Publications by authors named "Anselm K Gitt"

99 Publications

Lipid-lowering treatment and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target achievement in patients with type 2 diabetes and acute coronary syndrome.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Oct 29;113(10):617-629. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Stiftung Institut für Herzinfarktforschung, 67063 Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Germany; Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen, Medizinische Klinik B, 67063 Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Germany.

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus characteristically display an atherogenic lipid profile with high triglyceride concentrations, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations not always elevated. It is unclear if patients with diabetes who present with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receive different or more-potent lipid-lowering therapy (LLT).

Aims: To investigate lipid abnormalities in patients with and without type 2 diabetes hospitalised for an ACS, and use of LLT before admission and 4 months after the event.

Methods: Patients were included in the observational DYSIS II study if they were hospitalised for an ACS and had a full lipid profile.

Results: Of 3803 patients, diabetes was documented in 1344 (54.7%). Compared to patients without diabetes, those with diabetes had a lower mean LDL-C (101.2 vs. 112.0mg/dL; 2.6 vs. 2.9mmol/L; P<0.0001), with a greater proportion attaining concentrations<70mg/dL (1.8mmol/L) (23.9% vs. 16.0%; P<0.0001) and<55mg/dL (1.4mmol/L) (11.3% vs. 7.3%; P<0.0001), a higher mean triglyceride concentration (139.0 vs. 121.0mg/dL; 1.6 vs. 1.4mmol/L; P<0.0001) and a lower HDL-C concentration. LLT was more commonly given to patients with diabetes (77.5% vs. 58.8%; P<0.0001); there were no differences in types of therapy prescribed. Four months after hospitalisation, most patients from both groups were being treated with LLT (predominantly statin monotherapy).

Conclusions: Despite the different lipid profiles, the type of LLT prescribed did not vary depending on the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes. There was no difference in LLT in patients with and without diabetes at 4-month follow-up, except for fibrates, which were used in 2% of patients with and 1% of patients without diabetes. Statin monotherapy of intermediate potency was the predominant treatment in both groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2020.05.013DOI Listing
October 2020

Dyslipidemia and Rate of Under-Target Low-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease in Korea.

J Lipid Atheroscler 2019 Sep 12;8(2):242-251. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate under target rates of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in Korean patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in real world practice.

Methods: Dyslipidemia International Study II was an international observational study of patients with stable CAD or an ACS. Lipid profiles and use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) were documented at enrollment, and for the ACS cohort, 4 months follow-up was recommended. Rates of under target LDL-C as per European guidelines, were evaluated, and multivariate regression was performed to identify predictive factors of patients presenting under the target.

Results: A total of 808 patients were enrolled in Korea, 500 with stable CAD and 308 with ACS. Of these, 90.6% and 52.6% were being treated with LLT, respectively. In the stable CAD group, 40.0% were under target LDL-C, while in ACS group, the rate was 23.7%. A higher statin dose was independently associated with under target LDL-C in both groups (OR, 1.03; =0.046 [stable CAD] and OR, 1.05; =0.01 [ACS]). The mean statin dosage (atorvastatin equivalent) was 17 mg/day. In the 79 ACS patients who underwent the follow-up examination, the LDL-C under target rate rose to 59.5%.

Conclusion: Only a minority of patients with stable CAD or ACS were under their target LDL-C level at enrollment. The statin dose was not sufficient in the majority of patients. These results indicate a considerable LLT gap in Korean patients with established CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12997/jla.2019.8.2.242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7379120PMC
September 2019

The COVID-19 Registry in Rhineland-Palatinate in the context of international registry activities documenting COVID-19 outcomes.

Herz 2020 Jun;45(4):316-318

Universitätsklinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin III, Universitätsklinikum Halle (Saale) der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06120, Halle (Saale), Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00059-020-04928-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181104PMC
June 2020

Comparison of current German and European practice in cardiac resynchronization therapy: lessons from the ESC/EHRA/HFA CRT Survey II.

Clin Res Cardiol 2020 Jul 6;109(7):832-844. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Teutoburger Straße 50, 33604, Bielefeld, Germany.

Introduction: The European CRT Survey II was introduced to offer insights into CRT implantation practice in Europe. We compared the national data from the participating German centres with that of the other European countries with regard to differences in patient selection, implant results, and initial properties.

Methods And Results: 11,088 patients were enrolled in 288 centres from 42 countries between 2015 and 2017. Of these, 675 (6.1%) were included in 17 centres in Germany. Patients from Germany were older, had more comorbidities and more symptoms of heart failure (HF) than patients from other European countries. There were no differences with regard to HF aetiology and guideline-directed medical treatment was overall well implemented. There was a high use of CRT in patients with atrial fibrillation, even higher in German patients. CRT was most often applied due to HF with wide QRS complex (class I recommendation) but with relatively higher frequency in Germany due to HF with primary indication for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (class IIb) or a pacemaker with expected pacing dependency (class I). The overall implant success rate was high with some differences in the implant procedure. The use of remote monitoring was lower in Germany.

Conclusion: This analysis from the European CRT Survey II overall shows good guideline adherence, high implantation success and a low rate of complications in daily practice. There are some regional differences in baseline characteristics, CRT indication, and procedural aspects. The use of remote monitoring in Germany lags behind other European countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-019-01574-zDOI Listing
July 2020

Prevalence of Lipid Abnormalities and Cholesterol Target Value Attainment in Patients with Stable and Acute Coronary Heart Disease in the United Arab Emirates.

Heart Views 2019 Apr-Jun;20(2):37-46

Foundation Institute for Myocardial Infarction Research, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Background: Careful management of lipid abnormalities in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) or an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can reduce the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. The extent of hyperlipidemia in these very high-risk patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), along with the treatment strategies employed, is not clear.

Methods: The Dyslipidemia International Study II was a multinational observational analysis carried out from 2012 to 2014. Patients were enrolled if they had either stable CHD or an ACS. Patient characteristics, lipid levels, and use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) were recorded at enrollment. For the ACS patients, the LLT used during the 4 months' follow-up period was documented, as were any cardiovascular events.

Results: A total of 416 patients were recruited from two centers in the UAE, 216 with stable CHD and 200 hospitalized with an ACS. Comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors were extremely common. A low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of <70 mg/dl, recommended for patients at very high cardiovascular risk, was attained by 39.3% of the LLT-treated CHD patients and 33.3% of the LLT-treated ACS patients at enrollment. The mean atorvastatin-equivalent daily statin dose was 29 ± 15 mg for the CHD patients, with 13.7% additionally using ezetimibe. For the ACS patients, the daily dosage was 23 ± 13 mg at admission, rising to 39 ± 12 mg by the end of the 4-month follow-up. The use of nonstatin agents was extremely low in this group.

Conclusions: Despite LLT being widely used, hyperlipidemia was found to be prevalent in ACS and CHD patients in the UAE. Treatment strategies need to be significantly improved to reduce the rate of cardiovascular events in these very high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_32_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686608PMC
August 2019

Effect of renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus on in-hospital mortality after acute coronary syndromes treated with primary PCI. Results from the ALKK PCI Registry.

Int J Cardiol 2019 10 25;292:43-49. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Herzzentrum Ludwigshafen, Department of Cardiology, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Germany.

Background: It is known that patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are at higher risk for in-hospital adverse events. However, we hypothesized that the higher event rate is due to the patients' subgroup with renal failure (RF), a common sequel of DM.

Methods And Results: We used data of the prospective ALKK-PCI registry including all consecutive percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) for ACS of 48 hospitals between 2008 and 2013. We divided 69,651 patients in four groups according to their history of DM and RF (GFR < 60 ml/min). All-cause, in-hospital mortality of the following four groups: noDM/noRF, DM/noRF, DM/RF, RF/noDM, was: 3.5%, 6.6%, 21.9%, and 14.1% for STEMI and 1.5%, 2.1%, 7.2%, and 5.4% for NSTE-ACS. In a multivariate analysis we looked for independent mortality-predictors. Odds ratios with confidence intervals for the following variables: DM without RF, DM with RF, RF without DM were: 1.62 (1.37-1.90), 3.02 (2.43-3.76), and 2.13 (1.80-2.52) for STEMI and 1.20 (0.99-1.45), 2.72 (2.18-3.88), and 2.08 (1.69-2.56) for NSTE-ACS. We also calculated mortality in four groups (60-90, 45-60, 45-30, <30 ml/min) according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Mortality rates were: 5.0%, 12.8%, 17.7%, and 31.5% for STEMI and 2.1%, 3.8%, 7.1%, and 12.0% for NSTE-ACS (p for trend <0.0001 for both).

Conclusions: In-hospital death after PCI in patients with ACS and DM is mainly observed in the subgroup with co-existing RF. In a multivariate analysis, DM without RF was a significant mortality-predictor in STEMI, but not in NSTE-ACS. RF, irrespective of co-existent DM, was a stronger predictor than DM alone for both ACS-types (OR > 3) and mortality increased with decreasing eGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.04.071DOI Listing
October 2019

Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Target Attainment in Patients Surviving an Acute Coronary Syndrome in Thailand: Results From the Dyslipidaemia International Study (DYSIS) II.

Heart Lung Circ 2020 Mar 28;29(3):405-413. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Stiftung Institut für Herzinfarktforschung, Ludwigshafen, Germany; Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen, Medizinische Klinik B, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Background: Patients suffering an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at increased risk for future cardiovascular events. Effective management of hyperlipidaemia in such patients is essential. We aimed to document the use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target achievement in patients hospitalised with an ACS in Thailand.

Methods: The Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS) II was a multinational, observational study that enrolled patients over 18 years of age who were hospitalised with an ACS in 2013-2014 and survived until discharge. Patients were analysed according to whether or not they were treated with LLT prior to hospital admission. A lipid profile was carried forward from blood taken within the first 24 hours after admission, and attainment of the LDL-C target of <70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L) for very high-risk subjects was reported. Details of LLTs were collected. Lipid levels, LLT use and cardiovascular events since discharge were collected at a follow-up interview 4 months later.

Results: A total of 320 ACS patients were enrolled from seven sites across Thailand, 188 (58.8%) of whom were being treated with LLT prior to the acute event. The mean LDL-C levels of the LLT and no LLT patients were 106.2 ± 39.4 mg/dL (2.75 ± 1.02 mmol/L) and 139.8 ± 46.6 mg/dL (3.62 ± 1.21), respectively, with 15.4% and 4.5% having an LDL-C level below 70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L). Lipid-lowering therapy consisted mainly of statins, with an atorvastatin-equivalent daily dosage of 17 ± 13 mg/day. At the 4-month follow-up, LDL-C target attainment remained low at 26.7% for the initial LLT group and 24.1% for the no LLT group. Although most patients were being treated with LLT at this point, the dosage was still low (28 ± 16 mg/day) and there was little use of combination therapy.

Conclusion: In this cohort of Thai ACS patients, LDL-C levels were highly elevated, placing them at extreme risk of recurrent adverse cardiovascular events. Lipid-lowering therapy was widely used after the ACS; however, treatment was rarely optimised. Huge improvements are required in the management of hyperlipidaemia in Thailand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2019.02.193DOI Listing
March 2020

Cholesterol goal achievement and lipid-lowering therapy in patients with stable or acute coronary heart disease in Singapore: results from the Dyslipidemia International Study II.

Singapore Med J 2019 Sep 18;60(9):454-462. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Herzzentrum Ludwigshafen, Cardiology, Stiftung Institut für Herzinfarktforschung, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Introduction: Dyslipidaemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). There is a lack of data on the extent of lipid abnormalities and lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) in Singapore.

Methods: The Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS) II was a multinational observational study of patients with stable CHD and hospitalised patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A full lipid profile and use of LLT were documented at baseline, and for the ACS cohort, at four months post-hospitalisation.

Results: 325 patients were recruited from four sites in Singapore; 199 had stable CHD and 126 were hospitalised with an ACS. At baseline, 96.5% of the CHD cohort and 66.4% of the ACS cohort were being treated with LLT. In both cohorts, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were lower for the treated than the non-treated patients; accordingly, a higher proportion of patients met the LDL-C goal of < 70 mg/dL (CHD: 28.1% vs. 0%, p = 0.10; ACS: 20.2% vs. 0%, p < 0.01). By the four-month follow-up, a higher proportion of the ACS patients that were originally not treated with LLT had met the LDL-C goal (from 0% to 54.5%), correlating with the increased use of medication. However, there was negligible improvement in the patients who were treated prior to the ACS.

Conclusion: Dyslipidaemia is a significant concern in Singapore, with few patients with stable or acute CHD meeting the recommended European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society goal. LLT was widely used but not optimised, indicating considerable scope for improved management of these very-high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2019021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911083PMC
September 2019

Incidence and outcome of peri-procedural cardiogenic shock: results from the international Euro Heart Survey PCI registry.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2020 Mar 8;9(2):120-127. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Cardiology, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Germany.

Background: There is a large body of literature on acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. However, very little is known about patients who are initially haemodynamically stable and develop cardiogenic shock during percutaneous coronary intervention.

Methods: A total of 47,407 consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled in the PCI Registry of the Euro Heart Survey Programme. We analysed interventions with peri-procedural complications that were classified as 'shock induced by procedure' on the case report form. Clinical and procedural characteristics as well as hospital outcomes of haemodynamically stable patients who developed cardiogenic shock during percutaneous coronary intervention were evaluated. Patients with haemodynamic instability at presentation prior to intervention were excluded.

Results: A total of 68 patients (0.2%) developed cardiogenic shock as a complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. The majority of cases comprised acute coronary syndrome (60.3%) with complex lesions (93.1%). Most patients had multi-vessel disease (82.1%) and an ejection fraction less than 40% (58.1%). In the multivariate analysis, left main disease (odds ratio (OR) 9.51), ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (OR 5.31) and multi-vessel disease without left main involvement (OR 3.32) were the strongest independent predictors of peri-procedural cardiogenic shock. Among these patients procedural success was low (66.1%) and in-hospital mortality was very high (39.7%).

Conclusions: In this real-world registry the rate of haemodynamically stable patients who developed cardiogenic shock during percutaneous coronary intervention was very low. Patients at a priori high risk were more likely to be affected by this complication. The in-hospital mortality rate of these patients was very high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872618822460DOI Listing
March 2020

Comparison of quality of life measurements: EQ-5D-5L versus disease/treatment-specific measures in pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis.

Qual Life Res 2019 May 3;28(5):1155-1177. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Introduction: There is a lack of performance comparisons of the generic quality of life tool EQ-5D-5L against disease- and treatment-specific measures in venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this study was to compare EQ-5D-5L against the pulmonary embolism (PE)-specific PEmb-QoL and the deep vein thrombosis (DVT)-specific VEINES-QOL/Sym, and PACT-Q2 (treatment-specific) questionnaires in five language settings.

Methods: PREFER in VTE was a non-interventional disease registry conducted between 2013 and 2014 in primary and secondary care across seven European countries with five languages, including English, French, German, Italian and Spanish. Consecutive patients with acute PE/DVT were enrolled and followed over 12 months. Only patients who completed all three questionnaires at baseline were included in the study sample. The psychometric properties examined included acceptability (missing, ceiling and floor effects), validity (convergent and known-groups validity), and responsiveness. Known groups validity and responsiveness were assessed using both effect size (Cohen's d) and relative efficiency (F-statistic). All analyses were conducted in each language version and the total sample across all languages.

Results: A total of 1054 PE and 1537 DVT patients were included. 14% of PE and 10% of DVT patients had the maximum EQ-5D-5L index score. EQ-5D-5L was low to moderately correlated with other measures (r < 0.5). EQ-5D-5L was associated with larger effect size/relative efficiency in most of known group comparisons in both VTE groups. Similar results were observed for responsiveness. EQ-5D-5L performed relatively better in French, Italian and Spanish language versions.

Conclusion: Overall EQ-5D-5L is comparable to PEmb-QoL, VEINES-QOL/Sym and PACT-Q2 in terms of acceptability, validity and responsiveness in both PE and DVT populations in English, French, German, Italian and Spanish language version. Nevertheless, it should be noted that each measure is designed to capture different aspects of health-related quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-2081-3DOI Listing
May 2019

Predictors of LDL-cholesterol target value attainment differ in acute and chronic coronary heart disease patients: Results from DYSIS II Europe.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2018 12 18;25(18):1966-1976. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

6 Stiftung Institut für Herzinfarktforschung, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Background: Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and survivors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at very high risk for adverse cardiovascular events. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) can reduce the risk, with effective lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) readily available; however, dyslipidemia remains prevalent throughout Europe.

Design: The observational Dyslipidemia International Study II (DYSIS II) aimed to identify unmet treatment needs in adult ACS and CHD patients. Data for the seven participating European countries are presented herein.

Methods: The study was carried out from December 2012 to November 2014. Use of LLT and attainment of European-guideline-recommended LDL-C targets were assessed. For ACS patients, changes in lipid levels and LLT were evaluated 4 months post-hospitalization.

Results: Of the 4344 patients enrolled, 2946 were attending a physician visit for the assessment of stable CHD, while 1398 had been hospitalized for an ACS event. In both patient sets, mean LDL-C levels were high (89.5 and 112.5 mg/dl, respectively) and <70 mg/dl target attainment extremely poor. The mean daily statin dosage (normalized to atorvastatin potency) was 27 ± 20 mg for CHD and 22 ± 17 mg for ACS patients. Treatment was intensified slightly for ACS subjects after hospitalization, with the dosage reaching 35 ± 24 mg/day. LDL-C target attainment was higher by the end of the 4-month follow up (30.9% and 41.5% for patients on LLT and without LLT at baseline, respectively; p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Elevated blood cholesterol levels are highly prevalent across Europe, with low numbers of coronary patients reaching their recommended LDL-C target. While use of LLT is widespread, there is significant scope for intensifying treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487318806359DOI Listing
December 2018

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target attainment in patients with stable or acute coronary heart disease in the Asia-Pacific region: results from the Dyslipidemia International Study II.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2018 12 10;25(18):1950-1963. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

7 Stiftung Institut für Herzinfarktforschung, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Background: As mortality due to cardiovascular disease increases throughout the world, accurate data on risk factors such as hyperlipidemia are required. This is lacking in the Asia-Pacific region.

Design: The observational Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS) II was established to quantify the extent of hyperlipidemia in adults with acute and stable coronary heart disease globally.

Methods: Patients with stable coronary heart disease or hospitalised with an acute coronary syndrome were enrolled across nine Asia-Pacific countries from July 2013 to October 2014. Lipid-lowering therapy and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target attainment (<70 mg/dL) were assessed. The acute coronary syndrome cohort was followed up 4 months post-discharge.

Results: Of the 4592 patients enrolled, 2794 had stable coronary heart disease and 1798 were admitted with an acute coronary syndrome. In the coronary heart disease cohort, the mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 86.9 mg/dL, with 91.7% using lipid-lowering therapy and 31% achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of less than 70 mg/dL. In the acute coronary syndrome cohort at admission, the corresponding values were 103.2 mg/dL, 63.4% and 23.0%, respectively. Target attainment was significantly higher in lipid-lowering therapy-treated than non-treated patients in each cohort (32.6% vs. 12.9% and 31.1% vs. 9.0%, respectively). Mean atorvastatin-equivalent dosages were low (20 ± 15 and 22 ± 18 mg/day, respectively), with little use of non-statin adjuvants (13.0% and 6.8%, respectively). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target attainment had improved by follow-up for the acute coronary syndrome patients, but remained low (41.7%).

Conclusions: Many patients in Asia at very high risk of recurrent cardiovascular events had a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level above the recommended target. Although lipid-lowering therapy was common, it was not used to its full potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487318798927DOI Listing
December 2018

Prevalence of lipid abnormalities and cholesterol target value attainment in Egyptian patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome.

Egypt Heart J 2018 Sep 22;70(3):129-134. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Stiftung Institut für Herzinfarktforschung, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Background: Effective management of hyperlipidemia is of utmost importance for prevention of recurring cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Indeed, guidelines recommend a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level of <70 mg/dL for such patients. The Dyslipidemia International Study II (DYSIS II) - Egypt was initiated in order to quantify the prevalence and extent of hyperlipidemia in patients presenting with an ACS in Egypt.

Methods: In this prospective, observational study, we documented patients presenting with an ACS at either of two participating centers in Egypt between November 2013 and September 2014. Individuals were included if they were over 18 years of age, had a full lipid profile available (recorded within 24 h of admission), and had either been taking lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) for ≥3 months at time of enrollment or had not taken LLT. Data regarding lipid levels and LLT were recorded on admission to hospital and at follow-up 4 months later.

Results: Of the 199 patients hospitalized for an ACS that were enrolled, 147 were on LLT at admission. Mean LDL-C at admission was 127.1 mg/dL, and was not significantly different between users and non-users of LLT. Only 4.0% of patients had an LDL-C level of <70 mg/dL, with the median distance to this target being 61.0 mg/dL. For the patients with LDL-C information available at both admission and follow-up, LDL-C target attainment rose from 2.8% to 5.6%. Most of the LLT-treated patients received statin monotherapy (98.6% at admission and 97.3% at follow-up), with the mean daily statin dose (normalized to atorvastatin) increasing from admission (30 mg/day) to follow-up (42 mg/day).

Conclusions: DYSIS II revealed alarming LDL-C goal attainment, with none of the patients with follow-up information available reaching the target of LDL-C <70 mg/dL, either at hospital admission or 4 months after their ACS event. Improvements in guideline adherence are urgently needed for reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease in Egypt. Strategies include the effective use of statins at high doses, or combination with other agents recommended by guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ehj.2018.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6123296PMC
September 2018

Do acute coronary events affect lipid management and cholesterol goal attainment in Germany? : Results from the Dyslipidemia International study II.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2018 Dec 3;130(23-24):707-715. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

Objective: To document utilization of lipid-lowering therapy, attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target values, and cardiovascular outcomes in patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome in Germany.

Methods: The Dyslipidemia International Study II was a multicenter, observational study of the prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipid target value attainment in patients surviving any acute coronary syndrome event. Among patients on lipid-lowering therapy for ≥3 months, use of lipid-lowering therapy and lipid profiles were assessed at admission and again at 120 ± 15 days after admission (the follow-up time point). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify variables predictive of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target value attainment in patients using lipid-lowering therapy.

Results: A total of 461 patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome were identified, 270 (58.6%) of whom were on lipid-lowering therapy at admission. Among patients on lipid-lowering therapy, 90.7% and 85.9% were receiving statin monotherapy at admission and follow-up, respectively. Mean (SD) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients on lipid-lowering therapy were 101 (40) mg/dl and 95 (30) mg/dl at admission and follow-up, respectively. In patients with data at both admission and follow-up (n = 61), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target value attainment rates were the same (19.7%) at both time points. Smoking was associated with a 77% lower likelihood of attaining the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target value.

Conclusion: Hospitalization for an acute event does not greatly alter lipid management in acute coronary syndrome patients in Germany. Both lipid-lowering therapy doses and rates of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target value attainment remained essentially the same several months after the event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-018-1375-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290720PMC
December 2018

Prevalence of lipid abnormalities and cholesterol target value attainment in patients with stable coronary heart disease or an acute coronary syndrome in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Med J 2018 Jul;39(7):697-704

Al Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Al Hada Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail.

Objectives: To provide an overview of the extent of hyperlipidemia in very high-risk patients, and how lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) is used in a real-world setting. Methods: In this multicenter observational study, data were collected from LLT-treated patients with stable CHD or an ACS in Saudi Arabia between 2013 and 2014. Individuals were included if they were greater than 18 years and had a full lipid profile available, recorded either prior to the baseline physician visit (CHD patients) or within 24-hours of admission to hospital (ACS patients).  Results: A total of 737 patients were included in the study, 597 with stable CHD and 140 with ACS. Few patients in either group had an LDL-C level of greater than 70 mg/dl, which is advocated for very high-risk patients (24.3% and 11.4%, respectively). The median distances to this value were 19.0 mg/dl (CHD) and 25.0 mg/dl (ACS). Low doses of statins were being utilized (31 and 24 mg/day for CHD and ACS, respectively), with only minimal intensification for the ACS patients after hospital admission (41 mg/day at follow-up). Conclusions: Achievement of recommended LDL-C levels was poor for patients with stable CHD or an ACS. Statin intensity was low, indicating huge scope for intensifying the treatment of these very high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15537/smj.2018.7.22146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146262PMC
July 2018

Use of guideline-recommended management in established coronary heart disease in the observational DYSIS II study.

Int J Cardiol 2018 Nov 6;270:21-27. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Herzzentrum Ludwigshafen, Germany; Institut für Herzinfarktforschung Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Background: Guidelines recommend lifestyle modification and medications to control risk factors in coronary heart disease (CHD). Using data from the observational DYSIS II study, we sought to evaluate the use of guideline-recommended treatments at discharge for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or in the chronic phase for CHD, and participation in rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs.

Methods And Results: Between 2013 and 2014, 10,661 patients (3867 with ACS, 6794 with stable CHD) were enrolled in 332 primary and secondary care centers in 18 countries (Asia, Europe, Middle East). Patients with incident ACS were younger and more likely to be smokers than patients with recurrent ACS or stable CHD (both p < 0.0001). Sedentary lifestyle was common (44.4% of ACS patients; 44.2% of stable CHD patients); 22.8% of ACS patients and 24.3% of stable CHD patients were obese. Prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<40 mg/dL in men/50 mg/dL in women) was 46.9% in chronic CHD and 55.0% in ACS. Rates of secondary prevention medications were lower among CHD versus ACS (all p < 0.0001): antiplatelet 94.3% vs 98.0%, beta-blocker 72.0% vs 80.0%, lipid-lowering therapy 94.7 vs 97.5%, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers 69.4% vs 73.7%, respectively. Attendance at cardiac rehabilitation (16.8% of patients with a first ACS, 10.8% with recurrent ACS) or a secondary prevention program (3.7% of ACS and 11.7% of stable CHD patients) was infrequent.

Conclusions: The high prevalence of risk factors in all CHD patients and reduced rates of secondary prevention medications in stable CHD offer areas for improvement.

Translational Aspects: The findings of DYSIS II may reinforce the importance of adopting a healthy lifestyle and prescribing (by clinicians) and adhering (by patients) to evidence-based medications in the management of CHD, not only during the short term but also over the longer term after a cardiac ischemic event. The results may help to increase the proportion of ACS patients who are referred to cardiac rehabilitation centres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.06.008DOI Listing
November 2018

Available oral lipid-lowering agents could bring most high-risk patients to target: an estimate based on the Dyslipidemia International Study II-Italy.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2018 Sep;19(9):485-490

Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti di Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Aims: The analysis evaluated the contemporary percentage of patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD) reaching the European guidelines recommended LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of less than 70 mg/dl and the threshold required for proprotein convertase subtlisin/kexin type 9 reimbursement in Italy (100 mg/dl). It also assessed how these percentages would change in case of diffuse use of ezetimibe.

Methods: The Dyslipidemia International Study II enrolled CHD patients aged at least 18 either on lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) for at least 3 months or not on LLT at the time of the lipid profile. Distribution of LLTs and LDL-C target attainment were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression evaluated predictors of LDL-C target attainment. A 24% LDL-C lowering was modeled in patients not taking ezetimibe to assess its potential effects.

Results: Among 676 Italian CHD patients enrolled, LDL-C concentrations were lower among the 631 patients (93.3%) who were on LLT (82 versus 118 mg/dl; P < 0.001). The LDL-C target was attained by 35.4% of patients. Statin dose (median atorvastatin dose 40 mg/day) was the sole significant predictor of LDL-C target attainment. The simple addition of ezetimibe in the model reduced the percentage of patients more than 70 and 100 mg/dl from 64.6 to 37.9% and from 25.1 to 11.8%, respectively.

Conclusion: Despite treatment in more than 90%, only one-third of Italian stable CHD patients attained the recommended LDL-C target. Statin dose was the sole predictor of the target achievement. The addition of ezetimibe would almost double patients at target and halve the potential candidates for reimbursement of more expensive agents such as proprotein convertase subtlisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000000680DOI Listing
September 2018

Contemporary data on treatment practices for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 6794 patients with stable coronary heart disease across the world.

Data Brief 2018 Jun 1;18:1937-1940. Epub 2018 May 1.

Merck&Co, Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

DYSIS II CHD was a longitudinal, observational study in 6794 patients from 18 countries. They were attending an outpatient physician appointment for coronary heart disease (CHD). 6370 patients (93.8%) were on active lipid lowering therapy (LLT). The mean atorvastatin dose equivalent was 25 mg per day and 10.5% received ezetimibe in combination with a statin. The mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level was 88 mg/dL, with 29.4% of patients displaying a level below the 70 mg/dL target for very high-risk subjects.

Conclusion: While more than 90% of patients with CHD were on lipid lowering drugs, only three out of ten patients achieved their LDL-C target value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.04.092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5998213PMC
June 2018

Body mass index impacts the choice of lipid-lowering treatment with no correlation to blood cholesterol - Findings from 52 916 patients in the Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS).

Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 11 10;20(11):2670-2674. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

CGH Medical Center, Sterling, Illinois.

A high body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We sought to identify whether BMI influences the choice of lipid-lowering treatment in a large, real-world cohort of 52 916 patients treated with statins. The Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS) is a cross-sectional, observational, multicentre study in statin-treated patients ≥45 years of age from 30 countries; 1.1% were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m ), 33.1% had normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m ), 41.5% were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m ), 17.1% had class I obesity (BMI 30.0-34.9 kg/m ), 5.0% had class II obesity (BMI 35-39.9 kg/m ), and 2.1% had class III obesity (≥40 kg/m ). BMI correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (Spearman's ρ: -0.147 and 0.170, respectively; P < 0.0001 for both); however, there was no correlation with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; ρ: 0.003; P = 0.51). Statin intensity increased with increasing BMI (ρ: 0.13; P < 0.001), an association that held after adjustment for comorbidities (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 2.0-3.0) on BMI ≥ 30 kg/m for atorvastatin equivalent ≥40 mg/d.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.13415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220851PMC
November 2018

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target achievement in patients surviving an acute coronary syndrome in Hong Kong and Taiwan - findings from the Dyslipidemia International Study II.

Int J Cardiol 2018 08;265:1-5

Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen, Medizinische Klinik B, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Background: Individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular events following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Effective management of hyperlipidemia, an associated risk factor, is essential for improving outcomes. We aimed to quantify the extent of hyperlipidemia and its treatment in ACS survivors in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Methods: The multinational, observational Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS) II included patients hospitalized for an ACS. Lipid levels and use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) were evaluated at baseline and 4 months post-discharge. The proportions of patients attaining the recommended LDL-C target for individuals at very high cardiovascular risk (<70 mg/dL) was assessed and potential predictors of this outcome evaluated.

Results: In total, 270 patients were enrolled, 125 (46.3%) of which were being treated with LLT prior to hospitalization. Of these, 28.8% had an LDL-C level < 70 mg/dL, compared to only 6.9% of those not being treated. Statin monotherapy was the most commonly employed LLT, with a mean atorvastatin-equivalent dosage of 14 mg/day. By 4-month follow-up, target attainment had risen to 45.1% for patients treated with LLT at baseline, and 43.3% for those who had not been treated. LLT was being used by 88.4% of patients at follow-up, with a mean atorvastatin dosage of 18 mg/day. Use of statins in combination with ezetimibe/other non-statin was scarce. No predictors of LDL-C target attainment were identified.

Conclusions: In patients hospitalized with an ACS, rates of LDL-C target achievement were poor. While LLT was widely employed, statin intensity was low and combination therapy underused, indicating scope for improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.01.099DOI Listing
August 2018

Hitting Hard and Early: A Novel Paradigm for Lipid Lowering in Primary Prevention.

Cardiology 2018;140(1):68-70. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Cardiology, Herzzentrum Ludwigshafen, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000488972DOI Listing
September 2019

How does the TRS 2°P score relate to real-world patients?

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2018 04;4(2):72-74

Stiftung Institut für Herzinfarktforschung Ludwigshafen, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvy004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5939887PMC
April 2018

CRT Survey II: a European Society of Cardiology survey of cardiac resynchronisation therapy in 11 088 patients-who is doing what to whom and how?

Eur J Heart Fail 2018 06 19;20(6):1039-1051. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Heart and Vessels Theme, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) reduces morbidity and mortality in appropriately selected patients with heart failure and is strongly recommended for such patients by guidelines. A European Society of Cardiology (ESC) CRT survey conducted in 2008-2009 showed considerable variation in guideline adherence and large individual, national and regional differences in patient selection, implantation practice and follow-up. Accordingly, two ESC associations, the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Failure Association, designed a second prospective survey to describe contemporary clinical practice regarding CRT.

Methods And Results: A survey of the clinical practice of CRT-P and CRT-D implantation was conducted from October 2015 to December 2016 in 42 ESC member countries. Implanting centres provided information about their hospital and CRT service and were asked to complete a web-based case report form collecting information on patient characteristics, investigations, implantation procedures and complications during the index hospitalisation. The 11 088 patients enrolled represented 11% of the total number of expected implantations in participating countries during the survey period; 32% of patients were aged ≥75 years, 28% of procedures were upgrades from a permanent pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and 30% were CRT-P rather than CRT-D. Most patients (88%) had a QRS duration ≥130 ms, 73% had left bundle branch block and 26% were in atrial fibrillation at the time of implantation. Large geographical variations in clinical practice were observed.

Conclusion: CRT Survey II provides a valuable source of information on contemporary clinical practice with respect to CRT implantation in a large sample of ESC member states. The survey permits assessment of guideline adherence and demonstrates variations in patient selection, management, implantation procedure and follow-up strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1142DOI Listing
June 2018

Individualised treatment targets in patients with type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2018 01 22;17(1):18. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Institut für Herzinfarktforschung, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Aim: Patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at high risk of cardiovascular events, accentuated in the presence of hypertension. At present, it is unclear to what extent the guidelines for the management of T2DM, advocating reduction in HbA1c levels to below target levels, are being adhered to in clinical practice.

Methods: DIALOGUE was a prospective, observational, non-interventional registry performed across multiple centres in Germany. Patients aged 18 years or older who had T2DM and hypertension for whom the treating physician considered blood glucose lowering medication as inadequate and/or not safe/tolerable and chose to add a further oral drug or switch drug treatment were included. Patients were assigned a treatment target HbA1c value (≤ 6.5% [strict]; > 6.5 to ≤ 7.0% [intermediate]; > 7.0 to ≤ 7.5% [lenient]).

Results: 8568 patients with T2DM and hypertension were enrolled. 6691 (78.1%) had 12-month follow-up. Patients who were assigned a strict HbA1c treatment target (n = 2644) were younger, had shorter diabetes duration, and less comorbidity in comparison to those with intermediate (n = 2912) or lenient targets (n = 1135). Only 53.1% of patients achieved their HbA1c treatment target (46.2% [strict], 56.8% [intermediate], 59.4% [lenient]). There was little sign of treatment intensification for patients that had not achieved their HbA1c target.

Conclusions: Achievement of treatment targets was poor, leaving many patients with sub-optimal blood glucose levels. The apparent reluctance of physicians to intensify antidiabetic drug therapy is alarming, especially considering the evidence pointing to an association of hyperglycaemia and microvascular complications in patients with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-018-0661-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5778654PMC
January 2018

Contemporary data on treatment practices for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 3867 patients who had suffered an acute coronary syndrome across the world.

Data Brief 2018 Feb 14;16:369-375. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

DYSIS II ACS was a longitudinal, observational study in 3867 patients from 18 countries. They were being hospitalized after suffering an acute coronary syndrome. Evaluations were performed at the time of admission and again 120±15 days following the date of admission (the follow-up time point). 2521 patients were on active lipid lowering treatment (LLT) at admission. Mean atorvastatin dose was 22 mg per day and 2.7% received ezetimibe in combination with a statin. At discharge from hospital, 3767 patients received LLT expressed as a mean atorvastatin dose of 36 mg per day with 4.8% receiving ezetimibe on top of a statin. After 120 days, intensity in lipid lowering treatment was reduced to 32 mg per day with 4.9% of the patients receiving ezetimibe and a statin. Of note, during this 4-month follow up period, only 32% of all patients received laboratory lipid testing. 37% attained the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target value of <70 mg/dl after 120 days. There are differences in the therapy administered as well as in the switch strategies when comparing the data from the respective countries studied.

Conclusions: Only one in three patients achieved the LDL-C target value following only marginal improvements in atorvastatin dose or combination therapy after an ACS event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2017.11.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5723270PMC
February 2018

Cholesterol target value attainment and lipid-lowering therapy in patients with stable or acute coronary heart disease: Results from the Dyslipidemia International Study II.

Atherosclerosis 2017 Nov 21;266:158-166. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

Background And Aims: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. In the Dyslipidemia International Study II (DYSIS II), we determined LDL-C target value attainment, use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT), and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) and those suffering from an acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Methods: DYSIS II included patients from 18 countries. Patients with either stable CHD or an ACS were enrolled if they were ≥18 years old and had a full lipid profile available. Data were collected at a physician visit (CHD cohort) or at hospital admission and 120 days later (ACS cohort).

Results: A total of 10,661 patients were enrolled, 6794 with stable CHD and 3867 with an ACS. Mean LDL-C levels were low at 88 mg/dl and 108 mg/dl for the CHD and ACS cohorts respectively, with only 29.4% and 18.9% displaying a level below 70 mg/dl. LLT was utilized by 93.8% of the CHD cohort, with a mean daily statin dosage of 25 ± 18 mg. The proportion of the ACS cohort treated with LLT rose from 65.2% at admission to 95.6% at follow-up. LLT-treated patients, who were female, obese, or current smokers, were less likely to achieve an LDL-C level of <70 mg/dl, while those with type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or those taking a higher statin dosage were more likely.

Conclusions: Few of these very high-risk patients achieved the LDL-C target, indicating huge potential for improving cardiovascular outcome by use of more intensive LLT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.08.013DOI Listing
November 2017

The role of heparin lead-in in the real-world management of acute venous thromboembolism: The PREFER in VTE registry.

Thromb Res 2017 Sep 28;157:181-188. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Guys and St Thomas' Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, King's College, London, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: The appropriate strategy for initiating oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy after an acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) depends on the intermediate-term anticoagulant to be used. While heparin bridging to vitamin K antagonists (VKA) is required, the direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) rivaroxaban (30mg/day) and apixaban (10mg/day) can be initiated directly without parenteral anticoagulation. The objective was to evaluate OAC initiation patterns in clinical practice.

Materials And Methods: PREFER in VTE was an international, non-interventional registry conducted between January 2013 and August 2015. Consecutive acute VTE patients were grouped based on their OAC treatment at 1month after the index event (VKA or DOAC).

Results: At 1month, 825 patients were receiving a VKA and 687 a DOAC (rivaroxaban in 685/687 cases). DOAC patients were significantly younger, less comorbid, at a lower bleeding risk, and less frequently diagnosed with pulmonary embolism (34.4% vs. 44.7%). During the first month after VTE, the most common treatment pattern was heparin-OAC overlap for VKA patents (69.6%), and OAC only for DOAC patients (49.1%). However, 28.8% of DOAC patients received a heparin-OAC overlap (median heparin duration: 3days; IQR: 2-6) and 14.8% were switched from heparin to DOAC. For those on rivaroxaban at 1month, only 29.7% had received the initial 30mg/day recommended dose. Clinical event rates were comparable between the DOAC only, heparin-DOAC switch, and heparin-DOAC overlap subgroups at 1 and 6months.

Conclusions: Guidelines for DOAC/rivaroxaban initiation after VTE are often not adhered to in clinical practice. This could result in adverse outcomes or suboptimal anticoagulation. Intervention programs to raise awareness amongst physicians may be merited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2017.07.029DOI Listing
September 2017

The management of acute venous thromboembolism in clinical practice. Results from the European PREFER in VTE Registry.

Thromb Haemost 2017 06 13;117(7):1326-1337. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

Giancarlo Agnelli, Stroke Unit and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Perugia, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Via Dottori Sant' Andrea delle Fratte, 06126 Perugia, Italy, Tel.: +39 075 578 6424, Fax: +39 075 578 2346, E-mail:

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Europe. Data from real-world registries are necessary, as clinical trials do not represent the full spectrum of VTE patients seen in clinical practice. We aimed to document the epidemiology, management and outcomes of VTE using data from a large, observational database. PREFER in VTE was an international, non-interventional disease registry conducted between January 2013 and July 2015 in primary and secondary care across seven European countries. Consecutive patients with acute VTE were documented and followed up over 12 months. PREFER in VTE included 3,455 patients with a mean age of 60.8 ± 17.0 years. Overall, 53.0 % were male. The majority of patients were assessed in the hospital setting as inpatients or outpatients (78.5 %). The diagnosis was deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) in 59.5 % and pulmonary embolism (PE) in 40.5 %. The most common comorbidities were the various types of cardiovascular disease (excluding hypertension; 45.5 %), hypertension (42.3 %) and dyslipidaemia (21.1 %). Following the index VTE, a large proportion of patients received initial therapy with heparin (73.2 %), almost half received a vitamin K antagonist (48.7 %) and nearly a quarter received a DOAC (24.5 %). Almost a quarter of all presentations were for recurrent VTE, with >80 % of previous episodes having occurred more than 12 months prior to baseline. In conclusion, PREFER in VTE has provided contemporary insights into VTE patients and their real-world management, including their baseline characteristics, risk factors, disease history, symptoms and signs, initial therapy and outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH16-10-0793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291854PMC
June 2017

Sex Differences in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention-Insights From the Coronary Angiography and PCI Registry of the German Society of Cardiology.

J Am Heart Assoc 2017 Mar 20;6(3). Epub 2017 Mar 20.

Stiftung Institut für Herzinfarktforschung Ludwigshafen, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Background: Several studies have suggested sex-related differences in diagnostic and invasive therapeutic coronary procedures.

Methods And Results: Data from consecutive patients who were enrolled in the Coronary Angiography and PCI Registry of the German Society of Cardiology were analyzed. We aimed to compare sex-related differences in in-hospital outcomes of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable coronary artery disease, non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes, ST elevation myocardial infarction, and cardiogenic shock. From 2007 until the end of 2009 data from 185 312 PCIs were prospectively registered: 27.9% of the PCIs were performed in women. Primary PCI success rate was identical between the sexes (94%). There were no sex-related differences in hospital mortality among patients undergoing PCI for stable coronary artery disease, non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes, or cardiogenic shock except among ST elevation myocardial infarction patients. Compared to men, women undergoing primary PCI for ST elevation myocardial infarction have a higher risk of in-hospital death, age-adjusted odds ratio (1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.33), and risk of ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack/stroke), (age-adjusted odds ratio 1.19, 95% CI 1.16-1.29). Furthermore, access-related complications were twice as high in women, irrespective of the indication.

Conclusions: Despite identical technical success rates of PCI between the 2 sexes, women with PCI for ST elevation myocardial infarction have a 20% higher age-adjusted risk of death and of ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular events. Further research is needed to determine the reasons for these differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.116.004972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5524024PMC
March 2017

Suboptimal achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets in French patients with coronary heart disease. Contemporary data from the DYSIS II ACS/CHD study.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2017 Mar 13;110(3):167-178. Epub 2017 Feb 13.

Herzzentrum Ludwigshafen, Medizinische Klinik B, Kardiologie, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Background: European guidelines recommend a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target of<1.8mmol/L (70mg/dL), and/or a≥50% reduction when the target level cannot be reached, for patients at very high cardiovascular risk, and high-potency lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) in patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Aim: To document the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and the achievement of lipid targets among patients surviving an ACS and in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), using data from the DYSIS II study.

Methods: DYSIS II was an observational cross-sectional study conducted in 21 countries (2012-2014). We report data from the French cohort, comprising patients hospitalized with an ACS and patients diagnosed with stable CHD. Data on patient characteristics, risk factors, treatments and lipid profile were collected. LDL-C target achievement was assessed based on the European guidelines endorsed by the French Society of Cardiology.

Results: Of the 468 ACS patients, 277 (59.2%) were receiving LLT at admission to hospital; 22.6% were hospitalized for a recurrent event. Statins were used in 96.6% (450/466) of patients at discharge and in 95.1% (310/326) at 120-day follow-up, at which time 50.6% (80/158) of patients with available data achieved the LDL-C goal. Most of the 436 patients with stable CHD (97.2%) were on LLT (56.8% on high-intensity therapy); 29.2% of patients on LLT met the LDL-C treatment target<1.8mmol/L (70mg/dL).

Conclusion: These observational data show the progress made in the treatment of ACS from the acute phase up to 3 months, and highlight key areas for improvement in the prevention of recurrent events in patients with CHD in France. The use of higher intensity or combination LLT as recommended in secondary prevention are needed to increase the achievement of LDL-C treatment targets and reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality due to CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2016.11.004DOI Listing
March 2017
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