in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Results: A total of 47 patients were treated with nesvacumab. No patients in the dose escalation phase experienced DLTs, therefore a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was not reached. The most common nesvacumab-related adverse events were fatigue (23.4%), peripheral edema (21.3%), decreased appetite, and diarrhea (each 10.6%; all grade ≤ 2). Nesvacumab was characterized by linear kinetics and had a terminal half-life of 6.35 to 9.66 days in a dose-independent manner. Best response by RECIST 1.1 in 43 evaluable patients included 1 partial response (adrenocortical carcinoma) of 24 weeks duration. Two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma had stable disease (SD) > 16 weeks, with tumor regression and >50% decrease in α-fetoprotein. Analyses of putative angiogenesis biomarkers in serum and tumor biopsies were uninformative for treatment duration.

Conclusions: Nesvacumab safety profile was acceptable at all dose levels tested. Preliminary antitumor activity was observed in patients with treatment-refractory advanced solid tumors. On the basis of cumulative safety, antitumor activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data, the 20 mg/kg dose was determined to be the RP2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1221DOI Listing
March 2016

Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of a Humanized Anti-Semaphorin 4D Antibody, in a First-In-Human Study of Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2016 Feb 7;22(4):827-36. Epub 2015 Oct 7.

Virginia G. Piper Cancer Center at Scottsdale Healthcare/TGen, Scottsdale, Arizona.

Purpose: Study objectives included evaluating the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and antitumor activity of VX15/2503 in advanced solid tumor patients.

Experimental Design: Weekly i.v. doses were administered on a 28-day cycle. Safety, immunogenicity, PK, efficacy, T-cell membrane-associated SEMA4D (cSEMA4D) expression and saturation, soluble SEMA4D (sSEMA4D) serum levels, and serum biomarker levels were evaluated.

Results: Forty-two patients were enrolled into seven sequential cohorts and an expansion cohort (20 mg/kg). VX15/2503 was well tolerated. Treatment-related adverse events were primarily grade 1 or 2 and included nausea (14.3%) and fatigue (11.9%); arthralgia, decreased appetite, infusion-related reaction, and pyrexia were each 7.3%. One pancreatic cancer patient (15 mg/kg) experienced a Grade 3 dose-limiting toxicity; elevated γ-glutamyl transferase. Complete cSEMA4D saturation was generally observed at serum antibody concentrations ≥ 0.3 μg/mL, resulting in decreased cSEMA4D expression. Soluble SEMA4D levels increased with dose and infusion number. Neutralizing anti-VX15/2503 antibodies led to treatment discontinuation for 1 patient. VX15/2503 Cmax and AUC generally increased with dose and dose number. One patient (20 mg/kg) experienced a partial response, 19 patients (45.2%) exhibited SD for ≥ 8 weeks, and 8 (19%) had SD for ≥ 16 weeks. Subjects with elevated B/T lymphocytes exhibited longer progression-free survival.

Conclusions: VX15/2503 was well tolerated and produced expected PD effects. The correlation between immune cell levels at baseline and progression-free survival is consistent with an immune-mediated mechanism of action. Future investigations will be in combination with immunomodulatory agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-0431DOI Listing
February 2016

Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of navitoclax (ABT-263) in combination with irinotecan: results of an open-label, phase 1 study.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2015 Nov 1;76(5):1041-9. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

UCLA Division of Hematology-Oncology, Santa Monica, CA, USA.

Purpose: The oral Bcl-2 inhibitor navitoclax demonstrated activity in solid and hematologic malignancies as monotherapy and in combination with other cytotoxic agents in preclinical and early clinical studies. We evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and antitumor activity of navitoclax plus irinotecan.

Methods: In this multicenter, open-label, phase 1 dose escalation study, adults with advanced solid tumors received navitoclax (starting dose 150 mg/day) in combination with 1 of 2 irinotecan schedules during a 21-day cycle: a once-every-3-week regimen (Q3W 180, 250, or 350 mg/m(2)) or a once-weekly regimen (QW 75 or 100 mg/m(2)). Enrollment occurred until a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and/or recommended phase 2 dose (RPTD) was reached.

Results: All patients (Q3W, n = 14; QW, n = 17) were evaluable for safety, PK, and efficacy. The most common adverse event in both groups was diarrhea (Q3W 92.9 %; QW 76.5 %), which was the most frequent grade 3/grade 4 adverse event (Q3W 42.9 %; QW 29.4 %). The study was amended to exclude 4 UGT1A1*28 7/7 homozygous patients due to frequent irinotecan-related grade 3/grade 4 diarrhea and/or febrile neutropenia. No apparent PK interactions between navitoclax and irinotecan were observed. The MTD of the combination was exceeded in the Q3W group at the lowest dose administered. In the QW group, the MTD and RPTD for navitoclax were 150 mg when combined with irinotecan 75 mg/m(2). One patient in each group achieved a partial response.

Conclusion: The RPTD of navitoclax in combination with irinotecan 75 mg/m(2) QW during a 21-day cycle was 150 mg in these heavily pretreated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-015-2882-9DOI Listing
November 2015

Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of navitoclax (ABT-263) in combination with erlotinib in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2015 Nov 29;76(5):1025-32. Epub 2015 Sep 29.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, 2020 Santa Monica Blvd, Suite 600, Santa Monica, CA, 90404, USA.

Purpose: Navitoclax (ABT-263), a novel, oral Bcl-2 inhibitor, enhances the antitumor effects of chemotherapy in vitro by lowering the apoptotic threshold. This phase I study (NCT01009073) evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor activity of navitoclax combined with erlotinib in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Patients And Methods: An open-label dose escalation study included an arm evaluating navitoclax combined with erlotinib, which included a dose escalation cohort and a planned safety expansion cohort. Patients with documented cancers for whom erlotinib therapy was appropriate received erlotinib 150 mg orally once daily plus navitoclax 150 mg orally once daily, with navitoclax dose escalation via a continuous reassessment method model.

Results: Eleven patients were enrolled, including six patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer. Dose-limiting toxicities, most commonly diarrhea, were observed in 4 patients. Navitoclax dosing remained at 150 mg/day because the maximum tolerated dose was exceeded at this starting dose. The planned dose escalation did not occur; no recommended phase II dose (RPTD) was identified, and there was no safety expansion cohort. The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed no apparent interactions between co-administered navitoclax and erlotinib. No objective responses were observed; the disease control rate was 27 % (95 % CI, 6-61 %).

Conclusion: At the erlotinib and navitoclax doses administered, RPTD was not reached, but the safety profile of the combination was consistent with data from monotherapy studies. There were no apparent pharmacokinetic interactions between erlotinib and navitoclax. Three patients had stable disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-015-2883-8DOI Listing
November 2015

Phase I Study of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475; Anti-PD-1 Monoclonal Antibody) in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2015 Oct 14;21(19):4286-93. Epub 2015 May 14.

South Texas Accelerated Research Therapeutics (START), San Antonio, Texas.

Purpose: This phase I study evaluated the safety, maximum tolerated dose, antitumor activity, and pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Experimental Design: In a 3 + 3 dose escalation study, 10 patients received pembrolizumab 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks until progression or intolerable toxicity. Seven additional patients received 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Thirteen patients participated in a 3-week intrapatient dose escalation (dose range, 0.005-10 mg/kg) followed by 2 or 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Tumor response was assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1.

Results: No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Maximum administered dose was 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. One patient with melanoma and one with Merkel cell carcinoma experienced complete responses of 57 and 56+ weeks' duration, respectively. Three patients with melanoma experienced partial responses. Fifteen patients with various malignancies experienced stable disease. One patient died of cryptococcal infection 92 days after pembrolizumab discontinuation, following prolonged corticosteroid use for grade 2 gastritis considered drug related. Pembrolizumab exhibited pharmacokinetic characteristics typical of humanized monoclonal antibodies. Maximum serum target engagement was reached with trough levels of doses greater than or equal to 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Mechanism-based translational models with a focus on intratumor exposure prediction suggested robust clinical activity would be observed at doses ≥2 mg/kg every 3 weeks.

Conclusions: Pembrolizumab was well tolerated and associated with durable antitumor activity in multiple solid tumors. The lowest dose with full potential for antitumor activity was 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2607DOI Listing
October 2015

Safety and Activity of the First-in-Class Sym004 Anti-EGFR Antibody Mixture in Patients with Refractory Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Discov 2015 Jun 11;5(6):598-609. Epub 2015 May 11.

Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Institute of Oncology (VHIO), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Center affiliated to the RTICC (ISCiii), Spain.

Unlabelled: Tumor growth in the context of EGFR inhibitor resistance may remain EGFR-dependent and is mediated by mechanisms including compensatory ligand upregulation and de novo gene alterations. Sym004 is a two-antibody mixture targeting nonoverlapping EGFR epitopes. In preclinical models, Sym004 causes significant EGFR internalization and degradation, which translates into superior growth inhibition in the presence of ligands. In this phase I trial, we observed grade 3 skin toxicity and hypomagnesemia as mechanism-based dose-limiting events during dose escalation. In dose-expansion cohorts of 9 and 12 mg/kg of Sym004 weekly, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance were enrolled; 17 of 39 patients (44%) had tumor shrinkage, with 5 patients (13%) achieving partial response. Pharmacodynamic studies confirmed marked Sym004-induced EGFR downmodulation. MET gene amplification emerged in 1 patient during Sym004 treatment, and a partial response was seen in a patient with EGFR(S492R) mutation that is predictive of cetuximab resistance.

Significance: Potent EGFR downmodulation with Sym004 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and acquired resistance to cetuximab/panitumumab translates into significant antitumor activity and validates the preclinical hypothesis that a proportion of tumors remains dependent on EGFR signaling. Further clinical development and expanded correlative analyses of response patterns with secondary RAS/EGFR mutations are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-14-1432DOI Listing
June 2015

Synthesis of a novel, sequentially active-targeted drug delivery nanoplatform for breast cancer therapy.

Biomaterials 2015 Aug 15;59:88-101. Epub 2015 May 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, United States.

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Paclitaxel (PTX), an important breast cancer medicine, exhibits reduced bioavailability and therapeutic index due to high hydrophobicity and indiscriminate cytotoxicity. PTX encapsulation in one-level active targeting overcomes such barriers, but enhances toxicity to normal tissues with cancer-similar expression profiles. This research attempted to overcome this challenge by increasing selectivity of cancer cell targeting while maintaining an ability to overcome traditional pharmacological barriers. Thus, a multi-core, multi-targeting construct for tumor specific delivery of PTX was fabricated with (i) an inner-core prodrug targeting the cancer-overexpressed cathepsin B through a cathepsin B-cleavable tetrapeptide that conjugates PTX to a poly(amidoamine) dendrimer, and (ii) the encapsulation of this prodrug (PGD) in an outer core of a RES-evading, folate receptor (FR)-targeting liposome. Compared to traditional FR-targeting PTX liposomes, this sequentially active-targeted dendrosome demonstrated better prodrug retention, an increased cytotoxicity to cancer cells (latter being true when FR and cathepsin B activities were both at moderate-to-high levels) and higher tumor reduction. This research may eventually evolve a product platform with reduced systemic toxicity inherent with traditional chemotherapy and localized toxicity inherent to single-target nanoplatforms, thereby allowing for better tolerance of higher therapeutic load in advanced disease states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.03.039DOI Listing
August 2015
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