Publications by authors named "Anthony C Hilton"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

An Examination of Flying Insects in Seven Hospitals in the United Kingdom and Carriage of Bacteria by True Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Dolichopodidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Psychodidae, Sphaeroceridae).

J Med Entomol 2019 10;56(6):1684-1697

School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, The Aston Triangle, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Insects are efficient vectors of bacteria and in the hospital environment may have a role in spreading nosocomial infections. This study sampled the flying insect populations of seven hospitals in the United Kingdom and characterized the associated culturome of Diptera, including the antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates. Flying insects were collected in seven U.K. hospitals between the period March 2010 to August 2011. The bacteria carried by Diptera were isolated using culture-based techniques, identified and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 19,937 individual insects were collected with Diptera being the most abundant (73.6% of the total), followed by Hemiptera (13.9%), Hymenoptera (4.7%), Lepidoptera (2.9%), and Coleoptera (2%). From Diptera, 82 bacterial strains were identified. The majority of bacteria belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae (42%), followed by Bacillus spp. (24%) and Staphylococcus spp. (19%). Less abundant were bacteria of the genus Clostridium (6%), Streptococcus (5%), and Micrococcus (2%). A total of 68 bacterial strains were characterized for their antibiotic resistance profile; 52.9% demonstrated a resistant phenotype to at least one class of antibiotic. Staphylococcus spp. represented the highest proportion of resistant strains (83.3%), followed by Bacillus spp. (60%) and Enterobacteriaceae (31.3%). Diptera were the predominant flying insects present in the U.K. hospital environments sampled and found to harbor a variety of opportunistic human pathogens with associated antimicrobial resistance profiles. Given the ability of flies to act as mechanical vectors of bacteria, they present a potential to contribute to persistence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic bacteria in the hospital environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjz086DOI Listing
October 2019

Pet Food Factory Isolates of Serotypes Do Not Demonstrate Enhanced Biofilm Formation Compared to Serotype-Matched Clinical and Veterinary Isolates.

Biomed Res Int 2019 29;2019:8569459. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

School of Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK.

Environmentally persistent in the pet food factory environment has been described, with biofilm formation suggested as a candidate mechanism contributing to their persistence. In this study the ability of a panel of isolates from factory, clinical, and veterinary sources was investigated for their ability to form biofilms at 24 and 48 hours. The effect of nutrient availability and incubation time on biofilm formation was investigated using full strength and diluted 1/20 TSB media at 37°C, 25°C, 15°C, and 10°C. Results highlighted that all the isolates were able to form biofilms in both nutrient conditions and this was highly correlated with temperature. At 25°C, biofilm formation was enhanced in diluted 1/20 TSB and increased incubation time (48h) (p= <0.001). However, this was not observed at 10°C, 15°C, or 37°C. None of the factory isolates demonstrated enhanced biofilm formation in comparison to serotype-matched isolates from veterinary and clinical sources. Senftenberg 775W was the strongest biofilm former at 15°C, 25°C, and 37°C in all the conditions tested (p=<0.05). Biofilm formation is an important mechanism of environmental persistence in the food manufacturing environment; however, there is no evidence of an enhanced biofilm-producing phenotype in factory persistent strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8569459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374821PMC
June 2019

Tunable Silver-Functionalized Porous Frameworks for Antibacterial Applications.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2018 Jul 3;7(3). Epub 2018 Jul 3.

School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia.

Healthcare-associated infections and the rise of drug-resistant bacteria pose significant challenges to existing antibiotic therapies. Silver nanocomposites are a promising solution to the current crisis, however their therapeutic application requires improved understanding of underpinning structure-function relationships. A family of chemically and structurally modified mesoporous SBA-15 silicas were synthesized as porous host matrices to tune the physicochemical properties of silver nanoparticles. Physicochemical characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and porosimetry demonstrate that functionalization by a titania monolayer and the incorporation of macroporosity both increase silver nanoparticle dispersion throughout the silica matrix, thereby promoting Ag₂CO₃ formation and the release of ionic silver in simulated tissue fluid. The Ag₂CO₃ concentration within functionalized porous architectures is a strong predictor for antibacterial efficacy against a broad spectrum of pathogens, including and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165165PMC
July 2018

Distinct fermentation and antibiotic sensitivity profiles exist in salmonellae of canine and human origin.

BMC Microbiol 2018 02 26;18(1):15. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, B4 7ET, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Salmonella enterica is a recognised cause of diarrhoea in dogs and humans, yet the potential for transfer of salmonellosis between dogs and their owners is unclear, with reported evidence both for and against Salmonella as a zoonotic pathogen. A collection of 174 S. enterica isolates from clinical infections in humans and dogs were analysed for serotype distribution, carbon source utilisation, chemical and antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. The aim of the study was to understand the degree of conservation in phenotypic characteristics of isolates across host species.

Results: Serovar distribution across human and canine isolates demonstrated nine serovars common to both host species, 24 serovars present in only the canine collection and 39 solely represented within the human collection. Significant differences in carbon source utilisation profiles and ampicillin, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol sensitivity profiles were detected in isolates of human and canine origin. Differences between the human and canine Salmonella collections were suggestive of evolutionary separation, with canine isolates better able to utilise several simple sugars than their human counterparts. Generally higher minimum inhibitory concentrations of three broad-spectrum antimicrobials, commonly used in veterinary medicine, were also observed in canine S. enterica isolates.

Conclusions: Differential carbon source utilisation and antimicrobial sensitivity profiles in pathogenic Salmonella isolated from humans and dogs are suggestive of distinct reservoirs of infection for these hosts. Although these findings do not preclude zoonotic or anthroponotic potential in salmonellae, the separation of carbon utilisation and antibiotic profiles with isolate source is indicative that infectious isolates are not part of a common reservoir shared frequently between these host species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-018-1153-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828451PMC
February 2018

Genotypic and antimicrobial characterisation of Propionibacterium acnes isolates from surgically excised lumbar disc herniations.

Biomed Res Int 2013 28;2013:530382. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

The School of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Coventry University, CV1 5FB, UK.

The anaerobic skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes is an underestimated cause of human infections and clinical conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for the bacterium in lumbar disc herniation and infection. To further investigate this, five biopsy samples were surgically excised from each of 64 patients with lumbar disc herniation. P. acnes and other bacteria were detected by anaerobic culture, followed by biochemical and PCR-based identification. In total, 24/64 (38%) patients had evidence of P. acnes in their excised herniated disc tissue. Using recA and mAb typing methods, 52% of the isolates were type II (50% of culture-positive patients), while type IA strains accounted for 28% of isolates (42% patients). Type III (11% isolates; 21% patients) and type IB strains (9% isolates; 17% patients) were detected less frequently. The MIC values for all isolates were lowest for amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, rifampicin, tetracycline, and vancomycin (≤1 mg/L). The MIC for fusidic acid was 1-2 mg/L. The MIC for trimethoprim and gentamicin was 2 to ≥4  mg/L. The demonstration that type II and III strains, which are not frequently recovered from skin, predominated within our isolate collection (63%) suggests that the role of P. acnes in lumbar disc herniation should not be readily dismissed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/530382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3771251PMC
June 2014

Genetic characterization of clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile using an optimized RAPD protocol and PCR ribotyping reveals strain diversity between two tertiary referral Trusts in the West Midlands, UK.

J Med Microbiol 2011 Sep 21;60(Pt 9):1287-1291. Epub 2011 Apr 21.

Aston University, School of Life & Health Sciences, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Epidemiological investigations of Clostridium difficile often focus on differences between separate geographical areas. In this investigation, two populations of C. difficile recovered from separate tertiary referral Trusts within the West Midlands, UK, were characterized using both PCR ribotyping and an optimized RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) protocol. The PCR ribotyping and RAPD methodologies identified differences between the two C. difficile populations, in both the prevalence and the diversity of types identified. The use of PCR ribotyping in conjunction with RAPD further categorized different types within defined PCR ribotypes, identifying different types within the same PCR ribotype and therefore providing a greater discriminatory power than either of the methods when used alone. The differences observed in this study between the two Trusts in the distribution of both RAPD 'type' and PCR ribotype demonstrate the diversity that is present amongst isolates of C. difficile within a relatively small geographical area and warrants a need for further investigation into the local epidemiology of C. difficile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.030999-0DOI Listing
September 2011

Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil.

BMC Infect Dis 2010 Sep 22;10:278. Epub 2010 Sep 22.

Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) when used as a skin antiseptic.

Method: Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v) CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO) and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin) was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Results: The 2% (w/v) CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v) EO in combination with 2% (w/v) CHG in 70% (v/v) IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min.

Conclusion: The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-10-278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2955684PMC
September 2010

The need for continued monitoring of antibiotic resistance patterns in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from London and Malta.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2010 Jul 21;9:20. Epub 2010 Jul 21.

School of Life Sciences, Kingston University, Kingston-upon Thames, UK, KT1 2EE.

Background: Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem in isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) worldwide. In 2001 The National Health Service in the UK introduced a mandatory bacteraemia surveillance scheme for the reporting of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This surveillance initiative reports on the percentage of isolates that are methicillin resistant. However, resistance to other antibiotics is not currently reported and therefore the scale of emerging resistance is currently unclear in the UK. In this study, multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) profiles against fourteen antimicrobial drugs were investigated for 705 isolates of S. aureus collected from two European study sites in the UK (London) and Malta.

Results: All isolates were susceptible to linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Multiple antibiotic resistance profiles from both countries were determined, a total of forty-two and forty-five profiles were seen in the UK cohort (MRSA and MSSA respectively) and comparatively, sixty-two and fifty-two profiles were shown in the Maltese group. The largest MAR profile contained six antibiotics (penicillin G, methicillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and clarithromycin) and was observed in the MRSA isolates in both the UK and Maltese cohorts.

Conclusion: The data presented here suggests that the monitoring of changing resistance profiles locally in maintaining treatment efficacy to resistant pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-0711-9-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2914044PMC
July 2010

UK epidemic strains of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in clinical samples from Malta.

J Med Microbiol 2008 Nov;57(Pt 11):1394-1398

School of Life Sciences, Kingston University, Kingston-upon-Thames KT1 2EE, UK.

Since 1999, the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) has monitored the rise in infection due to a number of organisms, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The EARSS reported that MRSA infections within intensive care units account for 25-50 % of infections in many central and southern European countries, these included France, Spain, Great Britain, Malta, Greece and Italy. Each country has defined epidemic MRSA (EMRSA) strains; however, the method of spread of these strains from one country to another is unknown. In this current study, DNA profiles of 473 isolates of MRSA collected from the UK and Malta were determined by PFGE. Analysis of the data showed that two countries separated by a large geographical distance had a similar DNA profile pattern. Additionally it was demonstrated that strains of EMRSA normally found in the UK were also found in the Maltese cohort (EMRSA 15 and 16). A distinct DNA profile was found in the Maltese cohort, which may be a local EMRSA, and accounted for 14.4 % of all Maltese isolates. The appearance of the same MRSA and EMRSA profiles in two separate countries suggests that MRSA can be transferred out of their country of origin and potentially establish in a new locality or country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.2008/003509-0DOI Listing
November 2008

Description and critical appraisal of principal components analysis (PCA) methodology applied to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

J Microbiol Methods 2006 Apr 1;65(1):87-95. Epub 2005 Aug 1.

Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK.

Principal components analysis (PCA) has been described for over 50 years; however, it is rarely applied to the analysis of epidemiological data. In this study PCA was critically appraised in its ability to reveal relationships between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in comparison to the more commonly employed cluster analysis and representation by dendrograms. The PFGE type following SmaI chromosomal digest was determined for 44 multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MR-HA-MRSA) isolates, two multidrug-resistant community-acquired MRSA (MR-CA-MRSA), 50 hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates (from the University Hospital Birmingham, NHS Trust, UK) and 34 community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates (from general practitioners in Birmingham, UK). Strain relatedness was determined using Dice band-matching with UPGMA clustering and PCA. The results indicated that PCA revealed relationships between MRSA strains, which were more strongly correlated with known epidemiology, most likely because, unlike cluster analysis, PCA does not have the constraint of generating a hierarchic classification. In addition, PCA provides the opportunity for further analysis to identify key polymorphic bands within complex genotypic profiles, which is not always possible with dendrograms. Here we provide a detailed description of a PCA method for the analysis of PFGE profiles to complement further the epidemiological study of infectious disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2005.06.017DOI Listing
April 2006

Molecular analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus reveals an absence of plasmid DNA in multidrug-resistant isolates.

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2005 Jun;44(3):297-302

Department of Molecular Biosciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

The number, diversity and restriction enzyme fragmentation patterns of plasmids harboured by 44 multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MR-HA-MRSA) isolates, two multidrug-resistant community-acquired MRSA (MR-CA-MRSA), 50 hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates (from the University Hospital Birmingham, NHS Trust, UK) and 34 community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates (from general practitioners in Birmingham, UK) were compared. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type following SmaI chromosomal digest and SCCmec element type assignment were ascertained for each isolate. All MR-HA-MRSA and MR-CA-MRSA isolates possessed the type II SCCmec, harboured no plasmid DNA and belonged to one of five PFGE types. Forty-three out of 50 HA-MRSA isolates and all 34 CA-MRSA isolates possessed the type IV SCCmec and all but 10 of the type IV HA-MRSA isolates and nine CA-MRSA isolates carried one or two plasmids. The 19 non-multidrug-resistant isolates (NMR) that did not harbour plasmids were only resistant to methicillin whereas all the NMR isolates harbouring at least one plasmid were resistant to at least one additional antibiotic. We conclude that although plasmid carriage plays an important role in antibiotic resistance, especially in NMR-HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA, the multidrug resistance phenotype from HA-MRSA is not associated with increased plasmid carriage and indeed is characterised by an absence of plasmid DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.femsim.2004.12.014DOI Listing
June 2005

Mechanisms of resistance in Salmonella enterica adapted to erythromycin, benzalkonium chloride and triclosan.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2005 Jan;25(1):31-7

Microbiology, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

The potential for adaptive resistance of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Virchow to increasing sub-lethal concentrations of erythromycin, benzalkonium chloride and triclosan was investigated to identify mechanisms underlying resistance. Permeability changes of the outer membrane, including LPS, cell surface charge, hydrophobicity and the presence of an active efflux in the adapted strain compared with the parent were studied. Examination of the outer membrane and LPS did not reveal any significant changes, although most of the pre-adapted strains were notably less hydrophobic than resistant strains. More than one type of active efflux was identified in all strains investigated, on the basis of restored sensitivity in the presence of the inhibitors reserpine and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Cell surface hydrophobicity and the presence of active efflux could contribute to the resistance of S. enterica to the antibacterial agents studied here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2004.07.016DOI Listing
January 2005

Analysis of clinical isolates of Propionibacterium acnes by optimised RAPD.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2003 Nov;228(1):51-5

Microbiology Research, Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was evaluated as a genotypic method for typing clinical strains of Propionibacterium acnes. RAPD can suffer from problems of reproducibility if parameters are not standardised. In this study the reaction conditions were optimised by adjusting template DNA concentration and buffer constituents. All isolates were typeable using the optimised RAPD protocol which was found to be highly discriminatory (Simpson's diversity index, 0.98) and reproducible. Typing of P. acnes by optimised RAPD is an invaluable tool for the epidemiological investigation of P. acnes for which no other widely accepted method currently exists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1097(03)00720-1DOI Listing
November 2003

RT-PCR for the pseudogene-free amplification of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gapd).

Mol Cell Probes 2003 Oct;17(5):261-5

Molecular Biosciences, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an enzyme which catalyses the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3 diphosphoglycerate. It is considered to be constitutively expressed in all cells, and as such the gene for GAPDH (gapd) is commonly used as a benchmark reference in expression studies. However, previous investigations have demonstrated that gapd may show altered gene expression in a number of disease states and under certain experimental conditions, suggesting that results of experiments using gapd as a control should be interpreted with caution. Furthermore, consideration must be given to the potential co-amplification of pseudogenes of gapd during RT-PCR. Here, we describe a method to avoid the amplification of contaminating pseudogenes through the design of primers that bind only to genuine gapd mRNA transcript.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0890-8508(03)00063-xDOI Listing
October 2003

Representational difference analysis: critical appraisal and method development for the identification of unique DNA sequences from prokaryotes.

J Microbiol Methods 2003 Oct;55(1):73-81

School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT, Birmingham, UK.

Representational difference analysis (RDA) has great potential for preferential amplification of unique but uncharacterised DNA sequences present in one source such as a whole genome, but absent from a related genome or other complex population of sequences. While a few examples of its successful exploitation have been published, the method has not been well dissected and robust, detailed published protocols are lacking. Here we examine the method in detail, suggest improvements and provide a protocol that has yielded key unique sequences from a pathogenic bacterial genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0167-7012(03)00117-9DOI Listing
October 2003

Isolation of Salmonella from urban wild brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the West Midlands, UK.

Int J Environ Health Res 2002 Jun;12(2):163-8

Microbiology Research Group, Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

A 6-month study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in wild urban brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the West Midlands. Samples were obtained of faecal droppings (n = 100) and from rectal swabs (n = 50) of rat carcases collected from active infestation sites. A subset of the rats (n = 25) had additional swab samples taken of the fur, paws and tail. Five (10%) of the rectal swabs were positive for Salmonella by direct plating onto XLD media. No further samples were positive following pre-enrichment and selective culture. A total of eight (8%) faecal samples were positive for Salmonella; two by direct plating and a further six following enrichment. All positive faecal samples were fresh or moist upon collection. None of the samples obtained from the outer surfaces of the rat were positive. Additionally, rat faeces were spiked with Salmonella and sampled periodically to determine survival in drying faeces exposed to a typical indoor environment. Salmonella could be recovered by direct culture up to 86 days. These results demonstrate a regional variability in the carriage of Salmonella in urban rats compared to other studies and that Salmonella longevity in faecal pellets is sufficient to present a potential contamination risk in the absence of an active infestation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603120220129328DOI Listing
June 2002

Restriction endonuclease analysis of RAPD-PCR amplicons derived from Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 isolates.

J Med Microbiol 2001 Jan;50(1):90-95

Department of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT and *Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET.

Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 isolates were characterised by random amplification of polymorphic DNA by PCR (RAPD-PCR) analysis developed to allow robust epidemiological typing of E. coli. Amplification with primer 1247 or 1290 generated a reproducible profile, but was not capable of distinguishing sufficiently between epidemiologically unrelated strains. Subsequent digestion of the amplicons with selected restriction endonucleases improved the discriminatory ability of this method for strains showing limited differentiation following RAPD-PCR analysis alone. Restriction endonuclease analysis of RAPD-PCR fragments generated from closely related strains has the potential to provide additional discriminatory information without loss of specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-50-1-90DOI Listing
January 2001