Publications by authors named "Anthony L Einfeldt"

2 Publications

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Chromosome level reference of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus provides insight into the evolution of sexual determination systems.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Biology Department, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Changes in the genetic mechanisms that control sexual determination have occurred independently across the tree of life, and with exceptional frequency in teleost fishes. To investigate the genomic changes underlying the evolution of sexual determination, we sequenced a chromosome-level genome, multitissue transcriptomes, and reduced representation population data for the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), which has an XY/XX sex determination mechanism and has recently diverged (0.9-3.8 Ma) from the Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), which has a ZZ/ZW system. We used frequency and coverage-based population approaches to identify a putative sex-determining factor, GSDF. We characterized regions with elevated heterozygosity and linkage disequilibrium indicating suppression of recombination across a nascent sex chromosome. We detected testis-specific expression of GSDF, the sequence of which is highly conserved across flatfishes. Based on evidence from genome-wide association, coverage, linkage disequilibrium, testis and brain transcriptomes, and sequence conservation with other flatfishes, we propose a mechanism for the recent evolution of an XY sex-determination mechanism in Atlantic halibut. Changes to the ancestral sex-determining gene DMRT1 in regulating the downstream gene GSDF probably coincided with GSDF, or a proximal regulatory element of it, becoming the primary sex-determining factor. Our results suggest changes to a small number of elements can have drastic repercussions for the genomic substrate available to sex-specific evolutionary forces, providing insight into how certain elements repeatedly evolve to control sex across taxa. Our chromosome-level assembly, multitissue transcriptomes, and population genomic data provide a valuable resource and understanding of the evolution of sexual systems in fishes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13369DOI Listing
March 2021

Historical human activities reshape evolutionary trajectories across both native and introduced ranges.

Ecol Evol 2020 Jul 24;10(13):6579-6592. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Biology University of New Brunswick Fredericton NB Canada.

The same vectors that introduce species to new ranges could move them among native populations, but how human-mediated dispersal impacts native ranges has been difficult to address because human-mediated dispersal and natural dispersal can simultaneously shape patterns of gene flow. Here, we disentangle human-mediated dispersal from natural dispersal by exploiting a system where the primary vector was once extensive but has since ceased. From 10th to 19th Centuries, ships in the North Atlantic exchanged sediments dredged from the intertidal for ballast, which ended when seawater ballast tanks were adopted. We investigate genetic patterns from RADseq-derived SNPs in the amphipod ( = 121; 4,870 SNPs) and the annelid ( = 78; 3,820 SNPs), which were introduced from Europe to North America, have limited natural dispersal capabilities, are abundant in intertidal sediments, but not commonly found in modern water ballast tanks. We detect similar levels of genetic subdivision among introduced North American populations and among native European populations. Phylogenetic networks and clustering analyses reveal population structure between sites, a high degree of phylogenetic reticulation within ranges, and phylogenetic splits between European and North American populations. These patterns are inconsistent with phylogeographic structure expected to arise from natural dispersal alone, suggesting human activity eroded ancestral phylogeographic structure between native populations, but was insufficient to overcome divergent processes between naturalized populations and their sources. Our results suggest human activity may alter species' evolutionary trajectories on a broad geographic scale via regional homogenization and global diversification, in some cases precluding historical inference from genetic data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7381589PMC
July 2020