Publications by authors named "Anshuman Desai"

5 Publications

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Duodenal mucosal secretory disturbances in functional dyspepsia.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 01 9;33(1):e13955. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: There is increased recognition of duodenal disturbances (inflammation, altered mucosal protein expression, and chemosensitivity) in functional dyspepsia (FD). Besides sensorimotor functions, enteric submucosal neurons also regulate epithelial ion transport. We hypothesized that duodenal mucosal ion transport and expression of associated genes are altered in FD.

Methods: Duodenal mucosal ion transport (basal and acetylcholine- and glucose-evoked changes in short-circuit current [Isc]) and expression of associated genes and regulatory miRNAs were evaluated in 40 FD patients and 24 healthy controls.

Results: Basal Isc (FD: 88.2 [52.6] μA/cm vs healthy: 20.3 [50.2] μA/cm ; P ≤ .0001), acetylcholine-evoked Isc (FD: Emax 50.4 [35.8] μA/cm vs healthy: 16.6 [15] μA/cm ; P ≤ .001), and glucose-evoked Isc responses (FD: E 69.8 [42.1] μA/cm vs healthy: 40.3 [24.6] μA/cm ; P = .02) were greater in FD than in controls. The Emax for glucose was greater in FD patients on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In FD, the mRNA expression of SLC4A7 and SLC4A4, which transport bicarbonate into cells at the basolateral surface, and the apical anion exchanger SLC26A3 were reduced (false discovery rate <0.05), the serotonin receptor HTR4 was increased, and the serotonin transporter SLC6A4 was decreased. Selected miRNAs (hsa-miR-590-3p, hsa-miR-32-5p) that target genes associated with ionic transport were upregulated in FD.

Conclusions: Compared to controls, FD patients had greater baseline and agonist-evoked duodenal mucosal secretory responses. These findings may be explained by reduced gene expression, which would be anticipated to reduce luminal bicarbonate secretion. The upregulated miRNAs may partly explain the downregulation of these genes in FD.
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January 2021

Association between allelic variants in the glucagon-like peptide 1 and cholecystokinin receptor genes with gastric emptying and glucose tolerance.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 01 5;32(1):e13724. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Nutrient-mediated release of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates gastric emptying (GE) via duodenogastric feedback mechanisms; GLP-1 also regulates postprandial insulin secretion. Some patients with functional upper gastrointestinal symptoms have impaired glucose tolerance during enteral dextrose infusion. Our hypothesis was that variants in CCK, GLP-1, and TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7-like 2 locus), which is associated with greatest genetic risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, are associated with GE and independently with glucose tolerance. Our aims were to evaluate the associations between these GE, glucose tolerance, and these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

Methods: Genetic variants, scintigraphic GE of solids, plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 during enteral dextrose infusion (75gm over 2 hours) were measured. GE and enteral dextrose infusion were, respectively, evaluated in 44 (27 controls and 17 patients with functional dyspepsia or nausea) and 42 (28 controls, 14 patients) participants; of these, 51 participants consented to assessment of SNPs. Four functional SNPs were studied: rs6923761 and rs1042044 at GLP-1 receptor, rs7903146 (TCF7L2), and rs1800857 (CCK receptor).

Key Results: Gastric emptying was normal in 38, rapid in 4, and delayed in two participants; 38 had normal, and four had impaired glucose tolerance. The T allele at rs7903146 (TCF7L2) was non-significantly associated (P = .14) with faster GE. The associations between SNPs and demographic variables, GE t , glucose tolerance and plasma GLP1 levels were not significant.

Conclusions & Inferences: There is a trend toward an association between faster GE and the diabetes-associated allele at rs7903146 in TCF7L2. However, these SNPs were not associated with plasma glucose or GLP1 concentrations during enteral dextrose infusion.
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January 2020

Utility of the plasma pancreatic polypeptide response to modified sham feeding in diabetic gastroenteropathy and non-ulcer dyspepsia.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 02 22;32(2):e13744. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (C.E.N.T.E.R.) Program, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: The relationship between cardiovascular and gastrointestinal (ie, plasma pancreatic polypeptide [PP] response to modified sham feeding [MSF]) indices of vagal function is unclear. Hyperglycemia inhibits PP secretion via vagally mediated mechanisms. Our aims were to (a) compare the PP response, (b) its relationship with glycemia, and (c) the relationship between PP response to MSF, gastric emptying (GE) of solids, and symptoms during GE study in healthy controls, patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy (DM), and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD).

Methods: In 24 healthy controls, 40 DM, and 40 NUD patients, we measured plasma PP concentrations during MSF, cardiovagal functions, GE, and symptoms during a GE study.

Key Results: Baseline PP concentrations were higher in DM than in controls and NUD (P = .01), and in type 2 than in type 1 DM patients (P < .01). The PP increment during MSF was normal (≥20 pg/mL) in 70% of controls, 54% of DM, and 47% of NUD patients. Overall, the PP response and cardiovagal tests were concordant (P = .01). Among patients with a reduced PP increment with MSF, 7/10 of T1DM and 1/7 of T2DM patients had moderate or severe cardiovagal dysfunctions (P < .05). The PP response to MSF was not associated with GE.

Conclusions & Inferences: Up to 30% of healthy controls have a reduced PP increment during MSF, limiting the utility of this test to detect vagal injury. The PP response is more useful when it is normal than abnormal. A reduced PP response is more likely to be associated with cardiovagal dysfunctions in T1DM than in T2DM.
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February 2020

Relationship between symptoms during a gastric emptying study and intestinal chemosensitivity with daily symptoms.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 10 21;31(10):e13686. Epub 2019 Jul 21.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) is a heterogeneous disorder, which is characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms and sensorimotor disturbances, including abnormal gastric emptying (GE) and increased intestinal chemosensitivity, and associated with greater plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels during duodenal lipid infusion. However, the relationship(s) between these disturbances and daily symptoms in NUD is variable. We hypothesize that abnormal GE and symptoms during a GE study and during duodenal lipid infusion are associated with the severity of daily symptoms and that GLP-1 mediates symptoms during duodenal lipid infusion in NUD.

Methods: Gastric emptying of solids, symptoms during the GE study and duodenal lipid infusion, and daily gastrointestinal symptoms (2 week diary) were measured in 24 healthy controls and 40 NUD patients. During duodenal lipid infusion, participants received the GLP-1 antagonist exendin 9-39 or placebo.

Key Results: In controls and patients, GE of solids was normal in 75% and 75%, delayed in 8% and 12.5%, or rapid in 17% and 12.5%, respectively. No controls but 26 patients (65%) had severe symptoms during the GE study. During lipid infusion, gastrointestinal symptoms were greater (P = .001) in patients and not affected by exendin. Symptoms during GE study and lipid infusion accounted for respectively 62% and 37% of variance in daily symptom severity.

Conclusions: In NUD, symptoms during a GE study and to a lesser extent during lipid infusion explain the variance in daily symptoms. Intestinal chemosensitivity is not reduced by GLP-1 antagonist. Assessment of symptoms during a GE study may provide a useful biomarker for NUD in research and clinical practice.
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October 2019

GI Dysfunctions in Diabetic Gastroenteropathy, Their Relationships With Symptoms, and Effects of a GLP-1 Antagonist.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 06;104(6):1967-1977

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Context: Delayed gastric emptying (GE) is common but often asymptomatic in diabetes. The relationship between symptoms, glycemia, and neurohormonal functions, including glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP-1), are unclear.

Objectives: To assess whether GE disturbances, symptoms during a GE study, and symptoms during enteral lipid infusion explain daily symptoms and whether GLP-1 mediates symptoms during enteral lipid infusion.

Design: In this randomized controlled trial, GE, enteral lipid infusion, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during these assessments, autonomic functions, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and daily GI symptoms (2-week Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index diary) were evaluated. During enteral lipid infusion, participants received the GLP-1 antagonist exendin 9-39 or placebo.

Setting: Single tertiary referral center.

Participants: 24 healthy controls and 40 patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy.

Main Outcome Measures: GE, symptoms during enteral lipid infusion, and the effect of exendin 9-39 on the latter.

Results: In patients, GE was normal (55%), delayed (33%), or rapid (12%). During lipid infusion, GI symptoms tended to be greater (P = 0.06) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than controls; exendin 9-39 did not affect symptoms. The HbA1c was inversely correlated with the mean symptom score during the GE study (r = -0.46, P = 0.003) and lipid infusion (r = -0.47, P < 0.01). GE and symptoms during GE study accounted for 40% and 32%, respectively, of the variance in daily symptom severity and quality of life.

Conclusions: In DM gastroenteropathy, GE and symptoms during a GE study explain daily symptoms. Symptoms during enteral lipid infusion were borderline increased but not reduced by a GLP-1 antagonist.
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June 2019