Publications by authors named "Anthony Jide Afolayan"

64 Publications

evaluation of the anti-diabetic potential of Hilliard & B.L. Burtt using HepG2 (C3A) and L6 cell lines.

F1000Res 2020 15;9:1240. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Medicinal Plant and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice, Eastern Cape, 5700, South Africa.

Hilliard & B.L. Burtt has been listed in a survey of plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. In this study, the antidiabetic potentials of ethanol, cold aqueous (CAQ) and boiled aqueous (BAQ) extracts of were investigated. The cytotoxic and glucose utilization effects of the extracts were evaluated using L6 myocytes and HepG2 (C3A) hepatocytes. α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibition assays were also carried out. The ethanol extract showed significant cytotoxic effects in the treated cells. Both BAQ and CAQ extracts significantly increased glucose uptake in L6 and C3A cell lines. The CAQ extract enhanced glucose uptake more in the L6 myocytes than in the C3A cell-lines hepatocytes. The BAQ extract showed higher levels of inhibition on α-amylase and α-glucosidase than CAQ. The activities were not significantly different from acarbose. However, BAQ showed lower lipase inhibition than acarbose (p<0.05). The BAQ and CAQ extracts of may, therefore, contain pharmacologically active and relatively non-toxic hypoglycaemic chemicals, which may be effective substitutes in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.26855.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080987PMC
May 2021

Nutritional composition and antinutrient content of (Spreng.) Cham. & Schltdl. leaves: An underutilized wild vegetable.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 24;9(1):172-179. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science & Agriculture University of Fort Hare Alice South Africa.

The nutritional and antinutrient composition of (Spreng.) Cham. & Schltdl. leaves was reported in this study. Proximate analysis revealed the presence of 8.5% total ash, 4.92% crude fat, 8.41% moisture, 15.74% crude protein, 21.48% crude fiber, 40.95% carbohydrates, and 271.04 kcal/100 g energy value. Mineral analysis showed that leaves are very rich in K, Ca, and Fe. Considerable amounts of Mg, Mn, Na, P, Cu, and Zn were also present. Vitamin analysis showed that the plant has a high content of vitamins A, C, and E. The antinutrients evaluated were phytate, oxalate, saponin, and alkaloids, all of which were below toxic levels except for saponin which was observed at moderately high level. The results credibly indicate that leaves are nutrient-rich and can contribute effectively to the daily nutrient requirements alongside its therapeutic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1978DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802581PMC
January 2021

Evaluation of nutritional and elemental compositions of green and red cultivars of roselle: Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

Sci Rep 2021 01 13;11(1):1030. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

Roselle-Hibiscus sabdariffa L. leaves at different stages of growth, calyces and seeds were analyzed for nutritional and anti-nutritional factors. All the treatments contained a good but varied proportion of carbohydrate in a range of 26.93-54.13%, crude protein from 5.7 to 27.06%, crude fat 1.16-13.09%, crude fibre 15.75-36.10%, energy 631.36-1065 kJ, ash 6.08-13.74% and moisture content 6.00-9.7%. The vitamins A, C and E were also found to be present in all the treatments in a different but substantial amount. The calcium, magnesium and iron contents in all the treatments were higher than the recommended daily allowance of 1250, 350, and 15 mg for adults, while the phosphorus and sodium values in all the treatments were below 1000 and 1500 mg RDA for adults. However, the Na + /K + for all the treatments were lower than 1. The values of anti-nutrients in the samples were small except post-flowering red which had high phytate content of 21.02%, although this can be easily reduced during processes like boiling and cooking. Thus, both cultivars of roselle contain high nutritional, elemental, and vitamins compositions and small content of anti-nutrients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80433-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806960PMC
January 2021

Chemical Composition of Essential Oils Obtained from (Spreng.) Cham. and Schltdl Leaves Using Two Extraction Methods.

ScientificWorldJournal 2020 2;2020:9232810. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

This study was aimed at comparing the essential oils obtained from leaves by Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) and Hydrodistillation (HD) methods in terms of their chemical compositions, yield, CO emission, and energy consumption. The solvent-free microwave extraction method indicated a higher oil yield of 0.7 mL/200 g (0.35%) as compared to 0.59 mL/200 g (0.295%) obtained through hydrodistillation. GC-MS analysis of the oils revealed a total of 52 chemical components from both methods with the presence of 35 (96.52%) and 30 (71.15%) chemical constituents for HD and SFME, respectively. The major constituents observed in the essential oil extracted by SFME methods include -pinene (6%), D-limonene (11.27%), -ocimene (9.09%), -phellandrene (6.33%), -mycene (8.49%), caryophyllene (5.96%), and camphene (4.28%). However, in the hydrodistillation method, the oil was majorly composed of -pinene (4.41%), -pinene (10.68%), -ocimene (6.30%), germacrene-D (5.09%), humulene (5.55%), and -elemene (6.18%). The SFME method was better in terms of saving energy (0.25 kWh against 4.2 kWh of energy consumed), reduced CO emission (200 g against 3360 g of CO), a higher yield, and better quality of essential oil due to the presence of higher valuable oxygenated compounds (8.52%) against that of the hydrodistillation method (2.96%). The SFME method is, therefore, a good alternative for extracting the oils of leaves since the essential oil yield is higher with more oxygenated compounds, considerable energy savings, lower cost, and reduced environmental burden at substantially reduced extraction time (30 min as opposed to 180 min).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9232810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728478PMC
September 2021

Nutrients and antinutrient constituents of L. Cultivated on different soils.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Dec 1;27(12):3570-3580. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of Agriculture, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Wellington Campus, Wellington 7654, Cape Town, South Africa.

This study investigated variations in the concentration of nutrients, antinutrients and mineral content of harvested from different soil types at various stages of maturity. Four out the five soils namely; sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, clayey loam and loam were experimentally formulated from primary particles of silt, clay and sand in line with the United State Department of Agriculture's (USDA) soil triangle protocol. The unfractionated soil was used as the control. After harvesting at pre-flowering (61 days after planting), flowering (71 days after planting) and post-flowering (91 days after planting) stages, nutrient and antinutrient analyses were carried out following Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and other referenced methods while the Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometer was used to determine mineral compositions of the plant samples. The results of the study revealed that particle size and physicochemical properties of the soil influenced the number of minerals deposited in plant tissues. It was further observed that the nutritional properties of the plant change as plant ages. For an optimal yield of vitamins A and E, clayey loam proved to be the best soil particularly when is harvested before flowering but for vitamin C, sandy clayey loam yielded the highest output at the same stage. Similarly, clayey loam and loam soils yielded the highest proximate compositions at flowering and pre-flowering; however, mineral elements (micro and macro) were highest in control and loam soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.07.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7715444PMC
December 2020

Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activities of L. (Amaranthaceae) Harvested From Formulated Soils at Different Growth Stages.

J Evid Based Integr Med 2020 Jan-Dec;25:2515690X20971578

Department of Agriculture, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Wellington Campus, Wellington, Cape Town, South Africa.

This study examined the toxicity and antimicrobial effects of ethanol and aqueous extracts from grown on soils formulated from parent particles of silt, sand and clay in a glasshouse. Four different soils namely; sandy clay loam, loam, clayey loam and silty clay loam from were formulated were used for cultivation with the unfractionated soil which was the control. Crude extracts obtained from the plant shoots harvested at different growth stages were tested on some certain gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and some fungi via agar dilution assay. The toxicity of the water and ethanol extracts was also examined via assay and the level of lethality was measured against Clarkson's lethality scale. All aqueous samples, as well as ethanol extracts of flowering and pre-flowering harvests of control soil tested, were non-toxic (LC > 1 mg/mL). At post flowering, the ethanolic extracts were highly toxic mostly in clayey loam, control, sandy-clayey loam soils (LC < 0.5 mg/mL). Also, antifungal effects of the plant revealed that extracts inhibited the growth of significantly with mild effect on , and suggesting that the plant is a promising pharmacological candidate in the treatment of candidiasis. For an optimal yield of non-toxic supplement for household consumption which may also serve as pharmacological precursors, clayey loam soil is recommended for cultivation and harvesting may occur at pre-flowering or flowering stage using ethanol and water as solvents of extraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2515690X20971578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7705779PMC
September 2021

Potentials of Species Fruits against Oxidative Stress-Induced and Diet-Linked Chronic Diseases: In Vitro and In Vivo Implications of Micronutritional Factors and Dietary Secondary Metabolite Compounds.

Molecules 2020 Oct 30;25(21). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

Nutritional quality and the well-being of the body system are directly linked aspects of human survival. From the unborn foetus to adulthood, the need for sustainable access to micronutrient-rich foods is pertinent and the global consumption of banana and plantain fruits, in effect, contributes to the alleviation of the scourge of malnutrition. This review is particularly aimed at evaluating the pharmacological dimensions through the biological mechanisms of fruits in the body, which represent correlations with their constituent micronutrient factors and dietary polyphenolic constituents such as minerals, vitamin members, anthocyanins, lutein, α-,β- carotenes, neoxanthins and cryptoxanthins, epi- and gallo catechins, catecholamines, 3-carboxycoumarin, β-sitosterol, monoterpenoids, with series of analytical approaches for the various identified compounds being highlighted therein. Derivative value-products from the compartments (flesh and peel) of fruits are equally highlighted, bringing forth the biomedicinal and nutritional relevance, including the potentials of species in dietary diversification approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663138PMC
October 2020

Assessment of the phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of (Spreng.) Cham & Schltdl. leaf extracts.

F1000Res 2020 1;9:1079. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

(Spreng.) Cham. and Schltdl (Apiaceae) is widely used traditionally for the treatment of a wide range of diseases in Southern and Eastern Africa. Although previous studies have reported the biological activities of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of leaves, there is no scientific information on the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetone, ethanol, aqueous and blanched extracts. This study is therefore aimed to investigate and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetone, ethanol, aqueous and blanched extracts of leaves. : Phytochemical analysis for the total phenolic, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, alkaloid and saponin contents of all the fractions were determined by spectroscopic methods, while the free radical scavenging potential of the extracts were evaluated using DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity assays. Micro dilution method was used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of leaf extracts against and . : Total phenol content of the extracts ranged between 15.10 mg GAE/g- 42.50 mg GAE/g, proanthocyanidin was 459-8402.1 mg QE/g, and flavonoid content of 109.24-235.79 mg QE/g. In addition, alkaloids (5.59%) and saponins (23.33%) were present in significant amounts. Based on the IC values, the ethanol extract exhibited the highest total antioxidant activity (0.013 mg/mL) with highest inhibition against DPPH and ABTS radicals (0.06 and 0.049 mg/mL respectively). Considerable antibacterial activities were observed in the acetone, ethanol and blanched extracts with MIC values ranging from 1.563-12.5 mg/mL; however, the aqueous extract was inactive against all the bacteria strains. : The study suggests that leaves could be a valuable source of bioactive compounds. Although the blanching process significantly decreased polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts, it increased the antibacterial compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.25197.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7533734PMC
April 2021

Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts.

Heliyon 2020 Sep 14;6(9):e04395. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

MPED Research Center, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.

The objective of the investigation was to identify biologically active polyphenols and to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of extracted with different organic solvents (acetone, ethanol and methanol) and distilled water. The results of the study revealed varying levels of polyphenols in the different solvent extracts. Condensed tannin, flavonoid and total phenolic content ranged from (77.339 ± 1.068) to (99.395 ± 1.490) mg CE/g; (3.398 ± 0.2410) to (53.253 ± 0.638) mg QE/g; (14.1087 ± 0.0915) to (21.7977 ± 0.0279) mg GAE/g, respectively. The extracts demonstrated high antioxidant activity in 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays which were comparable to rutin and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and increased with increasing concentrations of polyphenols extract (). The agar dilution assay of acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts revealed an appreciable broad-spectrum activity against tested pathogenic bacteria. The findings of this study provide evidence that can be used as a natural source of antioxidant and antimicrobial components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492805PMC
September 2020

Comparative and Correlational Evaluation of the Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of L. and L. Fruit Compartments (Musaceae).

ScientificWorldJournal 2020 6;2020:4503824. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

Secondary metabolites and their biological activity have pharmacological relevance in the prevention and therapeutic management of disease, including the facilitation of normal physiological processes through biochemical mechanisms. In this study, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity were evaluated quantitatively on the acetone, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of the flesh, and peel, as well as the boiled peel extract compartments of L. and L. fruits. Total phenol, proanthocyanidin, and flavonoid contents were estimated and measured spectrophotometrically. The free radical scavenging antioxidant capacity of the extracts was tested on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl ethanol), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)), and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assay models. Correlation between phytoconstituents and antioxidant activity was analysed using Pearson's coefficient. The results showed varying amounts of phytochemicals in the solvent extracts of the flesh and peel, including the boiled peel extract of and . All acetone extracts of flesh, flesh, and peel had the highest phytochemical contents, with the exception of the ethanol extract of peel which had the highest phenol content; just as on the overall scale, the peel compartments had generally higher phytochemical profiles than the soft flesh in both fruits. The boiled peel extracts of and had the highest ABTS (0.03 mg/mL) and DPPH (0.03 mg/mL) activity. Ferric reducing power (FRAP) was the highest in the ethanol extracts of flesh and peel, and flesh, while it was the highest in the acetone extract of at the peak concentration used (0.1 mg/mL). There was a significant negative correlation between the total phenol and flavonoid contents of flesh with its DPPH radical scavenging activity and proanthocyanidin content of flesh with its DPPH radical scavenging activity. The correlation outcomes indicate that none of the phytochemical constituents solely affected antioxidant activity; instead, a combination of the polyphenolic constituents contributed to antioxidant activity. This study shows the therapeutic potentials of the flesh and, importantly, the peel of and fruits on the basis of the polyphenolic constitution against free radicals and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4503824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428880PMC
June 2021

Effects of Rhizome Length and Planting Depth on the Emergence and Growth of Eckl. & Zeyh.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Jun 10;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

is used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases. As a result of its high medicinal value, this plant is being overexploited by herbal traders with little attention being paid to its conservation, which could lead to its extinction. Cultivation of was conducted to determine the appropriate planting depth and rhizome fragment length for the growth of this plant. The experiment was laid out in a Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with two factors in a 6 × 3 factorial design. There were six levels of fragment length (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 cm) and three levels of burial depth (2.5, 5 and 7.5 cm). Emergence rate, number of leaves, leaf area, and plant height, number of florets, rhizome length gain, rhizome weight gain, shoot moisture, and rhizome moisture were measured as growth parameters. The best overall yield in terms of plant height, shoot emergence, rhizome weight gain, number of florets and number of leaves was observed in 7.5 cm planting depth at 6 cm rhizome length. Four- centimetre rhizome length had the highest leaf area of 111.9 ± 3.5 cm, 101.3 ± 3.5 cm, 105 ± 3.5 cm at 2.5, 5, 7.5 cm planting depth respectively. Shorter fragment lengths showed high potential for vegetative propagation in terms of rhizome length gain at all burial depths. These results suggest that can regenerate from buried rhizomes and they may contribute to the establishment of a protocol for propagation that could help in conservation of this plant to avoid its extinction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9060732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356850PMC
June 2020

Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic evaluation of extracts from the flowering stage of Celosia argentea.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 May 24;20(1):152. Epub 2020 May 24.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa.

Background: This study was aimed at investigating the possible anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of extracts from the flowering stage of C. argentea. This growth stage was chosen because of its high polyphenolic content and high antioxidant capacity.

Methods: Anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous, acetone and methanol extracts of C. argentea was evaluated through the inhibition of nitric oxide production (LPS-induced) on stimulated macrophages (RAW 264.7), while MTT assay was used to assess cell viability with Silymarin as standard. Cytotoxicity of the plant extracts was evaluated on murine preadipocyte cell line (3 T3-L1) using the image-based method of two DNA-binding dyes; Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide (PI) with melphalan as standard.

Results: Acetone extract exhibited moderate, dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity with no significant toxicity to activated macrophages, however the aqueous and methanol extracts were unable to inhibit nitric oxide production at both trials. MTT assay and the toxicity assay revealed that the flowering stage extracts of C. argentea were not toxic to the RAW 264.7 macrophages and 3 T3-L1 cells at all the tested concentrations (0, 2, 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL).

Conclusions: These findings corroborate the traditional use of C. argentea for painful inflammatory conditions and encourage its possible use as lead for the development of novel, non-toxic, anti-inflammatory agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02941-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245859PMC
May 2020

Comparative Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Wild and Cultivated Eckl & Zeyh.

Biomed Res Int 2020 13;2020:5808624. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

There is a need to scientifically validate the claim that wild species of medicinal plants are more potent than the cultivated plants. Thus, this study evaluated the phytochemical and antioxidant properties of wild and cultivated . Acetone, methanol, and water extracts of the rhizome of wild and cultivated were evaluated for total phenol, flavonol, flavonoid, tannin, proanthocyanidin, saponin, and alkaloid contents using spectrophotometric methods. antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide assays. The wild extracts had higher phytochemical contents in most of the assays than cultivated extracts. Total phenol in the wild extracts ranged from 32.30 to 117.8 mg GAE/g with the acetone extracts having the highest content while the water extracts were the least. The range in the total phenol of the cultivated species was 66.46 to 98.44 mg GAE/g with the methanol extracts having the highest content while water extracts was the least. The flavonoid content ranged from 55.01 to 99.09 mg QE/g and from 48.65 to 67.32 mg QE/g for the wild and cultivated plants, respectively. The alkaloid contents ranged from 14.70 to 17.80% in the wild species while it ranged from 11.98 to 13.21% in the cultivated species. The wild species also showed higher antioxidant activities in most of the assays evaluated. This study has implications for both pharmacological and conservation purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5808624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174954PMC
February 2021

Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritive, Mineral, and Antinutritive Composition of L. (Banana) and L. (Plantain) Fruit Compartments.

Plants (Basel) 2019 Dec 12;8(12). Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Botany Department, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa.

Banana and plantain contribute significantly to food security and amelioration of malnutrition, earning their status as staples in several localities of tropical and sub-tropical regions. The distribution of metabolites within the various parts also remains as a key essential to their nutritive and therapeutic potential. This study was aimed at evaluating the nutritional and mineral composition of the flesh, peel, and peel extract components of L. and L. fruits as well as their nutritional and therapeutic potentials. Proximate and antinutritional analyses were carried out using standard analytical methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), while the mineral constituents were evaluated using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Proximate analysis revealed that the flesh and peel of L. and L. contain substantial amounts of moisture, fiber, carbohydrates, and low fat content, while minerals K, Mg, Ca, Na, P, and N were substantially concentrated in the peels and peel extracts in particular. The antinutrients alkaloid, oxalate, saponin, and phytate were detected in safe amounts according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The study points out that the peel and its derivative extract, as well as the flesh of L. and L. are to be put to more relevant human nutritional and therapeutic use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants8120598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963461PMC
December 2019

Evaluation of the Bioactivities of L. Leaves and Root Extracts Using Toxicity, Antimicrobial, and Antiparasitic Assays.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 30;2019:6825297. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

Traditional folks in different parts of the world use L. for the treatment of microbial infections, malaria, and sleeping sickness in the form of decoction or tincture. In the search for a natural alternative remedy, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial, antitrypanosomal, and antiplasmodial efficacy and the toxicity of extracts. Antimicrobial potency of the extracts was evaluated using the agar dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The antitrypanosomal activity of the extracts was evaluated with the model while the antimalaria potency was tested using 3D7 strain. Toxicity was then tested with brine shrimp assay and cytotoxicity (HeLa cells). The acetone extract of the root (RT-ACE) reveals the highest antimicrobial potency with the lowest MIC value of <1.562 mg/mL for all bacteria strains and also showed high potent against fungi. RT-ACE (IC: 13 g/mL) and methanol extract of the leaf (LF-MEE; IC: 15 g/mL) show a strong inhibition of The ethanol extract of the root (RT-ETE: IC: 9.7 g/mL) reveals the highest inhibition of parasite. RT-ETE and RT-ACE were found to have the highest toxicity in brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) and cytotoxicity which correlates in the two assays. This research revealed has potency against microorganisms, , and and could be a potential source for the treatment of these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6825297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6885263PMC
October 2019

Antioxidant and phytochemical activities of Amaranthus caudatus L. harvested from different soils at various growth stages.

Sci Rep 2019 09 10;9(1):12965. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Department of Agriculture, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Wellington Campus, Wellington, 7654, Cape Town, South Africa.

This study aimed at profiling the biological activities of Amaranthus caudatus cultivated on different soils in a glasshouse experiment. Five soil types namely; sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, clayey loam, loam and control (unfractionated soil) were experimentally formulated from primary particles of clay, sand and silt following the United State Department of Agriculture's (USDA) soil triangle technique. After harvesting at pre-flowering (61 days after planting), flowering (71 days after planting) and post-flowering (91 days after planting) stages, crude extracts were obtained with water and ethanol. Total flavonoids, phenolic and proanthocyanidin contents of the extracts, as well as their biological activities, were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl ethanol (DPPH), nitric oxide and phosphomolybdate assays. It was observed that biological activity of A. caudatus varied with soil types, stages of maturity and solvents of extraction. The highest phytochemical yield was recorded in ethanolic extracts of clayey loam harvested prior to flowering and the same trend was replicated in the antioxidant properties of the plant. For optimal biological activity, it is recommended that clayey loam soil should be used for cultivation of A. caudatus and harvest should be made near flowering to capture high phytochemical yield from the species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49276-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6737095PMC
September 2019

Evaluation of genetic relationship among varieties of L. and L. in West Africa using ISSR markers.

Heliyon 2019 May 14;5(5):e01700. Epub 2019 May 14.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa.

The taxonomic identity of two closely related species; and in West Africa has not been clarified because they have overlapping morphological traits. Effective control and management measures as well as improvement of crop plants in any breeding programme can only be implemented when plant species are correctly identified. The genetic relationships of the varieties of these species were assessed using 10 ISSR primers for the first time. The varieties and species used include var. ; var. ; var. and var. PCR amplification of the isolated DNA from the four varieties of revealed a total of 75 loci out of which 14 were found to be polymorphic. Average polymorphism information content (PIC) and heterozygosity (He) of the 10 ISSR markers were estimated as 0.67 and 0.78 respectively. The relatedness among the varieties assessed by Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPMGA) cluster analysis did not separate var. from the three cultivated varieties of . The result from the principal component analysis (PCA) further supports the genetic relatedness and groupings obtained from the cluster analysis. Overall, the study indicated that ISSR markers were effective in assessing the genetic relatedness and revealed genetic homogeneity of the four varieties. Our results, therefore, support the inclusion of var. as a variety of species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520569PMC
May 2019

Comparative Quantitative Study on Phytochemical Contents and Antioxidant Activities of L. and L.

ScientificWorldJournal 2019 11;2019:4705140. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa.

The variabilities in the phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities of four varieties of two closely related cultivated species, and , were examined as an additional tool for establishing their phylogenetic relatedness and for breeding purposes. The methodology involved the use of ethanolic and aqueous extractions for the determination of the phytochemical and antioxidant properties. The phytochemical contents including total flavonoid, total phenol, and proanthocyanidins were evaluated spectrophotometrically while the antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), and phosphomolybdenum assays. To point out the relationship among the varieties, a dendrogram based on the antioxidative phytochemical contents was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPMGA) cluster analysis. In all, aqueous extracts gave higher yield while ethanolic extracts showed higher phytochemical content across the varieties. Significant variations were observed among the varieties in relation to their phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities. Dendrogram obtained from multivariate analysis distinguished the two species. The first cluster contained only while the second cluster contained the three varieties of . species in subclusters, signifying the close genetic affinity among the three varieties. It also revealed that the four varieties are of a common progenitor. Information from this study gives additional evidence of chemotaxonomic significance and baseline data for effective selection of suitable parental genotypes in breeding for nutritional and pharmacological purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4705140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6487110PMC
November 2019

Proximate and elemental composition of leaf, corm, root and peel of Hypoxis hemerocallidea: A Southern African multipurpose medicinal plant.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Mar;32(2):535-539

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

Hypoxis hemerocallidea also known as African potato is a medicinal plant widely distributed in Southern Africa, which has enjoyed long usage as a traditional multipurpose herbal medicine. This study evaluated the leaf, corm, peel and root of H. hemerocallidea for their nutritional attributes. Crude protein was highest in leaf (5.56%), followed by peel (2.79%), root (2.30%) and corm (1.79%) respectively. Crude fat ranged from 0.40% in root to 1.88% in leaf, while ash and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were highest in corm (16.77% and 49.75%) and lowest in root (3.20% and 5.46%) respectively. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) was highest in leaf (55.47%), followed by corm (52.38%), peel (35.23%) and root (10.51%); while total carbohydrate calculated as non-fibre carbohydrate was highest in the root. The corm had the highest content (P<0.05) of calcium, zinc, copper and manganese, the root exhibited the highest content of magnesium, potassium and iron, while sodium and phosphorus content was highest in the leaf. The study revealed that H. hemerocallidea leaf, corm, peel and root are good sources of nutrients and minerals for humans and animals. This implies that the plant as a whole could be more effective therapeuticaly than the corm alone.
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March 2019

Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activities of Cucumis africanus L.f.:: A Wild Vegetable of South Africa.

J Evid Based Integr Med 2019 Jan-Dec;24:2515690X19836391

1 Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa.

Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical content and antioxidant potential of the acetone, aqueous, and methanol extracts of the fruit, leaf, and root of Cucumis africanus L.f.

Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. The free radical scavenging activity of the acetone, methanol, and aqueous extracts of the fruit, leaf, and root were evaluated against DPPH, ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum. Alkaloid and saponin contents were also determined.

Results: The acetone extract of the fruit revealed the highest polyphenol content when compared with the other solvent extracts analyzed. Total phenol content of the parts tested ranged from 3.66 ± 0.17 to 44.98 ± 3.41, flavonoid content ranged from 4.63 ± 3.33 to 401.33 ± 7.89, and proanthocyanidin content ranged from 8.84 ± 2.65 to 504 ± 36.6. Significant amount of alkaloids present was observed in the fruits, leaf, and root (10.68 ± 0.68, 14.12 ± 1.67, and 12.15 ± 4.74), respectively, while saponin content was 33.33 ± 11.55, 26.67 ± 11.55, and 20.00 ± 0.00 for the fruit, leaf, and root, respectively. Solvent extracts showed significant antioxidant activity, with acetone showing highest antioxidant ability in correlation with the polyphenol contents. Based on the IC values, acetone extract of the root revealed the best DPPH radical scavenging ability, the leaf aqueous extract had the highest IC value for ABTS, and the methanol extract of the leaf was best for phosphomolybdenum assays.

Conclusion: This study suggests that fruit, leaf, and root of Cucumis africanus could be a potential source of natural antioxidant and justifies its use in ethnomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2515690X19836391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440028PMC
September 2019

Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Vitamins (Ascorbic Acid, α-Tocopherol and Retinol), Anti-Nutrients (Phytate and Oxalate) and the GC-MS Analysis of the Essential Oil of the Root and Leaf of L.

Plants (Basel) 2019 Feb 28;8(3). Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

Medicinal plants are a pertinent and effective remedy, employed in indigenous healthcare systems by traditional healers. This study focused on proximate parameters, minerals, vitamins, anti-nutrients and essential oil of the root and leaf of the medicinal plant; , using the standard food analysis techniques. The result reveals that the moisture content of the leaf (7.57 ± 0.40%) and root (7.59 ± 0.08%) was not significantly different. The leaf has a higher ash, crude fat, fibre and mineral content than the root, except the carbohydrate (57.74 ± 3.06%) and Ca (1190.0 ± 0 mg/100g) values which are quite higher in the root. Traces of phytate was found in the leaf (1.15 ± 0.74%) and root (1.38 ± 0.27%) of . The highest value of retinol, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol was found in dried leaf (1.29 ± 0.014 mg retinol/100g), fresh leaf (159.73 ± 26.77 mg ascorbic acid/100g) and fresh root (54.90 ± 0.39 mg α-tocopherol/100g) respectively. The principal compound in the essential oil of the leaf are; 5-Eicosene, (E)-, docos-1-ene, trans-5-Octadecene, tetradecane while those found in the root are; 1-Heptacosanol, 4-Methyloctane, ethylcyclohexane, eucalyptol, m-Xylene, octadecane, phytol, and tetradecane. The research reveals that may not only be used for medicinal purposes but could also be suitable for a complementary diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants8030051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6473742PMC
February 2019

Helminthiases; prevalence, transmission, host-parasite interactions, resistance to common synthetic drugs and treatment.

Heliyon 2019 Jan 31;5(1):e01161. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa.

The morbidity caused by parasite worms on susceptible hosts is of great concern and studies were carried out to explain the mechanism of infection, prevalence, host-parasite interaction and resistance of the parasite to treatment. This review elucidates the prevalence of parasitic worm infections; which is on the increases with the increase in the world population, global warming, poor standard of living particularly in troubled regions and developing nations. The neglect of the disease coupled with the resistance of these parasites to the few available drugs becomes a huge challenge that influences global disease burden. Helminths infections pose a life threat and increase the disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) of the poor and vulnerable people. On the other hand, exploration of medicinal plants as an alternative source of treatment against drugs resistance helminths, attract insufficient attention. This review focused on providing a general overview of the prevalence of helminths, host-parasite interactions, the resistance of helminths and the medicinal plants used to treat helminthic infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357211PMC
January 2019

Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Sweet Basil (.) Essential Oil on Ground Beef from Boran and Nguni Cattle.

Int J Food Sci 2019 1;2019:2628747. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

The global meat industry is characterised by a growing interest in natural preservative additives. This study determined the effect of sweet basil (.) essential oil (SBEO) on colour and lipid oxidation in minced beef. The phytoconstituents of SBEO were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Thereafter, minced beef samples from Nguni and Boran cattle were treated with either no additives (control, C) or SBEO added at 2% (SB2), 4% (SB4), or 6% (SB6). The meat samples were aerobically packaged and stored (4 ± 1°C) for seven days for measurement of lightness (L⁎), redness (a⁎), yellowness (b⁎), hue, chroma, and lipid oxidation (acid-reactive substances, TBARS) on days 0, 4, and 7. Thirty-two bioactive compounds with reported antioxidant and antimicrobial and activities were identified in SBEO, including Estragole (41.40%), 1, 6-Octadien-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl (29.49%), and trans-.alpha.-Bergamotene (5.32%). On days 0, 4, and 7, SB2, SB4, and SB6 had higher (P < 0.05) L⁎, a⁎, b⁎, hue, and chroma values; and on days 0 and 4 TBARS were lower (P < 0.05) in SB2 and SB4 than C and SB6. The addition of 2% and 4% SBEO improved colour and lipid oxidative stability, demonstrating potential for its use as a natural antioxidant additive in meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2628747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332989PMC
January 2019

α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of tuber extracts of (L.) Cogn.

Heliyon 2018 Sep 27;4(9):e00810. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

, is a tuberous plant commonly used by traditional healers in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for the management of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and cytotoxic effects of extracts in vitro The α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of tuber were investigated while the cytotoxic effects of these extracts were analyzed using Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide (PI) dual staining in combination with Molecular Devices ImageXpress Micro XLS Widefield microscope for high content analysis on human cervical (HeLa) cell line. The ethanol extract exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase (IC = 381.86 μg/ml) and on α-glucosidase (IC = 157.99 μg/mL) while the aqueous extract has strongest α-amylase (IC = 439.45 μg/ml). Both tuber extracts were found nontoxic at tested concentrations on HeLa cell lines as confirmed by the Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide dual staining respectively. This study revealed that both the aqueous and ethanol tuber extract of exerts a certain degree of inhibitory effect on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase and were also nontoxic to HeLa cell line at tested concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169336PMC
September 2018

Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of whole-plant aqueous extract of Vernonia mespilifolia Less. in Wistar rats.

J Integr Med 2018 09 4;16(5):335-341. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

Objective: This study investigated the acute and subacute toxicity of whole-plant aqueous extract of Vernonia mespilifolia Less. (AEVM) in rats for evaluating its safety profile.

Methods: AEVM for the acute (2000 and 5000 mg/kg) and subacute (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) toxicity studies was administered orally to rats according the guidelines 425 and 407 of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, respectively. Food and water intake as well as body and organ weight of animals were recorded. Signs of toxicity were assessed, and hematological, biochemical and histopathological analyses were performed.

Results: In the acute toxicity study, a single dose of the aqueous extract at 2000 or 5000 mg/kg caused no mortality in the animals, suggesting that the median lethal dose is greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subacute toxicity study, administration of the extract for 28 d, at all doses, caused no significant changes in the body weights or organ weights of rats in the treated groups when compared with the control group. In addition, hematological and biochemical parameters also revealed no toxic effects of the extract on rats. Histological sections of the heart, liver and kidney from test animals showed no signs of degeneration.

Conclusion: These results showed that AEVM at dosage levels up to 600 mg/kg is nontoxic and could also offer protection on some body tissues. AEVM could, therefore, be considered safe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2018.07.003DOI Listing
September 2018

Evaluation of the physicochemical, proximate, and sensory properties of moinmoin from blends of cowpea and water yam flour.

Food Sci Nutr 2018 Jun 10;6(4):991-997. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Center Department of Botany University of Fort Hare Alice South Africa.

Moinmoin is a steamed cowpea seed-based pudding native to Nigeria. This study evaluated the physicochemical, proximate, and sensory properties of moinmoin from a blend of cowpea and water yam flours. The pudding was prepared by varying the proportion of cowpea to water yam flour (CWYP). The blends were in the ratio 75:25% (CWYP1), 50:50% (CWYP2), and 100:0% cowpea flour (CPP) which served as the control. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that the products will have good keeping quality and reconstitute easily. Protein content was 26.90%, 20.10%, and 17.60% for CPP, CWYP1 and CWYP2, respectively, and the presence of water yam significantly ( < .05) increased the crude fiber, ash, and carbohydrate contents of the cowpea/water yam products relative to the control. Pasting properties revealed that regardless of the proportion of water yam in the mixture, the moinmoin samples cooked at approximately the same time; and sensory evaluation showed that CWYP1 was best preferred in terms of taste, flavor, color, and overall acceptability. These findings suggest that the cowpea/water yam pudding can meet the nutritional demands of a meal and that the 75%-25% cowpea/water yam mixture was the most acceptable. The study contributes to the knowledge nutritious products with desirable organoleptic qualities from a blend of cowpea and water yam flour, allowing for up to 50% water yam substitution. It also provides an alternative way of utilizing water yam thus preventing wastage during peak production and ensuring food and nutritional security because of the balanced products obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6021726PMC
June 2018

Acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of the tuber of Kedrostis africana (L.) Cogn in Wistar rats.

J Complement Integr Med 2018 May 23;15(4). Epub 2018 May 23.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

Kedrostis africana (L.) Cogn (Cucurbitaceae) is used in South African traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia as an emetic, purgative and diuretic, and it is used against dropsy in the management of obesity. Aim of the study In this study, acute and subacute toxicity of aqueous extract of K. africanatuber was evaluated in male and female Wistar rats in order to assess its safety profile. Materials and methods In acute toxicity, the effects of a single oral dose (2,000 and 5,000 mg/kg) of aqueous extract was determined in both sexes. General behavior, adverse effects and mortality were determined for 3 h and then periodically for 14 days. The subchronic toxicity test was performed in rats. The effects of the extract in daily single oral administration at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for 28 days were determined. Food and water intakes were monitored daily while body weight was monitored on a weekly bases. Hematological, biochemical and organ parameters were determined at the end of the 28-day administration. Results In the acute study, a single administration of the aqueous extract at the doses of 2,000 and 5,000 mg/kg did not induce mortality. Thus, the LD50 of the aqueous extract of K. africana (AEKA) has been estimated to be higher than 5,000 mg/kg. In the subchronic study, daily oral administration of the AEKA did not result in death of the rats or significant changes in hematological or biochemical parameters at the highest dose of 600 mg/kg. No alteration was observed in body weight, food and water intake. Liver, kidney and heart histopathology did not reveal morphological alteration. Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous tuber extract of K. africana did not cause any death, nor did it cause abnormalities in necropsy and histopathology findings. There were no acute or subchronic toxicity observed, and this indicates that the plant extract could be considered safe for oral medication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2017-0139DOI Listing
May 2018

Polyphenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Vernonia mespilifolia Less. Used in Folk Medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

J Evid Based Integr Med 2018 Jan-Dec;23:2515690X18773990

1 Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa.

Vernonia mespilifolia Less. is a shrub of the Asteraceae family used in the South African traditional medicine system for the management of weight loss, hypertension, and heartwater disease. There is a need for scientific evaluation to validate its ethnomedicinal usage. In vitro assays were conducted to evaluate the polyphenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of different solvent extracts (acetone, aqueous, and ethanol) of the whole plant of Vernonia mespilifolia spectrophotometric and agar dilution techniques, respectively. The result revealed varying amounts of polyphenolics in the different solvent extracts corresponding to the antioxidant activities. Also, only the acetone and ethanol extracts inhibited the growth of the selected bacteria and fungi. These findings reveal that the extracts have strong bioactive compounds and hence support its ethnomedicinal application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2515690X18773990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5954581PMC
May 2018

Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Hooper and Hypoxis Argentea Harv Ex Baker: Plants Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

Pharmacogn Mag 2018 Apr-Jun;14(54):195-202. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

Background: Inhabitants of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa use the roots of and corms of to treat diabetes mellitus and other ailments.

Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the roots and corms of two plants.

Materials And Methods: Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, and alkaloids were determined by standard methods. The scavenging activities of the extracts against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (HO), and their ferric-reducing antioxidant potentials (FRAPs) were measured.

Results: The ethanol extract of had the highest content of phenolics (66.71 ± 2.71 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and tannins (1.18 ± 0.07 mg TAE/g), while the ethanol extract of gave higher contents of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins (62.21 ± 1.75 mg Qe/g and 432.62 ± 2.43 mg Ca/g, respectively). Flavonols were the most predominant in the aqueous extract of (25.51 ± 1.92 mg Qe/g). We observed a concentration-dependent response in the ABTS- and HO-scavenging activities and FRAP values of the extracts and standards (Vitamin C, butylated hydroxytoluene, and rutin). The ethanol extracts of both plants generally demonstrated better antioxidant activities against HO, NO, and ABTS while also possessing better reducing power than the aqueous extracts. The aqueous extract of , however, showed the best DPPH scavenging activity.

Conclusion: The higher content of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity obtained for the ethanol extracts of and may prove to be valuable information in selecting suitable extraction solvents for the medicinal applications of both plants.

Summary: Ethanol extracts of had the highest levels of phenolics and tanninsEthanol extracts of had the highest levels of flavonoids and proanthocyanidinsEthanol extracts of both plants possess better antioxidant activityagainst hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and ABTS as well as higher reducingpower than the aqueous extractsAqueous extract of had the highest free radical scavenging activity as measured with DPPH. ABTS: 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene; DPPH: 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; DTA: aqueous extract (16.6%); DTE: ethanol extract (2.4%); Fe-TPTZ: Ferric tripyridyltriazine; FRAP: Ferric-reducing antioxidant potentials; GAE: Gallic acid equivalent; HAA: aqueous extract (3.2%); HAE: ethanol extract (1.8%); Qe: Quercetin equivalence; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; TBA: Thiobarbituric acid;TCA: Trichloroacetic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/pm.pm_157_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5909315PMC
April 2018

Nutrient and Antinutrient Compositions and Heavy Metal Uptake and Accumulation in Cultivated on Different Soil Types.

ScientificWorldJournal 2018 18;2018:5703929. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.

cultivated on different soil texture types, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, clay loam, loam, and control soils, were evaluated for proximate compositions, antinutrients, vitamins, and mineral composition with plant age using standard analytical methods. Accumulation of trace elements using translocation factor was studied to determine their toxic levels in plant tissues. Data were analysed by ANOVA and results expressed as means and standard deviation. Ash content, crude fibre, protein, alkaloid, phytate, and saponin ranged between 11.4 and 12%, 19.24 and 19.95%, 34.23 and 38.98, 42.08 and 45.76 mg/ml, 0.84 and 1.17%, and 94.10 and 97.00%, respectively. Vitamins A, C, and B were present in high quantity. Macro- and micronutrients recorded showed that is a potential reservoir of minerals. Accumulation of micronutrients was observed to be the highest at the flowering stage between the 4th and 5th weeks after transplanting. Plants cultivated on clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam soils accumulated elevated nutritional compositions and abundant antinutrients. However, the accumulated trace metals in the plants are within the recommended safe levels. All nutrient values are in the recommended requirements for daily consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/5703929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5822905PMC
September 2018
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