Publications by authors named "Anthony Uchenna Emeribe"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dengue Virus is Hyperendemic in Nigeria from 2009 to 2020: A Contemporary Systematic Review.

Infect Chemother 2021 Jun;53(2):284-299

Department of Nursing Science, Maryam Abacha American university of Niger, Maradi, Niger Republic.

Backround: Data on Dengue virus (DENV) infection prevalence, geographic distribution and risk factors are necessary to direct appropriate utilization of existing and emerging control strategies. This study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence, risk factors of DENV infection and the circulating serotypes within Nigeria from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2020.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-one studies out of 2,215 available articles were eligible and included for this systematic review. Relevant articles were searched, screened and included in this study according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. The risk of bias in primary studies was assessed by Cochrane's method. Heterogeneity of pooled prevalence was calculated using the chi-square test on Cochrane's Q statistic, which was quantified by I-square values. The random-effects analyses of proportions were used to determine the pooled prevalence of DENV antibodies, antigen and RNA from eligible studies.

Results: Of these, 3 studies reported co-circulation of all the 4 serotypes, while 2 separately reported co-circulation of DENV-1 &2 and DENV-1 to -3. All the antibody-based studies had significantly high heterogeneity (I² >90%, <0.05), while the NS1 and PCR-based studies had low heterogeneity (I² <25%, >0.05). The pooled prevalence of DENV IgM, IgG, RNA, NS1 and neutralizing antibodies were 16.8%, 34.7%, 7.7%, 7.7% and 0.7%, respectively. South-east Nigeria had the highest pooled DENV-IgG seropositivity, 77.1%. Marital status, gender, educational level and occupation status, the proximity of residence to refuse dumpsite, frequent use of trousers and long sleeve shirts were significantly associated with DENV IgG seropositivity ( <0.05).

Conclusion: Based on these findings, it can be inferred that Nigeria is hyperendemic for Dengue fever and needs concerted efforts to control its spread within and outside the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3947/ic.2020.0142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258289PMC
June 2021

The pattern of human papillomavirus infection and genotypes among Nigerian women from 1999 to 2019: a systematic review.

Ann Med 2021 12;53(1):944-959

WHO National Polio Reference Laboratory, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Background: There are no robust national prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in Nigerian women despite the high burden of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality.

The Objective Of Study: This study aims to determine the pooled prevalence and risk factors of genital HPV infection in Nigeria through a systemic review protocol.

Methods: Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and AJOL were searched between 10 April to 28 July 2020. HPV studies on Nigerian females and published from April 1999 to March 2019 were included. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence.

Results: The pooled prevalence of cervical HPV was 20.65% (95%CI: 19.7-21.7). Genotypes 31 (70.8%), 35 (69.9%) and 16 (52.9%) were the most predominant HPV in circulation. Of the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria, northeast had the highest pooled prevalence of HPV infection (48.1%), while the least was in the north-west (6.8%). After multivariate logistic regression, duration (years) of sexual exposure (OR = 3.24, 95%CI: 1.78-9.23]), history of other malignancies (OR = 1.93, 95%CI: 1.03-2.97]), history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.31-3.55]), coital frequency per week (OR = 5.11, 95%CI: 3.86-14.29), the status of circumcision of the sexual partner (OR = 2.71, 95%CI: 1.62-9.05), and marital status (OR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.16-4.72), were significant risk factors of HPV infection ( < 0.05). Irregular menstruation, post-coital bleeding and abdominal vaginal discharge were significantly associated with HPV infection ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: HPV prevalence is high in Nigeria and was significantly associated with several associated risk factors. Rapid screening for high-risk HPV genotypes is recommended and multivalent HPV vaccines should be considered for women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.1938201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205070PMC
December 2021

Incidence, drivers and global health implications of the 2019/2020 yellow fever sporadic outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Pathog Dis 2021 Apr;79(4)

Department of Nursing Science, Maryam Abacha American University of Niger, ADS Avenue, Roi Muhammed VI Du Maroc Maradi, Republique Du Niger.

The 2019 and 2020 sporadic outbreaks of yellow fever (YF) in Sub-Saharan African countries had raised a lot of global health concerns. This article aims to narratively review the vector biology, YF vaccination program, environmental factors and climatic changes, and to understand how they could facilitate the reemergence of YF. This study comprehensively reviewed articles that focused on the interplay and complexity of YF virus (YFV) vector diversity/competence, YF vaccine immunodynamics and climatic change impacts on YFV transmission as they influence the 2019/2020 sporadic outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Based on available reports, vectorial migration, climatic changes and YF immunization level could be reasons for the re-mergence of YF at the community and national levels. Essentially, the drivers of YFV infection due to spillover are moderately constant. However, changes in land use and landscape have been shown to influence sylvan-to-urban spillover. Furthermore, increased precipitation and warmer temperatures due to climate change are likely to broaden the range of mosquitoes' habitat. The 2019/2020 YF outbreaks in SSA is basically a result of inadequate vaccination campaigns, YF surveillance and vector control. Consequently, and most importantly, adequate immunization coverage must be implemented and properly achieved under the responsibility of the public health stakeholders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftab017DOI Listing
April 2021

Sero-survey of measles virus antibodies among symptomatic children attending Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

GMS Hyg Infect Control 2021 26;16:Doc04. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

University Health Center, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Federal University, Dutse, Nigeria.

Nigeria is one of the countries with a high prevalence of measles outbreak in children under 5 years old, despite a history of vaccination. This study aims to determine the prevalence of anti-measles virus IgM and IgG among children under 5 years attending the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja, Nigeria. : Whole blood was collected, centrifuged, and serum anti-IgM and anti-IgG against measles virus was analysed using ELISA. Sociodemographic variables and vaccination history of subjects were obtained by interview-based questionnaires. The overall anti-Measles virus IgG and IgM seroprevalences were 29.2% and 14.6%, respectively. The prevalence of measles IgG was significantly associated with the parent's employment status ( =11.67, p=0.008). However, the prevalence of measles virus IgM was significantly associated with children's age ( =16.62, p=0.002), parents' employment status and children's vaccination status ( =7.72, p=0.02). A majority of study participants were not immunised against measles, and a significant number of participants had serological evidence of acute measles virus infection. There is a need for more concerted and massive measles vaccination of children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3205/dgkh000375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894129PMC
January 2021

Humoral immunological kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and diagnostic performance of serological assays for coronavirus disease 2019: an analysis of global reports.

Int Health 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to rise and second waves are reported in some countries, serological test kits and strips are being considered to scale up an adequate laboratory response. This study provides an update on the kinetics of humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and performance characteristics of serological protocols (lateral flow assay [LFA], chemiluminescence immunoassay [CLIA] and ELISA) used for evaluations of recent and past SARS-CoV-2 infection. A thorough and comprehensive review of suitable and eligible full-text articles was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Wordometer and medRxiv from 10 January to 16 July 2020. These articles were searched using the Medical Subject Headings terms 'COVID-19', 'Serological assay', 'Laboratory Diagnosis', 'Performance characteristics', 'POCT', 'LFA', 'CLIA', 'ELISA' and 'SARS-CoV-2'. Data from original research articles on SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection ≥second day postinfection were included in this study. In total, there were 7938 published articles on humoral immune response and laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. Of these, 74 were included in this study. The detection, peak and decline period of blood anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgG and total antibodies for point-of-care testing (POCT), ELISA and CLIA vary widely. The most promising of these assays for POCT detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 3 postinfection and peaked on the 15th day; ELISA products detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG at days 2 and 6 then peaked on the eighth day; and the most promising CLIA product detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 1 and peaked on the 30th day. The most promising LFA, ELISA and CLIA that had the best performance characteristics were those targeting total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies followed by those targeting anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG then IgM. Essentially, the CLIA-based SARS-CoV-2 tests had the best performance characteristics, followed by ELISA then POCT. Given the varied performance characteristics of all the serological assays, there is a need to continuously improve their detection thresholds, as well as to monitor and re-evaluate their performances to assure their significance and applicability for COVID-19 clinical and epidemiological purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihab005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928871PMC
February 2021

Sero-epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses-1 and -2 infection among pregnant women attending Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Hum Antibodies 2021 ;29(1):101-108

WHO National Polio Laboratory, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Background: There is the paucity of HTLV-1/-2 studies on Nigerian pregnant women despite the medical and public health significance of maternal-to-child transmission of HTLV-1/-2.

Objective: This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of HTLV-1/-2 infections among pregnant women attending the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Abuja, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples were collected from consented pregnant women and analysed for ant-HTLV-1/-2 total antibodies using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. Pretested structured questionnaires were used to collate participants' socio-demographic variables and risk factors of HTLV infection.

Results: Out of the 156 pregnant women tested for HTLV-1/-2 antibodies, 16 (10.3%) were seropositive. There was no significant association between the socio-demographic variables collated and seroprevalence of HTLV-1/-2 infection among pregnant women (p> 0.05). Pregnant women with HIV infection had a lower prevalence of HLTV-1/-2 infection than those without HIV infections (7.5% versus 11.7%). Pregnant women with multiple sexual partners had a higher risk of HTLV-1/-2 infection than those who had single (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 0.53-8.18). Women with a history of needles injury had a higher risk of HTLV-1/-2 infection than those who do not (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.38-4.08). The history of blood transfusion was significantly associated with HTLV-1/-2 infection (p= 0.027). However, no significant association existed between other risk factors of HTLV-1/-2 infection among pregnant women (p> 0.05).

Conclusion: Considering the 3% pooled national prevalence of HTLV-1/-2 infection in Nigeria, the seroprevalence reported in this study is relatively high. Thus, there is a need for more large cohort studies and routine screening of population at increased risk of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-200435DOI Listing
January 2021

Understanding the implications of SARS-CoV-2 re-infections on immune response milieu, laboratory tests and control measures against COVID-19.

Heliyon 2021 Jan 9;7(1):e05951. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Nursing Sciences, Maryam Abacha American University of Niger, Maradi, Nigeria.

Several months after the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), cases of re-infection after recovery were reported. The extent and duration of protective immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection is not fully understood. As such, the possibility of re-infection with SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, cases of re-infection were mainly due to different variants or mutant SARS-CoV-2. Following the fast and pandemic-scale spread of COVID-19, mutations in SARS-CoV-2 have raised new diagnostic challenges which include the redesign of the oligonucleotide sequences used in RT-PCR assays to avoid potential primer-sample mismatches, and decrease sensitivities. Since the initial wave of the pandemic, some regions had experienced fresh outbreaks, predisposing people to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 re-infection. Hence, this article sought to offer detailed biology of SARS-CoV-2 re-infections and their implications on immune response milieu, diagnostic laboratory tests and control measures against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e05951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810769PMC
January 2021

Distribution pattern and prevalence of West Nile virus infection in Nigeria from 1950 to 2020: a systematic review.

Epidemiol Health 2020 26;42:e2020071. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Solina Center for International Development and Research, Abuja, Nigeria.

Objectives: West Nile virus (WNV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne viral infection. This study investigated the pooled prevalence pattern and risk factors of WNV infection among humans and animals in Nigeria.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted of eligible studies published in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from January 1, 1950 to August 30, 2020. Peer-reviewed cross-sectional studies describing WNV infections in humans and animals were systematically reviewed. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochrane Q statistic.

Results: Eighteen out of 432 available search output were eligible and included for this study. Of which 13 and 5 were WNV studies on humans and animals, respectively. Although 61.5% of the human studies had a low risk of bias, they all had high heterogeneity. The South West geopolitical zone of Nigeria had the highest pooled prevalence of anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM; 7.8% in humans). The pooled seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG) was 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9 to 8.3) and 76.5% (95% CI, 74.0 to 78.8), respectively. The WNV RNA prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.9), while 14.3% (95% CI, 12.9 to 15.8) had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. In animals, the pooled seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and IgG was 90.3% (95% CI, 84.3 to 94.6) and 3.5% (95% CI, 1.9 to 5.8), respectively, while 20.0% (95% CI, 12.9 to 21.4) had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Age (odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 1.87 to 7.45; p<0.001) and level of education (no formal education: OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 17.2; p<0.05; primary: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.80 to 29.6; p<0.01) were significant risk factors for WNV IgM seropositivity in humans.

Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the endemicity of WNV in animals and humans in Nigeria and underscore the need for the One Health prevention and control approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137371PMC
February 2021

Leucocytes and Th-associated Cytokine Profile of HIV-Leishmaniasis Co-Infected Persons Attending Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Eurasian J Med 2020 Oct;52(3):271-276

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Objective: T-helper cells (Th)-1& -2 cytokines homeostasis control or predict clinical outcome of infected persons, especially those with HIV /AIDS. This case-control study evaluated the leucocytes differentials, TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-2 and -10 levels among HIV infected persons with serological evidence of leishmaniasis attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples from 28 HIV infected persons who had Leishmania donovani rK39 and Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) positive (group 1), 30 age- & -sex matched HIV infected persons without Leishmania antibodies (group 2) and 30 apparently healthy persons without HIV and Leishmania antibodies (group 3). Full blood counts, TNF alpha, IL-2 and -10 levels were analyzed using automated hematology analyzer and ELISA, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to collate biodata and clinical presentations of participants.

Results: Ten (35.7%) participants in group 1 were on ART, 15 (50%) in group 2 were on ART, while group 3 were ART naïve. There were significantly higher values in basophil (4.4±2.5%) and eosinophil counts (12.9±3.8%) in HIV/leishmania coinfected persons (p<0.005). However, other white cells subpopulation was significantly lower in HIV/leishmania co-infected participants (p<0.05). There was significantly reduced CD4+ T cell counts ([119±26 versus 348±63 versus 605±116 cells/mm3]), TNF-alpha ([36.82±8.21 versus 64.67±12.54 versus 254.98±65.59 pg/mL]) and IL-2 levels ([142.14±20.91 versus 507.6±84.42 versus 486.62±167.87 pg/mL]) among HIV/Leishmania co-infected participants compared to group 2 and group 3 participants, respectively. However, higher IL-10 level (80.35±14.57 pg/mL) was found in HIV/Leishmania co-infected participants as opposed to the HIV monoinfected (62.2±10.43 pg/mL) and apparently healthy persons (23.97±4.88 pg/mL) (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Eosinophil, basophil counts and serum IL-10 level were high in HIV/Leishmania coinfected persons, demonstrating parasite-induced hypersensitivity and immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/eurasianjmed.2020.20008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7651764PMC
October 2020

Leveraging on the genomics and immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 for vaccines development: prospects and challenges.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 03 16;17(3):620-637. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

The incidence and case-fatality rates (CFRs) of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the etiological agent for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), have been rising unabated. Even though the entire world has been implementing infection prevention and control measures, the pandemic continues to spread. It has been widely accepted that preventive vaccination strategies are the public health measures for countering this pandemic. This study critically reviews the latest scientific advancement in genomics, replication pattern, pathogenesis, and immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and how these concepts could be used in the development of vaccines. We also offer a detailed discussion on the anticipated potency, efficacy, safety, and pharmaco-economic issues that are and will be associated with candidate COVID-19 vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1812313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993231PMC
March 2021

Roles and challenges of coordinated public health laboratory response against COVID-19 pandemic in Africa.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2020 07 31;14(7):691-695. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja Nigeria.

As the incidence of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) continues to rise, many countries have been seeking for medical assistance such as donation or procurement of laboratory test kits and strips. These consumables are largely intended for use in the laboratory investigations of COVID-19 cases, suspected contacts, asymptomatic persons and in discharging cured persons. Thus, this article was instigated to update and remind healthcare providers and policymakers (especially those in developing countries) on the principles of sample collections, storage, transportation, laboratory protocols and networks needed for appropriate public health response against COVID-19 pandemic in Africa and other developing countries. In addition, this article presents challenges that hinder adequate COVID-19 laboratory response and discuss some possible solutions that could ameliorate these constrains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.12813DOI Listing
July 2020

Exploring the genetics, ecology of SARS-COV-2 and climatic factors as possible control strategies against COVID-19

Infez Med 2020 Ahead Of Print Jun 1;28(2):166-173

Department of Public Health, University of South Wale, UK.

The world has been thrown into pandemonium due to the recent Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Early available clinical data have indicated that geriatric persons cum those with comorbidity such as cardiovascular, metabolic and immunological disorders suffered severe form of COVID-19. All countries and territories of the world are currently exploring available strategies to control the pandemic with the hope to significantly minimize its morbidity and mortality rate. This present study critically reviewed available and latest research progress on the genetics and ecology of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the influence of climatic factors on the spread of COVID-19, and thus, discussed how these concepts could be harnessed for COVID-19 control and further scientific advancements in resolving the pandemic.
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April 2020

Phenotypic profile of pulmonary aspergillosis and associated cellular immunity among people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jul-Sep;31(3):149-153

Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria.

Objective: causes many forms of pulmonary infectious diseases ranging from colonization (noninvasive) to invasive aspergillosis. This largely depends on the underlying host's lung health and immune status. Pulmonary aspergillosis (PA), especially the invasive form, occurs as opportunistic to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a result of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ lymphopenia. The majority of patients with comorbid HIV and aspergillosis go undiagnosed. This study aimed to isolate, identify the etiologies, and determine the prevalence of PA among HIV-infected persons with a productive cough (at least <2 weeks) at the HIV Clinics of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: After ethical approval, three consecutive early morning sputum samples were collected from patients with negative tuberculosis results. The samples were individually inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide in duplicate for 7 days at 37°C and 25°C, respectively. The fungal isolates were examined morphologically and microscopically and identified using the standard biochemical reagents. CD4+ cell counts were performed using flow cytometry. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the patients data. All patients were antiretroviral naïve.

Results: The prevalence of PA was 12.7% in these 150 patients. Of the 19 fungal culture-positive individuals, accounted for the highest proportion of the isolates (8, 42.1%) followed by (5, 26.3%), (4, 21.1%), and (2, 10.5%). Based on the assessment of functionality of cellular immunity, HIV participants who were negative for PA (131/150) had significantly higher mean ± standard deviation CD4 T-cell counts (245.65 ± 178.32 cells/mL) than those with aspergillosis (126.13 ± 105.27 cells/mL) ( = 0.0051). PA was relatively highest among patients with CD4+ cell counts <200 cells/mL (12. 34.3%) followed by those with CD4+ cell counts between 200 and 350 cells/mL (5, 9.6%) and least among those with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/mL (2, 3.2%). The Chi-square test showed a significant association between the prevalence of PA and the CD4+ cell count, age, and gender ( < 0.05) but not with occupation or education level ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: The findings from this study indicate that spp. is a significant etiology of acute productive cough in people living with HIV and this is related to the CD4+ cell count of coinfected persons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_46_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6559025PMC
July 2019

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Resistance Testing Technologies and Their Applicability in Resource-Limited Settings of Africa.

Infect Dis (Auckl) 2017 19;10:1178633717749597. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

There has been tremendous breakthrough in the development of technologies and protocols for counselling, testing, and surveillance of resistant human immunodeficiency virus strains for efficient prognosis and clinical management aimed at improving the quality of life of infected persons. However, we have not arrived at a point where services rendered using these technologies can be made affordable and accessible to resource-limited settings. There are several technologies for monitoring antiretroviral resistance, each with unique merits and demerits. In this study, we review the strengths and limitations of prospective and affordable technologies with emphasis on those that could be used in resource-limited settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178633717749597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5751912PMC
December 2017

Prevalence, risk factors, and antimalarial resistance patterns of falciparum plasmodiasis among pregnant women in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria.

Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr-Jun;29(2):98-103

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Objective: Pregnant women infected with malaria represent a significant obstetric problem, especially in the face of antimalarial resistance. This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of malaria parasitemia, associated risk factors as well as the antimalarial resistance pattern of isolates from pregnant women attending four selected secondary health facilities in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples were collected from 353 pregnant women attending selected hospitals. Malaria microscopy and parasite density count were conducted based on standard protocols. Antimalarial susceptibility test (using chloroquine, artesunate, artether, and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine), and hemoglobin concentrations were determined using schizont maturation assay and methemoglobin method, respectively. Multiple-drug resistance (MDR) was defined by resistance against ≥3 antimalarial drugs.

Results: The overall prevalence of plasmodiasis was 22.4%. Out of those infected, 5.2% was found to be anemic. Malaria parasitemia was significantly associated with parity, residential area, age of women, and use of preventive measures against malaria ( < 0.05) but not with hemoglobin concentration, occupation, and trimester of pregnancy ( > 0.05). Malaria parasites from the pregnant women exhibited the highest resistance against chloroquine, 75 (94.9%) followed Artemether, 30 (37.9%) then sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, 29 (36.7%) and least resistant to artesunate, 28 (35.4%). The prevalence of MDR was 40.5% (32/79).

Conclusion: The prevalence of malaria was relatively high due to inadequate and/or ineffective preventive measures adopted by pregnant women. More so, significant isolates of exhibited MDR against antimalarial agents tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_22_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5509200PMC
August 2017

Survey of malaria and anti-dengue virus IgG among febrile HIV-infected patients attending a tertiary hospital in Abuja, Nigeria.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2017 30;9:145-151. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, FCT Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: Dengue and malaria are infections, of great public health concern, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where the burden of HIV infection is high. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of dengue virus IgG antibodies and dengue/malaria coinfection among febrile HIV-infected patients attending the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, blood samples from 178 consenting HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy were collected and tested for plasmodiasis and anti-Dengue virus IgG using malaria microscopy and ELISA, respectively. Interviewer-based questionnaires were used to assess subjects' sociodemographic variables and dengue risk factors.

Results: Of the 178 screened participants, 44.4% were seropositive for dengue virus IgG antibody, whereas 29.2% were positive for About 44.2% were positive for both dengue virus and . There was a statistical association between anti-dengue IgG and occupation (=0.03) but not with age, residential area, educational level and patients' gender (>0.05). Seroprevalence of anti-dengue specific IgG was relatively higher in participants who adopted protective measures. There was a statistical association between seroprevalence of anti-dengue IgG and adoption of preventive measures (<0.05).

Conclusion: The high prevalence of malaria and dengue virus IgG indicates the need to strengthen vector control and dengue surveillance programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S134023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5501627PMC
June 2017

Molecular Detection and Clinical Implications of HTLV-1 Infections among Antiretroviral Therapy-Naïve HIV-1-Infected Individuals in Abuja, Nigeria.

Virology (Auckl) 2015 14;6:17-23. Epub 2015 Dec 14.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi State, Nigeria.

Background: Individuals with human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)/HIV-1 coinfection have been demonstrated to undergo CD4+ lymphocytosis even in the face of immunodeficiency and increased vulnerability to opportunistic pathogens that can lead to poor prognosis.

Objective: This study investigated the prevalence as well as the effects of HIV-1/HTLV-1 coinfection on CD4+ cell counts, routine hematology, and biochemical parameters of study participants.

Materials And Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study involved 184 blood samples collected from HIV-1-seropositive individuals attending HIV-special clinic of the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Nigeria. These samples were analyzed for anti-HTLV-1/2 IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, CD4+ cell counts, and some routine hematological and biochemical parameters. All samples were also tested for HTLV-1 provirus DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.

Results: Of the 184 subjects studied, 9 (4.9%) were anti-HTLV-1/2 IgM seropositive; however, upon real-time PCR testing, 12 (6.5%) had detectable HTLV-1 provirus DNA. The CD4+ cell count was significantly high in HTLV-1-positive (742 ± 40.2) subjects compared to their HTLV-1-negative (380 ± 28.5) counterpart (P-value = 0.025). However, there was no significant association between HTLV-1 positivity with other hematology and biochemical parameters studied (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: All subjects (100%) who were HTLV-1/HIV-1-coinfected had normal CD4+ counts. This gives contrasting finding on the true extent of immunodeficiency of subjects. So it is suggested to be very careful in using only CD4+ counts to monitor disease progression and as indicators for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. In such conditions, there may be a need to test for HTLV-1 alongside HIV viral loads in order to begin appropriate ART regimens that contain both pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4137/VRT.S35331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4678997PMC
December 2015

Evaluation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in hypertensive patients attending a tertiary hospital in calabar, Nigeria.

Adv Hematol 2014 16;2014:932039. Epub 2014 Nov 16.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science (Haematology and Blood Group Serology Unit), University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Introduction. Several biomedical findings have established the effects of hypertension on haemostasis and roles of blood coagulation products in the clinical course of hypertension. Methods. This cross-sectional study aimed at determining effects of hypertension on prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in hypertensive patients in comparison with normotensive subjects attending a tertiary hospital in Calabar. Forty-two (42) hypertensive patients and thirty-nine (39) normotensive control subjects were investigated for PT and APTT using Quick one-stage methods. Results. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) correlated positively with APTT (r = 0.3072, r = 0.4988; P < 0.05) in hypertensive patients. DBP, SBP, PT, and APTT were significantly higher in hypertensive patients when compared to normotensive subjects (P < 0.05). DBP correlated negatively with duration of illness (r = -0.3097; P < 0.05) in hypertensive patients and positively with age of normotensive subjects (r = 0.3523; P < 0.05). Conclusion. The results obtained indicated that measurements of PT and APTT may serve as indices for evaluating hemostatic abnormalities in hypertensive patients and guide for antihypertensive therapy. However, to have better understanding of hemostatic activities in hypertension, it is recommended to conduct D-dimer, platelet factors, and protein assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/932039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4248403PMC
December 2014
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