Publications by authors named "Anthony Behin"

105 Publications

Improved Cardiac Outcomes by Early Treatment with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Becker Muscular Dystrophy.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

AP-HP, Cochin Hospital, Cardiology Department, Paris, France.

Background: The latest practice guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association recommend the prescription of an ACE-i for patients presenting with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy when left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) falls below 40%.

Objective: To determine if the initiation of treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-i) earlier than recommended by practice guidelines issued by professional societies improves the long-term cardiac outcomes of patients presenting with Becker muscular dystrophy (MD) cardiomyopathy.

Methods: From a multicenter registry of Becker MD, we selected retrospectively patients presenting between January 1990 and April 2019 with a LVEF ≥40 and ≤49%. We used a propensity score analysis to compare the risk of a) hospitalization for management of heart failure (HF), and b) a decrease in LVEF to <35% in patients who received an ACE-i when LVEF fell below 40% (conventional treatment), versus below 50% (early treatment).

Results: From the 183 patients entered in our registry, we identified 85 whose LVEF was between 40 and 49%, 51 of whom received early and 34 received conventional ACE-i treatment. Among patients with early versus conventional treatments, 2 (3.9%) versus 4 (11.8%) were hospitalized for management of HF [hazard ratio (HR) 0.151; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.028 to 0.822; p = 0.029], and 9 (17.6%) versus 10 (29.4%) had a decrease in LVEF below 35% (HR 0.290; 95% CI 0.121 to 0.694; p = 0.005).

Conclusions: The long-term cardiac outcome of patients presenting with Becker MD was significantly better when treatment with ACE-i was introduced after a decrease in LVEF below 50%, instead of below 40% as recommended in the current practice guidelines issued by professional societies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-200620DOI Listing
March 2021

Association between prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and overall survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy-analysis of registry data.

Eur Heart J 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Service d'Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Raymond Poincaré, Garches, France  INSERM Université de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, France.

Aims: To estimate the effect of prophylactic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) on survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).

Methods And Results: We analysed the data from the French multicentre DMD Heart Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03443115). We estimated the association between the prophylactic prescription of ACEi and event-free survival in 668 patients aged 8 to 13 years, with normal left ventricular function, using (i) a Cox model with intervention as a time-dependent covariate, (ii) a propensity-based analysis comparing ACEi treatment vs. no treatment, and (iii) a set of sensitivity analyses. The study outcomes were overall survival and hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) or acute respiratory failure. Among the 668 patients included in the DMD Heart Registry, 576 (mean age 6.1 ± 2.8 years) were eligible for this study, of whom 390 were treated with ACEi prophylactically. Death occurred in 53 patients (13.5%) who were and 60 patients (32.3%) who were not treated prophylactically with ACEi, respectively. In a Cox model with intervention as a time-dependent variable, the hazard ratio (HR) associated with ACEi treatment was 0.49 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34-0.72] and 0.47 (95% CI 0.31-0.17) for overall mortality after adjustment for baseline variables. In the propensity-based analysis, 278 patients were included in the treatment group and 834 in the control group, with 18.5% and 30.4% 12-year estimated probability of death, respectively. ACEi were associated with a lower risk of death (HR 0.39; 95% CI 0.17-0.92) and hospitalization for HF (HR 0.16; 95% CI 0.04-0.62). All other sensitivity analyses yielded similar results.

Conclusion: Prophylactic ACEi treatment in DMD was associated with a significantly higher overall survival and lower rates of hospitalization for HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab054DOI Listing
March 2021

Deep phenotyping of an international series of patients with late-onset dysferlinopathy.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jun 1;28(6):2092-2102. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Nord/Est/Ile-de-France Neuromuscular Reference Center, Institute of Myology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, APHP, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background: To describe the clinical, pathological, and molecular characteristics of late-onset (LO) dysferlinopathy patients.

Methods: Retrospective series of patients with LO dysferlinopathy, defined by an age at onset of symptoms ≥30 years, from neuromuscular centers in France and the International Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy (COS). Patients with early-onset (EO) dysferlinopathy (<30 years) were randomly selected from the COS study as a control group, and the North Star Assessment for Dysferlinopathy (NSAD) and Activity Limitation (ACTIVLIM) scores were used to assess functionality. Muscle biopsies obtained from 11 LO and 11 EO patients were revisited.

Results: Forty-eight patients with LO dysferlinopathy were included (28 females). Median age at onset of symptoms was 37 (range 30-57) years and most patients showed a limb-girdle (n = 26) or distal (n = 10) phenotype. However, compared with EO dysferlinopathy patients (n = 48), LO patients more frequently showed atypical phenotypes (7 vs. 1; p = 0.014), including camptocormia, lower creatine kinase levels (2855 vs. 4394 U/L; p = 0.01), and higher NSAD (p = 0.008) and ACTIVLIM scores (p = 0.016). Loss of ambulation in LO patients tended to occur later (23 ± 4.4 years after disease onset vs. 16.3 ± 6.8 years; p = 0.064). Muscle biopsy of LO patients more frequently showed an atypical pattern (unspecific myopathic changes) as well as significantly less necrosis regeneration and inflammation. Although LO patients more frequently showed missense variants (39.8% vs. 23.9%; p = 0.021), no differences in dysferlin protein expression were found on Western blot.

Conclusions: Late-onset dysferlinopathy patients show a higher frequency of atypical presentations, are less severely affected, and show milder dystrophic changes in muscle biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14821DOI Listing
June 2021

Results from a 3-year Non-interventional, Observational Disease Monitoring Program in Adults with GNE Myopathy.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2021 ;8(2):225-234

University of California Irvine, Orange, CA, USA.

Background: GNE myopathy is a rare, autosomal recessive, muscle disease caused by mutations in GNE and is characterized by rimmed vacuoles on muscle biopsy and progressive distal to proximal muscle weakness.

Objective: Investigate the clinical presentation and progression of GNE myopathy.

Methods: The GNE Myopathy Disease Monitoring Program was an international, prospective, observational study in subjects with GNE myopathy. Muscle strength was assessed with hand-held dynamometry (HHD), with upper extremity (UE) and lower extremity (LE) composite scores reflecting upper and lower extremity muscle groups, respectively. The GNE myopathy-Functional Activity Scale (GNEM-FAS) was used to further assess impairment in mobility, upper extremity function, and self-care.

Results: Eighty-seven of 101 enrolled subjects completed the trial until study closure by the sponsor; 60 completed 36 months. Mean (SD) HHD UE composite score decreased from 34.3 kg (32.0) at baseline to 29.4 kg (32.6) kg at month 36 (LS mean change [95%CI]: -3.8 kg [-5.9, -1.7]; P = 0.0005). Mean (SD) HHD LE composite score decreased from 32.0 kg (34.1) at baseline to 25.5 kg (31.2) at month 36 (LS mean change [95%CI]: -4.9 [-7.7, -2.2]; P = 0.0005). GNEM-FAS scores were more severe at baseline in subjects who walked <200 meters versus ≥200 meters in 6 minutes; in both groups, GNEM-FAS total, mobility, UE, and self-care scores decreased from baseline through month 36.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate progressive decline in muscle strength in GNE myopathy and provide insight into the appropriate tools to detect clinically meaningful changes in future GNE myopathy interventional trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-200565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075380PMC
January 2021

Development of new outcome measures for adult SMA type III and IV: a multimodal longitudinal study.

J Neurol 2021 May 2;268(5):1792-1802. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Laboratoire D'Imagerie Biomédicale, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, INSERM, Paris, France.

Objective: The aim of this study was the comprehensive characterisation of longitudinal clinical, electrophysiological and neuroimaging measures in type III and IV adult spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with a view to propose objective monitoring markers for future clinical trials.

Methods: Fourteen type III or IV SMA patients underwent standardised assessments including muscle strength testing, functional evaluation (SMAFRS and MFM), MUNIX (abductor pollicis brevis, APB; abductor digiti minimi, ADM; deltoid; tibialis anterior, TA; trapezius) and quantitative cervical spinal cord MRI to appraise segmental grey and white matter atrophy. Patients underwent a follow-up assessment with the same protocol 24 months later. Longitudinal comparisons were conducted using the Wilcoxon-test for matched data. Responsiveness was estimated using standardized response means (SRM) and a composite score was generated based on the three most significant variables.

Results: Significant functional decline was observed based on SMAFRS (p = 0.019), pinch and knee flexion strength (p = 0.030 and 0.027), MUNIX and MUSIX value in the ADM (p = 0.0006 and 0.043) and in TA muscle (p = 0.025). No significant differences were observed based on cervical MRI measures. A significant reduction was detected in the composite score (p = 0.0005, SRM = -1.52), which was the most responsive variable and required a smaller number of patients than single variables in the estimation of sample size for clinical trials.

Conclusions: Quantitative strength testing, SMAFRS and MUNIX readily capture disease progression in adult SMA patients. Composite multimodal scores increase predictive value and may reduce sample size requirements in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-10332-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Global versus individual muscle segmentation to assess quantitative MRI-based fat fraction changes in neuromuscular diseases.

Eur Radiol 2020 Nov 21. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

NMR Laboratory, Neuromuscular Investigation Center, Institute of Myology, Paris, France.

Objectives: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitutes a powerful outcome measure in neuromuscular disorders, yet there is a broad diversity of approaches in data acquisition and analysis. Since each neuromuscular disease presents a specific pattern of muscle involvement, the recommended analysis is assumed to be the muscle-by-muscle approach. We, therefore, performed a comparative analysis of different segmentation approaches, including global muscle segmentation, to determine the best strategy for evaluating disease progression.

Methods: In 102 patients (21 immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy/IMNM, 21 inclusion body myositis/IBM, 10 GNE myopathy/GNEM, 19 Duchenne muscular dystrophy/DMD, 12 dysferlinopathy/DYSF, 7 limb-girdle muscular dystrophy/LGMD2I, 7 Pompe disease, 5 spinal muscular atrophy/SMA), two MRI scans were obtained at a 1-year interval in thighs and lower legs. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in individual muscles, muscle groups, and the global muscle segment. Standardized response means (SRMs) were determined to assess sensitivity to change in fat fraction (ΔFat%) in individual muscles, muscle groups, weighted combinations of muscles and muscle groups, and in the global muscle segment.

Results: Global muscle segmentation gave high SRMs for ΔFat% in thigh and lower leg for IMNM, DYSF, LGMD2I, DMD, SMA, and Pompe disease, and only in lower leg for GNEM and thigh for IBM.

Conclusions: Global muscle segment Fat% showed to be sensitive to change in most investigated neuromuscular disorders. As compared to individual muscle drawing, it is a faster and an easier approach to assess disease progression. The use of individual muscle ROIs, however, is still of interest for exploring selective muscle involvement.

Key Points: • MRI-based evaluation of fatty replacement in muscles is used as an outcome measure in the assessment of 1-year disease progression in 8 different neuromuscular diseases. • Different segmentation approaches, including global muscle segmentation, were evaluated for determining 1-year fat fraction changes in lower limb skeletal muscles. • Global muscle segment fat fraction has shown to be sensitive to change in lower leg and thigh in most of the investigated neuromuscular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07487-0DOI Listing
November 2020

Relationship between markers of disease activity and progression in skeletal muscle of GNE myopathy patients using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2020 Jul;10(7):1450-1464

NMR Laboratory, Neuromuscular Investigation Center, Institute of Myology, Paris, France.

Background: Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) is an objective and precise outcome measure for evaluating disease progression in neuromuscular disorders. We aimed to investigate predictive 'disease activity' NMR indices, including water T and P NMR spectroscopy (NMRS), and its relation to NMR markers of 'disease progression', such as the changes in fat fraction (ΔFat%) and contractile cross-sectional area (ΔcCSA), in GNE myopathy (GNEM) patients.

Methods: NMR was performed on a 3T clinical scanner, at baseline and at a 1-year interval, in 10 GNEM patients and 29 age-matched controls. Dixon-based fat-water imaging and water T mapping were acquired in legs and thighs, and in the dominant forearm. P NMRS was performed at the level of quadriceps and hamstring. Water T and P NMRS indices were determined for all muscle groups and visits. Correlations were performed with 'disease progression' indices ΔFat%, ΔcCSA and the muscle fat transformation rate (R).

Results: In quadriceps, known to be relatively preserved in GNEM, water T at baseline was significantly higher compared to controls, and correlated strongly with the one-year evolution of Fat% and cCSA and R. Various P NMRS indices showed significant differences in quadriceps and hamstring compared to controls and correlations existed between these indices and ΔFat%, ΔcCSA and R.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that disease activity indices such as water T and P NMRS may predict disease progression in skeletal muscles of GNEM patients, and suggests that these measures may be considered to be valuable surrogate endpoints in the assessment of GNEM disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-39DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358411PMC
July 2020

Ganglionopathies Associated with MERRF Syndrome: An Original Report.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2020 ;7(4):419-423

Department of Neurology, Neuromuscular Reference Center Nord/Est/Ile de France, Raymond-Poincaré Teaching Hospital, AP-HP, Garches, Paris Saclay University, France.

Neuropathies in Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers (MERRF) syndrome are frequent but ganglionopathies have never been reported. We retrospectively identified 24 patients with MERRF mutations in the neuromuscular center Nord/Est/Ile de France (Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France). Seventeen nerve conduction studies (NCS) were available. Five patients had MERRF syndrome and ganglionopathy, a pure sensory neuropathy. All of them displayed ataxia and mild clinical sensory abnormalities. Ganglionopathies have been reported in mitochondrial diseases but never in MERRF syndrome. We suggest that patients presenting with ganglionopathy, especially if associated with myopathy, lipomatosis or epilepsy, should be screened for MERRF mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-200513DOI Listing
January 2020

Long-term benefit of enzyme replacement therapy with alglucosidase alfa in adults with Pompe disease: Prospective analysis from the French Pompe Registry.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2020 11 27;43(6):1219-1231. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Centre de référence des maladies neuromusculaires Nord-Est-Ile de France, Service de Neurologie, CHU Raymond Poincaré, AP-HP, Garches, France.

Despite a wide clinical spectrum, the adult form of Pompe disease is the most common one, and represents more than 90% of diagnosed patients in France. Since the marketing of enzyme replacement therapy (alglucosidase alfa, Myozyme), all reports to date in adults demonstrated an improvement of the walking distance, and a trend toward stabilization of respiratory function, but the majority of these studies were less than 5 years of duration. We report here the findings from 158 treated patients included in the French Pompe Registry, who underwent regular clinical assessments based on commonly used standardized tests (6-minute walking test, MFM scale, sitting vital capacity, MIP and MEP). For longitudinal analyses, the linear mixed effects models were used to assess trends in primary endpoints over time under ERT. A two-phase model better described the changes in distance traveled in the 6-minute walk test and MFM. 6MWT showed an initial significant increase (1.4% ± 0.5/year) followed by a progressive decline (-2.3%/year), with a cut-off point at 2.2 years. A similar pattern was observed in total MFM score (6.6% ± 2.3/year followed by a - 1.1%/year decline after 0.5 years). A single-phase decline with a slope of -0.9 ± 0.1%/year (P < .001) was observed for FVC, and MEP remained stable over the all duration of follow-up. This study provides further evidence that ERT improves walking abilities and likely stabilizes respiratory function in adult patients with Pompe disease, with a ceiling effect for the 6MWT in the first 3 years of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12272DOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical, morphological and genetic characterization of Brody disease: an international study of 40 patients.

Brain 2020 02;143(2):452-466

Department of Neurology, Donders Centre for Medical Neuroscience, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Brody disease is an autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by exercise-induced muscle stiffness due to mutations in the ATP2A1 gene. Almost 50 years after the initial case presentation, only 18 patients have been reported and many questions regarding the clinical phenotype and results of ancillary investigations remain unanswered, likely leading to incomplete recognition and consequently under-diagnosis. Additionally, little is known about the natural history of the disorder, genotype-phenotype correlations, and the effects of symptomatic treatment. We studied the largest cohort of Brody disease patients to date (n = 40), consisting of 22 new patients (19 novel mutations) and all 18 previously published patients. This observational study shows that the main feature of Brody disease is an exercise-induced muscle stiffness of the limbs, and often of the eyelids. Onset begins in childhood and there was no or only mild progression of symptoms over time. Four patients had episodes resembling malignant hyperthermia. The key finding at physical examination was delayed relaxation after repetitive contractions. Additionally, no atrophy was seen, muscle strength was generally preserved, and some patients had a remarkable athletic build. Symptomatic treatment was mostly ineffective or produced unacceptable side effects. EMG showed silent contractures in approximately half of the patients and no myotonia. Creatine kinase was normal or mildly elevated, and muscle biopsy showed mild myopathic changes with selective type II atrophy. Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) activity was reduced and western blot analysis showed decreased or absent SERCA1 protein. Based on this cohort, we conclude that Brody disease should be considered in cases of exercise-induced muscle stiffness. When physical examination shows delayed relaxation, and there are no myotonic discharges at electromyography, we recommend direct sequencing of the ATP2A1 gene or next generation sequencing with a myopathy panel. Aside from clinical features, SERCA activity measurement and SERCA1 western blot can assist in proving the pathogenicity of novel ATP2A1 mutations. Finally, patients with Brody disease may be at risk for malignant hyperthermia-like episodes, and therefore appropriate perioperative measures are recommended. This study will help improve understanding and recognition of Brody disease as a distinct myopathy in the broader field of calcium-related myopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009512PMC
February 2020

Brody myopathy demonstrates a pseudo-increment on repetitive nerve stimulation.

Muscle Nerve 2020 04 22;61(4):491-495. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Neurophysiology, CHU Pitié Salpetrière, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Introduction: Brody myopathy (BM) is a recessive condition caused by mutations in the ATP2A1 gene and usually induces impaired muscle relaxation during and after exercise. Diagnosis relies on needle electromyography showing electrical silence, muscle biopsy with decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase activity, and genetic analysis. Electrodiagnostic functional analyses are useful in the diagnosis of channelopathies, and thus may be impaired in BM.

Methods: We performed exercise tests and repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS; 10 supramaximal stimuli at 3 Hz) in 10 patients with BM.

Results: All participants showed incremental responses on RNS. Compound muscle action potential amplitude was increased and duration was decreased, especially in the ulnar nerve (+30.2 ± 7.1% and - 30.3 ± 2.8%, respectively; both P < .001).

Discussion: Easily accessible, this sign, referred to as the Arzel sign, could prove to be a very useful tool in BM diagnosis and in broadening its phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.26809DOI Listing
April 2020

A high prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with mitochondrial diseases.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2020 05 15;43(3):478-485. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Cardiology Department, AP-HP, Cochin Hospital, FILNEMUS, Centre de Référence de Pathologie Neuromusculaire Nord/Est/Ile de France, Paris, France.

The prevalence of arterial hypertension in mitochondrial diseases remains unknown. Between January 2000 and May 2014, we retrospectively included patients with genetically proven mitochondrial diseases. We recorded clinical, genetic and cardiac exploration data, including the measure of arterial pressure. Among the 260 patients included in the study (mean age = 44 ± 15 years, women = 158), 108 (41.5%) presented with arterial hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension by sex and age was higher than that observed in the general population for all groups. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in patients with MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) mutations (66%) and MERRF (myoclonus, epilepsy, ataxia with ragged ref fibres) mutations (61%). In patients with MELAS mutation, the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with age and mutation rate in the blood (odds ratio = 1.12; P = .02) in multivariate analysis. The prevalence of hypertension was more important in patients having a mitochondrial disease. The increased risk was more important in patient with MELAS or MERRF and depended on the rate of heteroplasmy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12195DOI Listing
May 2020

Incidence and predictors of total mortality in 267 adults presenting with mitochondrial diseases.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2020 05 26;43(3):459-466. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

APHP, Raymond-Poincaré Teaching Hospital, Neurology department, Nord/Est/Ile de France Neuromuscular Reference Center, Garches, France.

Assessing long-term mortality and identifying predictors of death in adults with mitochondrial diseases. We retrospectively included adult patients with genetically proven mitochondrial diseases referred to our centre between January 2000 and June 2016, and collected information relative to their genetic testing, clinical assessments, and vital status. We performed single and multiple variable analyses in search of predictors of total mortality, and calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 267 patients (women 59%; median age 43.3 [31.3-54.2] years), including 111 with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) single large-scale deletions, 65 with m.3243A>G, 24 with m.8344A>G, 32 with other mtDNA point mutations, and 36 patients with nuclear genes mutations. Over a median follow-up of 8.9 years (0.3 to 18.7), 61 patients (22.8%) died, at a median age of 50.7 (37.9-51.9) years. Primary cause of death was cardiovascular disease in 16 patients (26.2%), respiratory in 11 (18.0%), and gastrointestinal in 5 (8.1%). By multiple variable analysis, diabetes (HR 2.75; 95% CI 1.46-5.18), intraventricular cardiac conduction defects (HR 3.38; 95% CI 1.71-6.76) and focal brain involvement (HR 2.39; 95% CI 1.25-4.57) were independent predictors of death. Adult patients with mitochondrial diseases present high morbidity that can be independently predicted by the presence of diabetes, intraventricular cardiac conduction defects, and focal brain involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12185DOI Listing
May 2020

Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging detects subclinical changes over 1 year in skeletal muscle of GNE myopathy.

J Neurol 2020 Jan 15;267(1):228-238. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

I-Motion-Pediatric Clinical Trials Department, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, Bâtiment Lemariey-Porte 20 * 2ème étage, 26 Avenue du Dr Arnold Netter, 75012, Paris, France.

Background And Objective: To identify the most responsive and sensitive clinical outcome measures in GNE myopathy.

Methods: ClinBio-GNE is a natural history study in GNE myopathy. Patients were assessed prospectively by clinical, functional and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (qNMRI) evaluations. Strength and functional tests included Myogrip, Myopinch, MoviPlate and Brooke assessments for upper limb and the 6-min walk distance for lower limb. qNMRI was performed for determining the degree of fatty infiltration and trophicity in leg, thigh, forearm and hand skeletal muscles. Ten GNE myopathy patients were included. Three patients were non-ambulant. Age and gender-matched healthy subjects were used as controls.

Results: Fatty infiltration and contractile cross-sectional area changed inversely and significantly in lower distal limbs and in proximal lower and distal upper limbs over 1 year. qNMRI indices and functional assessment results were strongly correlated.

Conclusions: Even in a limited number of patients, qNMRI could detect a significant change over a 1-year period in GNE myopathy, which suggests that qNMRI could constitute a surrogate endpoint in this slowly progressive disease. Quantitative NMRI outcome measures can monitor intramuscular fat accumulation with high responsiveness. Longer follow-up should improve our understanding of GNE myopathy evolution and also lead to the identification of non-invasive outcome measures with the highest discriminant power for upcoming clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09569-6DOI Listing
January 2020

Risk factors associated with myasthenia gravis in thymoma patients: The potential role of thymic germinal centers.

J Autoimmun 2020 01 5;106:102337. Epub 2019 Oct 5.

Sorbonne University, INSERM, Association Institute of Myology, Center of Research in Myology, UMRS 974, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Thymomas are associated with a very high risk of developing Myasthenia Gravis (MG). Our objectives were to identify histological and biological parameters to allow early diagnosis of thymoma patients susceptible to developing MG. We conducted a detailed retrospective analysis from a patient database, searching for differences between patients with thymoma-associated MG (MGT, n = 409) and thymoma without MG (TOMA, n = 111) in comparison with nonthymomatous MG patients (MG, n = 1246). We also performed multiplex and single molecule arrays to measure the serum levels of cytokines in these groups of patients and controls (n = 14-22). We identified a set of parameters associated with MG development in thymoma patients: 1) detection of anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies, 2) development of B1 or B2 thymoma subtypes, 3) presence of ectopic thymic germinal centers (GCs), 4) local invasiveness of thymoma, and 5) being a woman under 50 years old. Among these parameters, 58.8% of MGT patients displayed GCs with a positive correlation between the number of GCs and anti-AChR titers. By immunohistochemistry, we found thymic GCs in the adjacent tissues of thymomas encircled by high endothelial venules (HEVs) that could favor peripheral cell recruitment. We also clearly associated MG symptoms with higher IFN-γ, IL-1β and sCD40L serum levels, specifically in MGT patients compared to TOMA patients. Altogether, these analyses allowed the clear identification of histological, in particular the presence of GCs, and biological parameters that would facilitate the evaluation of the probability of the MG outcome postoperatively in thymoma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2019.102337DOI Listing
January 2020

Development and Validation of a New Risk Prediction Score for Life-Threatening Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Laminopathies.

Circulation 2019 07 3;140(4):293-302. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

APHM, Centre de référence des maladies neuromusculaires PACA-Réunion-Rhône Alpes, Hôpital Timone; Aix Marseille Université, Inserm UMR_S 910, GMGF, France (E.S.).

Background: An accurate estimation of the risk of life-threatening (LT) ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTA) in patients with LMNA mutations is crucial to select candidates for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.

Methods: We included 839 adult patients with LMNA mutations, including 660 from a French nationwide registry in the development sample, and 179 from other countries, referred to 5 tertiary centers for cardiomyopathies, in the validation sample. LTVTA was defined as (1) sudden cardiac death or (2) implantable cardioverter defibrillator-treated or hemodynamically unstable VTA. The prognostic model was derived using the Fine-Gray regression model. The net reclassification was compared with current clinical practice guidelines. The results are presented as means (SD) or medians [interquartile range].

Results: We included 444 patients, 40.6 (14.1) years of age, in the derivation sample and 145 patients, 38.2 (15.0) years, in the validation sample, of whom 86 (19.3%) and 34 (23.4%) experienced LTVTA over 3.6 [1.0-7.2] and 5.1 [2.0-9.3] years of follow-up, respectively. Predictors of LTVTA in the derivation sample were: male sex, nonmissense LMNA mutation, first degree and higher atrioventricular block, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and left ventricular ejection fraction (https://lmna-risk-vta.fr). In the derivation sample, C-index (95% CI) of the model was 0.776 (0.711-0.842), and the calibration slope 0.827. In the external validation sample, the C-index was 0.800 (0.642-0.959), and the calibration slope was 1.082 (95% CI, 0.643-1.522). A 5-year estimated risk threshold ≥7% predicted 96.2% of LTVTA and net reclassified 28.8% of patients with LTVTA in comparison with the guidelines-based approach.

Conclusions: In comparison with the current standard of care, this risk prediction model for LTVTA in laminopathies significantly facilitated the choice of candidates for implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03058185.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.039410DOI Listing
July 2019

A phase 3 randomized study evaluating sialic acid extended-release for GNE myopathy.

Neurology 2019 04 25;92(18):e2109-e2117. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

From the Institute of Genetic Medicine (H.L., O.P.), Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute (H.L.), University of Ottawa; Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine (H.L.), The Ottawa Hospital, Canada; APHP (A.B.), Centre de Référence de Pathologie Neuromusculaire, Institut de Myologie, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France; Hadassah Clinical Research Center (Y.C.), Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Department of Neurology, Division of Neurogenetics (H.L.), NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY; Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS (M.M.), Catholic University, Rome, Italy; Expert Center of Genetic Neurologic and Metabolic Disorders (I.T.), University Hospital Aleksandrovska, Sofia; Department of Neurology (I.T.), Medical University Sofia; Department of Cognitive Science and Psychology (I.T.), New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Pediatrics, Neuromuscular and Neurometabolic Clinic (M.T.), McMaster University Medical Center, Hamilton, Canada; Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical Inc. (C.W., A.L., J.S., T.K., A.S., H.M., E.K.), Novato, CA; and University of California Irvine (T.M.), Orange. H.L. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neuropediatrics and Muscle Disorders, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Germany.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of aceneuramic acid extended-release (Ace-ER), a treatment intended to replace deficient sialic acid, in patients with GNE myopathy.

Methods: UX001-CL301 was a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, international study evaluating the efficacy and safety of Ace-ER in patients with GNE myopathy. Participants who could walk ≥200 meters in a 6-minute walk test at screening were randomized 1:1, and stratified by sex, to receive Ace-ER 6 g/d or placebo for 48 weeks and assessed every 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in muscle strength over 48 weeks measured by upper extremity composite (UEC) score. Key secondary endpoints included change in lower extremity composite (LEC) score, knee extensor strength, and GNE myopathy-Functional Activity Scale (GNEM-FAS) mobility domain score. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), vital signs, and clinical laboratory results.

Results: Eighty-nine patients were randomized (Ace-ER n = 45; placebo n = 44). Change from baseline to week 48 for UEC score between treatments did not differ (least square mean [LSM] Ace-ER -2.25 kg vs placebo -2.99 kg; LSM difference confidence interval [CI] 0.74 [-1.61 to 3.09]; = 0.5387). At week 48, there was no significant difference between treatments for the change in key secondary endpoints: LEC LSM difference (CI) -1.49 (-5.83 to 2.86); knee extension strength -0.40 (-2.38 to 1.58); and GNEM-FAS mobility domain score -0.72 (-2.01 to 0.57). Gastrointestinal events were the most common AEs.

Conclusions: Ace-ER was not superior to placebo in improving muscle strength and function in patients with GNE myopathy.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with GNE myopathy, Ace-ER does not improve muscle strength compared to placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000006932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6512882PMC
April 2019

Diaphragm sniff ultrasound: Normal values, relationship with sniff nasal pressure and accuracy for predicting respiratory involvement in patients with neuromuscular disorders.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0214288. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Service de Physiologie-Explorations fonctionnelles, CHU Raymond Poincaré, APHP, Université de Versailles saint Quentin en Yvelines, Garches, France.

Background: In patients with neuromuscular disorders, assessment of respiratory function relies on forced vital capacity (FVC) measurements. Providing complementary respiratory outcomes may be useful for clinical trials. Diaphragm sniff ultrasound (US) is a noninvasive technique that can assess diaphragm function that may be affected in patients with neuromuscular disorders.

Purpose: We aimed to provide normal values of sniff diaphragm ultrasound, to assess the relationship between sniff diaphragm US, vital capacity (VC) and sniff nasal pressure. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sniff diaphragm US for predicting restrictive pulmonary insufficiency.

Materials And Methods: We included patients with neuromuscular disorders that had been tested with a sniff diaphragm US and functional respiratory tests. Healthy subjects were also included to obtain normal diaphragm sniff ultrasound. We performed diaphragm tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and time movement (TM) diaphragm echography combined with sniff maneuver.

Results: A total of 89 patients with neuromuscular diseases and 27 healthy subjects were included in our study. In patients, the median age was 32 years [25; 50] and the median FVC was 34% of predicted [18; 55]. Sniff diaphragm motion using TM ultrasound was significantly associated with sniff nasal pressure, both for the right hemidiaphragm (r = 0.6 p <0.0001) and the left hemidiaphragm (r = 0.63 p = 0.0008). Right sniff peak TDI velocity was also significantly associated with FVC (r = 0.72, p<0.0001) and with sniff nasal pressure (r = 0.66 p<0.0001). Sniff diaphragm ultrasound using either TM mode or TDI displayed significant accuracy for predicting FVC<60% with an area under curve (AUC) reaching 0.93 (p<0.0001) for the right sniff diaphragm ultrasound in TM mode and 0.86 (p<0.001) for right peak diaphragm TDI velocity.

Conclusion: Sniff diaphragm TM and TDI measures were significantly associated with sniff nasal pressure. Sniff diaphragm TM and TDI had a high level of accuracy to reveal respiratory involvement in patients with neuromuscular disorders. This technique is useful to assess and follow up diaphragm function in patients with neuromuscular disorders. It may be used as a respiratory outcome for clinical trials.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214288PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6481788PMC
December 2019

Causes and Consequences of miR-150-5p Dysregulation in Myasthenia Gravis.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:539. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Center of Research in Myology, Sorbonne University, INSERM, Association Institute of Myology - UMRS 974, Paris, France.

Autoimmune Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic neuromuscular disease mainly due to antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction that induce invalidating muscle weaknesses. In early-onset MG, the thymus is the effector organ and is often characterized by B-cell infiltrations leading to ectopic germinal center (GC) development. The microRNA miR-150-5p has been previously characterized as a biomarker in MG due to its increase in the serum of patients and its decrease after thymectomy, correlated with an improvement of symptoms. Here, we investigated the causes and consequences of the miR-150 increase in the serum of early-onset MG patients. We observed that miR-150 expression was upregulated in MG thymuses in correlation with the presence of thymic B cells and showed by hybridization experiments, that miR-150 was mainly expressed by cells of the mantle zone of GCs. However, we did not observe any correlation between the degree of thymic hyperplasia and the serum levels in MG patients. In parallel, we also investigated the expression of miR-150 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from MG patients. We observed that miR-150 was down-regulated, especially in CD4 T cells compared to controls. These results suggest that the increased serum levels of miR-150 could result from a release from activated peripheral CD4 T cells. Next, we demonstrated that the treatment of PBMCs with miR-150 or antimiR-150 oligonucleotides, respectively, decreased or increased the expression of one of its major target gene: the proto-oncogene , a well-known actor of hematopoiesis. These results revealed that increased serum levels of miR-150 in MG patients could have a functional effect on PBMCs. We also showed that antimiR-150 caused increased cellular death of CD4 and CD8 T cells, along with the overexpression of pro-apoptotic genes targeted by miR-150 suggesting that miR-150 controlled the survival of these cells. Altogether, these results showed that miR-150 could play a role in MG both at the thymic level and in periphery by modulating the expression of target genes and peripheral cell survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450174PMC
August 2020

FSHD1 and FSHD2 form a disease continuum.

Neurology 2019 05 12;92(19):e2273-e2285. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

From the Peripheral Nervous System (S.S., M.G., C.C., A.P.), Muscle & ALS Department, Pasteur 2 Hospital, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, and Institute for Research on Cancer and Aging of Nice (S.S., C.B., N.L., P.N., G.C.), CNRS, INSERM, Université Côte d'Azur; Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology (A.B.-S., S.R., M.J.), Cochin Hospital, Paris, France; Department of Human Genetics (R.J.L.F.L., S.M.v.d.M.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; Rare Neuromuscular Diseases Centre (C.C.), Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; Pathology Department (F.C.), CHRU of Caen, INSERM U1075, University of Caen, Normandy; Myology Institute (T.S., A.B., B.E.), Center of Research in Myology, APHP, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM UMRS974, CNRS FRE3617, Paris; Electromyography and Neuromuscular Department (C.V., F.B., P.P.), Neurologic Hospital, Lyon East Hospital Group, Lyon-Bron, France; Neuromuscular Center, Department of Neuroscience (M.C., E.P.), and Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health (L.S.), University of Padova, Italy; Institut Imagine, Imagine Bioinfomatics Platform (M.B.), Paris Descartes University; Département de Neurologie (A.E.-L.), Hôpitaux Universitaires, Strasbourg; Nord/Est/Ile de France Neuromuscular Center (P.L.), Neurology Department, Raymond Poincaré Teaching Hospital, Garches; INSERM U1179 (P.L.), END-ICAP, Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France; and IRP Città della Speranza (L.S.), Padova, Italy.

Objective: To compare the clinical features of patients showing a classical phenotype of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) with genetic and epigenetic characteristics of the FSHD1 and FSHD2 loci D4Z4 and .

Methods: This is a national multicenter cohort study. We measured motor strength, motor function, and disease severity by manual muscle testing sumscore, Brooke and Vignos scores, clinical severity score (CSS), and age-corrected CSS, respectively. We correlated these scores with genetic (D4Z4 repeat size and haplotype; variant status) and epigenetic (D4Z4 methylation) parameters.

Results: We included 103 patients: 54 men and 49 women. Among them, we identified 64 patients with FSHD1 and 20 patients with FSHD2. Seven patients had genetic and epigenetic characteristics of FSHD1 and FSHD2, all carrying repeats of 9-10 D4Z4 repeat units (RU) and a pathogenic variant. In the remaining patients, FSHD was genetically excluded or remained unconfirmed. All clinically affected mutation carriers had a D4Z4 repeat of 9-16 RU on a disease permissive 4qA haplotype. These patients are significantly more severely affected by all clinical scales when compared to patients with FSHD1 with upper-sized FSHD1 alleles (8-10 RU).

Conclusion: The overlap between FSHD1 and FSHD2 patients in the 9-10 D4Z4 RU range suggests that FSHD1 and FSHD2 form a disease continuum. The previously established repeat size threshold for FSHD1 (1-10 RU) and FSHD2 (11-20 RU) needs to be reconsidered.

Clinicaltrialsgov Identifier: NCT01970735.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537132PMC
May 2019

Hyperammonaemia following exercise may also reveal PGK1 deficiency.

J Clin Pathol 2019 Jun 27;72(6):452. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Paris-Est Neuromuscular Center, Institute of Myology, University Hospital Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2019-205750DOI Listing
June 2019

Phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency: A nationwide multicenter retrospective study.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 09 8;42(5):803-808. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Neurology Department, Hôpital Raymond Poincaré, Paris, France.

Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency is a rare X-linked metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the PGK1 gene. Patients usually develop various combinations of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (NSHA), myopathy, and central nervous system disorders. In this national multicenter observational retrospective study, we recorded all known French patients with PGK deficiency, and 3 unrelated patients were identified. Case 1 was a 32-year-old patient with severe chronic axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy resembling Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, mental retardation, microcephaly, ophthalmoplegia, pes cavus, and the new c.323G > A PGK1 hemizygous mutation. Case 2 was a 71-year-old patient with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis, and a c.943G > A PGK1 hemizygous mutation. Case 3 was a 48-year-old patient with NSHA, retinitis pigmentosa, mental retardation, seizures, stroke, parkinsonism, and a c.491A > T PGK1 hemizygous mutation. This study confirms that PGK deficiency is an extremely rare disorder with a wide phenotypic spectrum, and demonstrates for the first time that PGK deficiency may affect the peripheral nervous system and present as a CMT-like disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12087DOI Listing
September 2019

Congenital myopathies are mainly associated with a mild cardiac phenotype.

J Neurol 2019 Jun 14;266(6):1367-1375. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: To evaluate the prevalence of cardiac involvement in patients with congenital myopathies and the association to specific genotypes.

Methods: We evaluated patients with physical examination, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and 48-h Holter monitoring. Follow-up was performed for major events.

Results: We included 130 patients, 55 men (42%), with a mean age of 34 ± 17 years. A genetic diagnosis was established in 97 patients (75%). Right bundle branch block was observed in three patients: 2/34 patients with a ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) and 1/6 with a tropomyosin two gene (TPM2) gene mutation. Echocardiography showed left-ventricular hypertrophy in five patients: 2/17 and 3/34 patients with a Dynamin 2 (DNM2) and a RYR1 mutation, respectively. One patient with a myosin heavy-chain (MYH7) mutation had dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. On Holter monitoring, frequent ventricular premature contractions were observed in one patient with a DNM2 mutation. Two patients with a TPM2 and a RYR1 mutation, respectively, had a single short run of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia was observed in a 20-year-old man with an actin 1 gene mutation. During follow-up (median 8.4 years), four patients died, all of non-cardiac causes.

Conclusion: Congenital myopathies are generally associated with a mild cardiac phenotype. Our findings substantiate the literature and indicate that, except for patients with specific genotypes, such as MYH7 and TTN mutations, repeated cardiac assessments can be minimized, given a normal initial cardiac screening at time of diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09267-3DOI Listing
June 2019

Assessment of diaphragm motion using ultrasonography in a patient with facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Jan;98(4):e13887

Myology Institute, Pitié Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, Paris.

Rationale: Diaphragm is the main inspiratory respiratory muscle and little is known about diaphragm ultrasound in facio-scapula-humeral muscular dystrophy, a neuromuscular disease characterized by an asymmetric skeletal muscle involvement.

Patient Concerns: Diaphragm function evaluation DIAGNOSIS:: Diaphragm muscle weakness attested by the drop of vital capacity (VC) value from sitting position (74%) to supine position (46%).

Interventions: A diaphragm ultrasound was performed in supine position, from the anterior subcostal window OUTCOMES:: We found an opposite side to side hemi diaphragm displacement, either during sniff maneuver or during deep inspiration maneuver, showing a cranial abnormal reduced motion of the right hemi diaphragm whereas the left hemi diaphragm moved caudally.

Lessons: Diaphragm weakness may be present with an asymmetric pattern and an opposite motion during inspiration or sniff manoeuver in facio-scapula-humeral muscular dystrophy. A future study with a systematic evaluation of a greater number of FSHD1 patients will be necessary to characterize this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000013887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358327PMC
January 2019

Comprehensive evaluation of structural and functional myocardial impairments in Becker muscular dystrophy using quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Aug;20(8):906-915

Centre de Référence de Pathologie Neuromusculaire Nord/Est/Ile-de-France, Institute of Myology, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, 47-83 Boulevard Vincent Auriol, Paris, France.

Aims: Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a genetic neuromuscular disease characterized by an alteration of the dystrophin protein. Myocardial involvement is frequent, eventually progressing to a dilated cardiomyopathy, and represents the most common cause of death for this pathology. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of myocardial functional and structural alterations encountered in a large cohort of BMD patients using quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging.

Methods And Results: Eighty-eight BMD patients and 26 age-matched volunteers underwent standard cine and tag imaging to assess myocardial function and dyssynchrony, while native T1, T2, and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) were measured for tissue characterization. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF) was significantly reduced in 26% of the BMD patients. Patients exhibited higher dyssynchrony index than controls (6.94 ± 3.17 vs. 5.09 ± 1.25, P = 0.005). Diastolic dyssynchrony also exists in patients where systolic function was normal. BMD subjects, compared with controls, had significantly higher native T1, T2, and ECV (1183 ± 60 ms vs. 1164 ± 22 ms, 47.5 ± 4.5 ms vs. 45.6 ± 3.4 ms, 0.282 ± 0.050 vs. 0.231 ± 0.027, respectively, P < 0.05). Native T1, T2, and ECV correlated with LV-EF (R = -0.79, -0.70, and -0.71, respectively, P < 0.001) and N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (R = 0.51, 0.58, and 0.44, respectively, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Quantitative CMR represents a powerful tool to evaluate structural and functional impairments in the myocardium of BMD subjects. Native T1, T2, and ECV provided quantitative biomarkers related to inflammation and fibrosis, and could stratify disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jey209DOI Listing
August 2019

Anti-HMGCR myopathy may resemble limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2019 01 12;6(1):e523. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

National Institutes of Health (P.M., A.R.F., S.D., C.G.B.), NINDS, NNDCS, Bethesda, MD; Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology (O.L.-C., Y.A., O.B.), Sorbonne Universités, University Pierre et Marie et Curie, APHP, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France; National Institutes of Health (K.P., A.L.M.), NIAMS; National Institutes of Health (C.W., C.T.), NHGRI, UDP, Bethesda, MD; Department of Neurology (R.T.S.), University of Miami, Miami, FL; Department of Neurology (A.H.), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Division of Pediatric Neurology (P.F.), Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama, Birmingham; Department of Neurological Sciences (M.M.), Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL; Department of Neurology (D.D., A.L.M.), Department of Medicine (A.L.M.), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; AP-HP (A.B., B.E., T.S.), G-H Pitié-Salpêtrière, Institut de Myologie, Paris; and Neurology Department (P.L.), Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, APHP and INSERM U1179, END-ICAP, Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical features of anti-HMGCR myopathy among patients with presumed limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) in whom genetic testing has failed to elucidate causative mutations.

Methods: Patients with presumed LGMD and unrevealing genetic testing were selected based on a few clinico-pathologic features and tested for anti-HMGCR autoantibodies (n = 11). These clinico-pathologic features are peak creatine kinase (CK) greater than 1,000 IU/L and at least 3 of the following features: (1) limb-girdle pattern of weakness, (2) selective involvement of posterior thigh on clinical examination or muscle imaging, (3) dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy, and (4) no family history of muscular dystrophy.

Results: Six patients tested positive for anti-HMGCR autoantibodies. In 4, there was a presymptomatic phase, lasting as long as 10 years, characterized by elevated CK levels without weakness. Muscle biopsies revealed variable degrees of a dystrophic pathology without prominent inflammation. In an independent cohort of patients with anti-HMGCR myopathy, 17 of 51 (∼33%) patients were initially presumed to have a form of LGMD based on clinico-pathologic features but were ultimately found to have anti-HMGCR myopathy. Most of these patients responded favorably to immunomodulatory therapies, evidenced by reduction of CK levels and improved strength.

Conclusions: Anti-HMGCR myopathy can resemble LGMD. Diagnosis of patients with a LGMD-like presentation of anti-HMGCR myopathy is critical because these patients may respond favorably to immunotherapy, especially those with shorter disease duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292490PMC
January 2019

Echographic Assessment of Diaphragmatic Function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy from Childhood to Adulthood.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2019;6(1):55-64

Service de Réanimation msédicale et unité de ventilation à domicile, CHU Raymond Poincaré, APHP, Université de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Garches, France.

Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive genetic muscle disorder. Respiratory muscle function is classically affected in this disease. Ultrasound recently emerged as a non-invasive tool to assess diaphragm function. However, there are only a few studies using diaphragm ultrasound (US) in DMD.

Purpose: We aimed to assess diaphragm ultrasound patterns in DMD, their relationship with age and their association with home mechanical ventilation (HMV).

Methods: We included DMD patients followed at Raymond Poincaré Hospital who benefited from diaphragm ultrasound and pulmonary function tests.

Results: There were 110 DMD patients and 17 male sex-matched healthy subjects included. In all, 94% of patients were permanent wheelchair users. Median body mass index (BMI) was 18 kg/m2. DMD patients disclosed a reduced forced vital capacity (VC) (12% of predicted value), and 78% of patients were on HMV. In patients, right and left diaphragmatic motions on deep inspiration were reduced and end expiratory diaphragm thickness was borderline normal. In patients, right and left diaphragmatic thickening fractions (TF) were reduced 12.7% and 15.5%, respectively. Age and end expiratory thickness were significantly inversely associated (p = 0.005 for the right diaphragm, p = 0.018 for the left diaphragm). Diaphragm TF was significantly inversely associated with age (p = 0.001 for the right side, p < 0.0001 for the left side). Right and left inspiratory diaphragm motions were significantly inversely associated with age (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: This study describes the severity of diaphragm dysfunction in patients with DMD. Diaphragm US may be a non-invasive outcome measure for DMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-180326DOI Listing
January 2020

The spinal and cerebral profile of adult spinal-muscular atrophy: A multimodal imaging study.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 28;21:101618. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, INSERM, Laboratoire d'Imagerie Biomédicale, Paris, France; APHP, Département de Neurologie, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Centre référent SLA, Paris, France; Northern Ireland Centre for Stratified Medicine, Biomedical Sciences Research Institute Ulster University, C-TRIC, Altnagelvin Hospital, Derry, Londonderry, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type III and IV are autosomal recessive, slowly progressive lower motor neuron syndromes. Nevertheless, wider cerebral involvement has been consistently reported in mouse models. The objective of this study is the characterisation of spinal and cerebral pathology in adult forms of SMA using multimodal quantitative imaging.

Methods: Twenty-five type III and IV adult SMA patients and 25 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled in a spinal cord and brain imaging study. Structural measures of grey and white matter involvement and diffusion parameters of white matter integrity were evaluated at each cervical spinal level. Whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses were also conducted in the brain to explore cortical thickness, grey matter density and tract-based white matter alterations.

Results: In the spinal cord, considerable grey matter atrophy was detected between C2-C6 vertebral levels. In the brain, increased grey matter density was detected in motor and extra-motor regions of SMA patients. No white matter pathology was identified neither at brain and spinal level.

Conclusions: Adult forms of SMA are associated with selective grey matter degeneration in the spinal cord with preserved white matter integrity. The observed increased grey matter density in the motor cortex may represent adaptive reorganisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2018.101618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413472PMC
December 2019