Publications by authors named "Anon Srikiatkhachorn"

60 Publications

Evaluation of the extended efficacy of the Dengvaxia vaccine against symptomatic and subclinical dengue infection.

Nat Med 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Institute for Immunology and Informatics, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Rhode Island, Providence, RI, USA.

More than half of the world's population lives in areas at risk for dengue virus infection. A vaccine will be pivotal to controlling spread, however, the only licensed vaccine, Dengvaxia, has been shown to increase the risk of severe disease in a subset of individuals. Vaccine efforts are hampered by a poor understanding of antibody responses, including those generated by vaccines, and whether antibody titers can be used as a marker of protection from infection or disease. Here we present the results of an ancillary study to a phase III vaccine study (n = 611). All participants received three doses of either Dengvaxia or placebo and were followed for 6 years. We performed neutralization tests on annual samples and during confirmed dengue episodes (n = 16,508 total measurements). We use mathematical models to reconstruct long-term antibody responses to vaccination and natural infection, and to identify subclinical infections. There were 87 symptomatic infections reported, and we estimated that there were a further 351 subclinical infections. Cumulative vaccine efficacy was positive for both subclinical and symptomatic infection, although the protective effect of the vaccine was concentrated in the first 3 years following vaccination. Among individuals with the same antibody titer, we found no difference between the risk of subsequent infection or disease between placebo and vaccine recipients, suggesting that antibody titers are a good predictor of both protection and disease risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01392-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Correlation between reported dengue illness history and seropositivity in rural Thailand.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 15;15(6):e0009459. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America.

In the latest World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for Dengvaxia implementation, either serological testing or a person's history of prior dengue illness may be used as supporting evidence to identify dengue virus (DENV)-immune individuals eligible for vaccination, in areas with limited capacity for laboratory confirmation. This analysis aimed to estimate the concordance between self-reported dengue illness histories and seropositivity in a prospective cohort study for dengue virus infection in Kamphaeng Phet province, a dengue-endemic area in northern Thailand. The study enrolled 2,076 subjects from 516 multigenerational families, with a median age of 30.6 years (range 0-90 years). Individual and family member dengue illness histories were obtained by questionnaire. Seropositivity was defined based on hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays. Overall seropositivity for DENV was 86.5% among those aged 9-45 years, which increased with age. 18.5% of participants reported a history of dengue illness prior to enrollment; 30.1% reported a previous DENV infection in the family, and 40.1% reported DENV infection in either themselves or a family member. Relative to seropositivity by HAI in the vaccine candidate group, the sensitivity and specificity of individual prior dengue illness history were 18.5% and 81.6%, respectively; sensitivity and specificity of reported dengue illness in a family member were 29.8% and 68.0%, and of either the individual or a family member were 40.1% and 60.5%. Notably, 13.4% of individuals reporting prior dengue illness were seronegative. Given the high occurrence of asymptomatic and mild DENV infection, self-reported dengue illness history is poorly sensitive for prior exposure and may misclassify individuals as 'exposed' when they were not. This analysis highlights that a simple, highly sensitive, and highly specific test for determining serostatus prior to Dengvaxia vaccination is urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232416PMC
June 2021

Effect of low-passage number on dengue consensus genomes and intra-host variant frequencies.

J Gen Virol 2021 03 16;102(3). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Intra-host single nucleotide variants (iSNVs) have been increasingly used in genomic epidemiology to increase phylogenetic resolution and reconstruct fine-scale outbreak dynamics. These analyses are preferably done on sequence data from direct clinical samples, but in many cases due to low viral loads, there might not be enough genetic material for deep sequencing and iSNV determination. Isolation of the virus from clinical samples with low-passage number increases viral load, but few studies have investigated how dengue virus (DENV) culture isolation from a clinical sample impacts the consensus sequence and the intra-host virus population frequencies. In this study, we investigate consensus and iSNV frequency differences between DENV sequenced directly from clinical samples and their corresponding low-passage isolates. Twenty five DENV1 and DENV2 positive sera and their corresponding viral isolates ( inoculation and C6/36 passage) were obtained from a prospective cohort study in the Philippines. These were sequenced on MiSeq with minimum nucleotide depth of coverage of 500×, and iSNVs were detected using LoFreq. For both DENV1 and DENV2, we found a maximum of one consensus nucleotide difference between clinical sample and isolate. Interestingly, we found that iSNVs with frequencies ≥5 % were often preserved between the samples, and that the number of iSNV positions, and sample diversity, at this frequency cutoff did not differ significantly between the sample pairs (clinical sample and isolate) in either DENV1 or DENV2 data. Our results show that low-passage DENV isolate consensus genomes are largely representative of their direct sample parental viruses, and that low-passage isolates often mirror high frequency within-host variants from direct samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001553DOI Listing
March 2021

Temporally integrated single cell RNA sequencing analysis of PBMC from experimental and natural primary human DENV-1 infections.

PLoS Pathog 2021 01 29;17(1):e1009240. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Viral Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America.

Dengue human infection studies present an opportunity to address many longstanding questions in the field of flavivirus biology. However, limited data are available on how the immunological and transcriptional response elicited by an attenuated challenge virus compares to that associated with a wild-type DENV infection. To determine the kinetic transcriptional signature associated with experimental primary DENV-1 infection and to assess how closely this profile correlates with the transcriptional signature accompanying natural primary DENV-1 infection, we utilized scRNAseq to analyze PBMC from individuals enrolled in a DENV-1 human challenge study and from individuals experiencing a natural primary DENV-1 infection. While both experimental and natural primary DENV-1 infection resulted in overlapping patterns of inflammatory gene upregulation, natural primary DENV-1 infection was accompanied with a more pronounced suppression in gene products associated with protein translation and mitochondrial function, principally in monocytes. This suggests that the immune response elicited by experimental and natural primary DENV infection are similar, but that natural primary DENV-1 infection has a more pronounced impact on basic cellular processes to induce a multi-layered anti-viral state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875406PMC
January 2021

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Chain-Related A and B (MICA and MICB) Gene, Allele, and Haplotype Associations With Dengue Infections in Ethnic Thais.

J Infect Dis 2020 08;222(5):840-846

Department of Transfusion Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related (MIC) A and B (MICA and MICB) are polymorphic stress molecules recognized by natural killer cells. This study was performed to analyze MIC gene profiles in hospitalized Thai children with acute dengue illness.

Methods: MIC allele profiles were determined in a discovery cohort of patients with dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) (n = 166) and controls (n = 149). A replication cohort of patients with dengue (n = 222) was used to confirm specific MICB associations with disease.

Results: MICA*045 and MICB*004 associated with susceptibility to DHF in secondary dengue virus (DENV) infections (odds ratio [OR], 3.22; [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-8.84] and 1.99 [1.07-2.13], respectively), and MICB*002 with protection from DHF in secondary DENV infections (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, .21-.68). The protective effect of MICB*002 against secondary DHF was confirmed in the replication cohort (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, .22-.82) and was stronger when MICB*002 is present in individuals also carrying HLA-B*18, B*40, and B*44 alleles which form the B44 supertype of functionally related alleles (0.29, 95% CI, .14-.60).

Conclusions: Given that MICB*002 is a low expresser of soluble proteins, these data indicate that surface expression of MICB*002 with B44 supertype alleles on DENV-infected cells confer a protective advantage in controlling DENV infection using natural killer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399699PMC
August 2020

Analysis of cell-associated DENV RNA by oligo(dT) primed 5' capture scRNAseq.

Sci Rep 2020 06 3;10(1):9047. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Viral Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Dengue is one of the most widespread vector-borne viral diseases in the world. However, the size, heterogeneity, and temporal dynamics of the cell-associated viral reservoir during acute dengue virus (DENV) infection remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed cells infected in vitro with DENV and PBMC from an individual experiencing a natural DENV infection utilizing 5' capture single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq). Both positive- and negative-sense DENV RNA was detected in reactions containing either an oligo(dT) primer alone, or in reactions supplemented with a DENV-specific primer. The addition of a DENV-specific primer did not increase the total amount of DENV RNA captured or the fraction of cells identified as containing DENV RNA. However, inclusion of a DENV-specific cDNA primer did increase the viral genome coverage immediately 5' to the primer binding site. Furthermore, while the majority of intracellular DENV sequence captured in this analysis mapped to the 5' end of the viral genome, distinct patterns of enhanced coverage within the DENV polyprotein coding region were observed. The 5' capture scRNAseq analysis of PBMC not only recapitulated previously published reports by detecting virally infected memory and naïve B cells, but also identified cell-associated genomic variants not observed in contemporaneous serum samples. These results demonstrate that oligo(dT) primed 5' capture scRNAseq can detect DENV RNA and quantify virus-infected cells in physiologically relevant conditions, and provides insight into viral sequence variability within infected cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65939-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270085PMC
June 2020

Transcriptional and clonal characterization of B cell plasmablast diversity following primary and secondary natural DENV infection.

EBioMedicine 2020 Apr 18;54:102733. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Viral Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, United States.

Antibody-mediated humoral immunity is thought to play a central role in mediating the immunopathogenesis of acute DENV infection, but limited data are available on the diversity, specificity, and functionality of the antibody response at the molecular level elicited by primary or secondary DENV infection. In order to close this functional gap in our understanding of DENV-specific humoral immunity, we utilized high-throughput single cell RNA sequencing to investigate B cells circulating in both primary and secondary natural DENV infections. We captured full-length paired immunoglobulin receptor sequence data from 9,027 B cells from a total of 6 subjects, including 2,717 plasmablasts. In addition to IgG and IgM class-switched cells, we unexpectedly found a high proportion of the DENV-elicited plasmablasts expressing IgA, principally in individuals with primary DENV infections. These IgA class-switched cells were extensively hypermutated even in individuals with a serologically confirmed primary DENV infection. Utilizing a combination of conventional biochemical assays and high-throughput shotgun mutagenesis, we determined that DENV-reactive IgA class-switched antibodies represent a significant fraction of DENV-reactive Igs generated in response to DENV infection, and that they exhibit a comparable epitope specificity to DENV-reactive IgG antibodies. These results provide insight into the molecular-level diversity of DENV-elicited humoral immunity and identify a heretofore unappreciated IgA plasmablast response to DENV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170960PMC
April 2020

Pre-existing chikungunya virus neutralizing antibodies correlate with risk of symptomatic infection and subclinical seroconversion in a Philippine cohort.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 1;95:167-173. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: A longitudinal cohort study performed in Cebu City, Philippines found that the presence of pre-existing chikungunya virus (CHIKV) neutralizing antibodies (NAb) was associated with a decreased risk of symptomatic CHIKV infection. However, the relationship between pre-existing NAb and the risk of subclinical seroconversion has not been well described.

Methods: Data were analyzed from a longitudinal cohort aged 6 months to 83 years who underwent active fever surveillance in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012 to 2014. Participants with a history of fever underwent acute and 3-week convalescent visits with blood collection, and annual visits at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. Symptomatic CHIKV infections were detected by PCR of acute illness sera. Subclinical seroconversion was defined as a ≥8-fold rise in 80% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT80) titer between annual visits without intervening symptomatic infection.

Results: Among 854 participants who completed the 12-month visit (year 1) and 765 who completed the 24-month visit (year 2), 25 symptomatic CHIKV infections and 104 subclinical seroconversions occurred among 615 individuals with no detectable pre-year NAb in year 1 and 444 in year 2, while no symptomatic infections and one subclinical seroconversion occurred in those with a pre-year PRNT80 titer ≥1:10. Pre-year PRNT80 titer ≥1:10 was associated with zero relative risk of symptomatic CHIKV infection and 0.018 risk of subclinical seroconversion.

Conclusions: The presence of detectable pre-existing CHIKV NAb correlated with a decreased risk of both symptomatic CHIKV infection and subclinical seroconversion. These findings support the potential use of CHIKV NAb titer as a surrogate endpoint of protection from infection for vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.073DOI Listing
June 2020

What translatable knowledge from dengue vaccine design can we pass onto future anti-parasitic vaccine development?

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2020 04 11;15(4):391-395. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Institute for Immunology and Informatics, College of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Providence, RI, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17460441.2020.1718099DOI Listing
April 2020

An Innovative, Prospective, Hybrid Cohort-Cluster Study Design to Characterize Dengue Virus Transmission in Multigenerational Households in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 07;189(7):648-659

Difficulties inherent in the identification of immune correlates of protection or severe disease have challenged the development and evaluation of dengue vaccines. There persist substantial gaps in knowledge about the complex effects of age and sequential dengue virus (DENV) exposures on these correlations. To address these gaps, we were conducting a novel family-based cohort-cluster study for DENV transmission in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. The study began in 2015 and is funded until at least 2023. As of May 2019, 2,870 individuals in 485 families were actively enrolled. The families comprise at least 1 child born into the study as a newborn, 1 other child, a parent, and a grandparent. The median age of enrolled participants is 21 years (range 0-93 years). Active surveillance is performed to detect acute dengue illnesses, and annual blood testing identifies subclinical seroconversions. Extended follow-up of this cohort will detect sequential infections and correlate antibody kinetics and sequence of infections with disease outcomes. The central goal of this prospective study is to characterize how different DENV exposure histories within multigenerational family units, from DENV-naive infants to grandparents with multiple prior DENV exposures, affect transmission, disease, and protection at the level of the individual, household, and community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393304PMC
July 2020

Longitudinal Analysis of Memory B and T Cell Responses to Dengue Virus in a 5-Year Prospective Cohort Study in Thailand.

Front Immunol 2019 13;10:1359. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Institute for Immunology and Informatics, University of Rhode Island, Providence, RI, United States.

Prior exposure to dengue virus (DENV) has a profound impact on the outcome of infection, which varies according to the interval between infections. Antibodies secreted by B cells and cytokines secreted by T cells are thought to contribute both to protective immunity against DENV and the pathogenesis of dengue disease. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected from Thai children over a 5-year prospective cohort study to define the dynamics of DENV-specific memory B and T cell responses and the impact of symptomatic or subclinical DENV infections. To measure B cell responses, PBMC were stimulated with IL-2 plus R848 and culture supernatants were tested for DENV-binding antibodies by ELISA. To measure T cell responses, PBMC were stimulated in dual-color ELISPOT assays with overlapping peptide pools of structural and non-structural proteins from the four DENV types. B cell responses were low to one or more DENV types prior to symptomatic infection and increased with reactivity to all four types after infection. Subjects who had a subclinical infection or who did not experience a DENV infection during the study period showed strong memory B cell responses to all four DENV types. T cell responses to DENV peptides demonstrated a cytokine hierarchy of IFN-γ > IL-2 > IFN-γ/IL-2. T cell responses were low or absent prior to secondary infections. The trends in T cell responses to DENV peptides over 3 year post-infection were highly variable, but subjects who had experienced a secondary DENV1 infection showed higher cytokine responses compared to subjects who had experienced a secondary DENV2 or subclinical infection. The longitudinal nature of our study demonstrates persistent memory B cell responses over years and a lasting but variable impact of secondary DENV infection on DENV-specific T cell responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6585174PMC
October 2020

Use of structural equation models to predict dengue illness phenotype.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 10 1;12(10):e0006799. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Institute for Immunology and Informatics, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Rhode Island, Providence, RI, United States of America.

Background: Early recognition of dengue, particularly patients at risk for plasma leakage, is important to clinical management. The objective of this study was to build predictive models for dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) using structural equation modelling (SEM), a statistical method that evaluates mechanistic pathways.

Methods/findings: We performed SEM using data from 257 Thai children enrolled within 72 h of febrile illness onset, 156 with dengue and 101 with non-dengue febrile illnesses. Models for dengue, DHF, and DSS were developed based on data obtained three and one day(s) prior to fever resolution (fever days -3 and -1, respectively). Models were validated using data from 897 subjects who were not used for model development. Predictors for dengue and DSS included age, tourniquet test, aspartate aminotransferase, and white blood cell, % lymphocytes, and platelet counts. Predictors for DHF included age, aspartate aminotransferase, hematocrit, tourniquet test, and white blood cell and platelet counts. The models showed good predictive performances in the validation set, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) at fever day -3 of 0.84, 0.67, and 0.70 for prediction of dengue, DHF, and DSS, respectively. Predictive performance was comparable using data based on the timing relative to enrollment or illness onset, and improved closer to the critical phase (AUC 0.73 to 0.94, 0.61 to 0.93, and 0.70 to 0.96 for dengue, DHF, and DSS, respectively).

Conclusions: Predictive models developed using SEM have potential use in guiding clinical management of suspected dengue prior to the critical phase of illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6181434PMC
October 2018

Activation of Peripheral T Follicular Helper Cells During Acute Dengue Virus Infection.

J Infect Dis 2018 10;218(10):1675-1685

Institute for Immunology and Informatics, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Rhode Island, Providence.

Background: Follicular helper T cells (TFH) are specialized CD4 T cells required for B-cell help and antibody production.

Methods: Given the postulated role of immune activation in dengue disease, we measured the expansion and activation of TFH in the circulation (peripheral TFH [pTFH]) collected from Thai children with laboratory-confirmed acute dengue virus (DENV) infection.

Results: We found significant expansion and activation of pTFH subsets during acute infection with the highest frequencies of activated pTFH (PD1hi pTFH and PD1+CD38+ pTFH) detected during the critical phase of illness. Numbers of activated pTFH were higher in patients with secondary compared with primary infections and in patients with more severe disease. We also found a positive correlation between the frequencies of activated pTFH and the frequencies of plasmablasts.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first ex vivo analysis of pTFH activation during acute DENV infection. Overall, our study supports the model that pTFH contribute to disease evolution during the critical stage of illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6927865PMC
October 2018

Case Management of Dengue: Lessons Learned.

J Infect Dis 2017 03;215(suppl_2):S79-S88

Dengue Unit, Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Bangkok, Thailand ; and.

The global burden of dengue and its geographic distribution have increased over the past several decades. The introduction of dengue in new areas has often been accompanied by high case-fatality rates. Drawing on the experience in managing dengue cases at the Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health in Bangkok, Thailand, this article provides the authors' perspectives on key clinical lessons to improve dengue-related outcomes. Parallels between this clinical experience and outcomes reported in randomized controlled trials, results of efforts to disseminate practice recommendations, and suggestions for areas for further research are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiw609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5853291PMC
March 2017

Immune-mediated cytokine storm and its role in severe dengue.

Semin Immunopathol 2017 07 11;39(5):563-574. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

Institute for Immunology and Informatics, University of Rhode Island, 80 Washington St., Rm 302F, Providence, RI, 02903, USA.

Dengue remains one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases worldwide. Infection with one of the serologically related dengue viruses (DENVs) can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. Severe dengue is characterized by plasma leakage and abnormal bleeding that can lead to shock and death. There is currently no specific treatment for severe dengue due to gaps in understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The transient period of vascular leakage is usually followed by a rapid recovery and is suggestive of the effects of short-lived biological mediators. Both the innate and the adaptive immune systems are activated in severe dengue and contribute to the cytokine production. We discuss the immunological events elicited during a DENV infection and identify candidate cytokines that may play a key role in the severe manifestations of dengue and possible interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-017-0625-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5496927PMC
July 2017

Polytopic vaccination with a live-attenuated dengue vaccine enhances B-cell and T-cell activation, but not neutralizing antibodies.

Heliyon 2017 Mar 21;3(3):e00271. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

The United States Army Medical Materiel Development Activity, Fort Detrick, MD, USA.

Dengue, caused by dengue viruses (DENVs), is the most common arboviral disease of humans. Several dengue vaccine candidates are at different stages of clinical development and one has been licensed. Inoculation with live-attenuated DENV constructs is an approach that has been used by vaccine developers. Unfortunately, the simultaneous injection of all four attenuated DENV serotypes (DENV1-4) into a single injection site (monotopic vaccination) has been postulated to result in interference in the replication of some serotypes in favor of others, an important obstacle in obtaining a balanced immune response against all serotypes. Here, we demonstrate the virus replicative and immunostimulatory effects of polytopic monovalent dengue vaccination (PV) in which, each of the four components of the tetravalent vaccine is simultaneously delivered to four different sites versus the more traditional monotopic tetravalent vaccination (MV) in a non-human primate (NHP) model. With the exception of DENV-2, there was no significant difference in detectable viral RNA levels between PV and MV inoculation. Interestingly, longer periods of detection and higher viral RNA levels were seen in the lymph nodes of NHPs inoculated PV compared to MV. Induction of lymph node dendritic cell maturation and of blood T- and B-cell activation showed different kinetics in PV inoculated NHPs compared to MV. The MV inoculated group showed earlier maturation of dendritic cells and activation of B and T cells compared to PV inoculated NHPs. A similar kinetic difference was also observed in the cytokine response: MV induced earlier cytokine responses compared to PV. However, similar levels of DENV neutralizing antibodies were observed in PV and MV NHPs. These findings indicate that cellular immune response after vaccination may be affected by the location of inoculation. Design of vaccine delivery may need to take into account the effects of locations of vaccine delivery of multiples serotype live viral vaccine on the induction of immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5367862PMC
March 2017

State-of-the-art monitoring in treatment of dengue shock syndrome: a case series.

J Med Case Rep 2016 Aug 24;10(1):233. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

US Army Institute of Surgical Research, 3698 Chambers Pass, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, TX, 78234-7549, USA.

Background: Early recognition and treatment of circulatory volume loss is essential in the clinical management of dengue viral infection. We hypothesized that a novel computational algorithm, originally developed for noninvasive monitoring of blood loss in combat casualties, could: (1) indicate the central volume status of children with dengue during the early stages of "shock"; and (2) track fluid resuscitation status.

Methods: Continuous noninvasive photoplethysmographic waveforms were collected over a 5-month period from three children of Thai ethnicity with clinical suspicion of dengue. Waveform data were processed by the algorithm to calculate each child's Compensatory Reserve Index, where 1 represents supine normovolemia and 0 represents the circulatory volume at which hemodynamic decompensation occurs. Values between 1 and 0 indicate the proportion of reserve remaining before hemodynamic decompensation.

Results: This case report describes a 7-year-old Thai boy, another 7-year-old Thai boy, and a 9-year-old Thai boy who exhibited signs and symptoms of dengue shock syndrome; all the children had secondary dengue virus infections, documented by serology and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The three boys experienced substantial plasma leakage demonstrated by pleural effusion index >25, ascites, and >20 % hemoconcentration. They received fluid administered intravenously; one received a blood transfusion. All three boys showed a significantly low initial Compensatory Reserve Index (≥0.20), indicating a clinical diagnosis of "near shock". Following 5 days with fluid resuscitation treatment, their Compensatory Reserve Index increased towards "normovolemia" (that is, Compensatory Reserve Index >0.75).

Conclusions: The results from these cases demonstrate a new variation in the diagnostic capability to manage patients with dengue shock syndrome. The findings shed new light on a method that can avoid possible adverse effects of shock by noninvasive measurement of a patient's compensatory reserve rather than standard vital signs or invasive diagnostic methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-016-1019-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4995799PMC
August 2016

Dynamics of Dengue Virus (DENV)-Specific B Cells in the Response to DENV Serotype 1 Infections, Using Flow Cytometry With Labeled Virions.

J Infect Dis 2016 Oct 20;214(7):1001-9. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester Institute for Immunology and Informatics, University of Rhode Island, Providence.

Background: The development of reagents to identify and characterize antigen-specific B cells has been challenging.

Methods: We recently developed Alexa Fluor-labeled dengue viruses (AF DENVs) to characterize antigen-specific B cells in the peripheral blood of DENV-immune individuals.

Results: In this study, we used AF DENV serotype 1 (AF DENV-1) together with AF DENV-2 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from children in Thailand with acute primary or secondary DENV-1 infections to analyze the phenotypes of antigen-specific B cells that reflected their exposure or clinical diagnosis. DENV serotype-specific and cross-reactive B cells were identified in PBMCs from all subjects. Frequencies of AF DENV(+) class-switched memory B cells (IgD(-)CD27(+) CD19(+) cells) reached up to 8% during acute infection and early convalescence. AF DENV-labeled B cells expressed high levels of CD27 and CD38 during acute infection, characteristic of plasmablasts, and transitioned into memory B cells (CD38(-)CD27(+)) at the early convalescent time point. There was higher activation of memory B cells early during acute secondary infection, suggesting reactivation from a previous DENV infection.

Conclusions: AF DENVs reveal changes in the phenotype of DENV serotype-specific and cross-reactive B cells during and after natural DENV infection and could be useful in analysis of the response to DENV vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiw308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5021233PMC
October 2016

Forty Years of Dengue Surveillance at a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, 1973-2012.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 06 28;94(6):1342-7. Epub 2016 Mar 28.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok, Thailand; Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts

Long-term observational studies can provide valuable insights into overall dengue epidemiology. Here, we present analysis of dengue cases at a pediatric hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, during a 40-year period from 1973 to 2012. Data were analyzed from 25,715 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection. Several long-term trends in dengue disease were identified including an increase in mean age of hospitalized cases from an average of 7-8 years, an increase after 1990 in the proportion of post-primary cases for DENV-1 and DENV-3, and a decrease in the proportion of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome cases in primary and post-primary cases over time. Exploratory mechanistic analysis of these observed trends considered changes in diagnostic methods, demography, force of infection, and Japanese encephalitis vaccination as possible explanations. Thailand is an important setting for studying DENV transmission as it has a "mature" dengue epidemiology with a strong surveillance system in place since the early 1970s. We characterized changes in dengue epidemiology over four decades, and possible impact of demographic and other changes in the human population. These results may inform other countries where similar changes in transmission and population demographics may now or may soon be occurring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4889755PMC
June 2016

Incidence of Dengue Virus Infection in Adults and Children in a Prospective Longitudinal Cohort in the Philippines.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Feb 4;10(2):e0004337. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: The mean age of dengue has been increasing in some but not all countries. We sought to determine the incidence of dengue virus (DENV) infection in adults and children in a prospective cohort study in the Philippines where dengue is hyperendemic.

Methodology/principal Findings: A prospective cohort of subjects ≥6 months old in Cebu City, Philippines, underwent active community-based surveillance for acute febrile illnesses by weekly contact. Fever history within the prior seven days was evaluated with an acute illness visit followed by 2, 5, and 8-day, and 3-week convalescent visits. Blood was collected at the acute and 3-week visits. Scheduled visits took place at enrolment and 12 months that included blood collections. Acute samples were tested by DENV PCR and acute/convalescent samples by DENV IgM/IgG ELISA to identify symptomatic infections. Enrolment and 12-month samples were tested by DENV hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay to identify subclinical infections. Of 1,008 enrolled subjects, 854 completed all study activities at 12 months per-protocol undergoing 868 person-years of surveillance. The incidence of symptomatic and subclinical infections was 1.62 and 7.03 per 100 person-years, respectively. However, in subjects >15 years old, only one symptomatic infection occurred whereas 27 subclinical infections were identified. DENV HAI seroprevalence increased sharply with age with baseline multitypic HAIs associated with fewer symptomatic infections. Using a catalytic model, the historical infection rate among dengue naïve individuals was estimated to be high at 11-22%/year.

Conclusions/significance: In this hyperendemic area with high seroprevalence of multitypic DENV HAIs in adults, symptomatic dengue rarely occurred in individuals older than 15 years. Our findings demonstrate that dengue is primarily a pediatric disease in areas with high force of infection. However, the average age of dengue could increase if force of infection decreases over time, as is occurring in some hyperendemic countries such as Thailand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4742283PMC
February 2016

Epidemiology of Infant Dengue Cases Illuminates Serotype-Specificity in the Interaction between Immunity and Disease, and Changes in Transmission Dynamics.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Dec 11;9(12):e0004262. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

Dengue Vaccine Initiative, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Infants born to dengue immune mothers acquire maternal antibodies to dengue. These antibodies, though initially protective, decline during the first year of life to levels thought to be disease enhancing, before reaching undetectable levels. Infants have long been studied to understand the interaction between infection and disease on an individual level.

Methods/findings: Considering infants (cases <1 year old) as a unique group, we analyzed serotype specific dengue case data from patients admitted to a pediatric hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. We show differences in the propensity of serotypes to cause disease in individuals with dengue antibodies (infants and post-primary cases) and in individuals without dengue antibodies (primary cases). The mean age of infant cases differed among serotypes, consistent with previously observed differential waning of maternal antibody titers by serotype. We show that trends over time in epidemiology of infant cases are consistent with those observed in the whole population, and therefore with trends in the force of infection.

Conclusions/significance: Infants with dengue are informative about the interaction between antibody and the dengue serotypes, confirming that in this population DENV-2 and DENV-4 almost exclusively cause disease in the presence of dengue antibody despite infections occurring in others. We also observe differences between the serotypes in the mean age in infant cases, informative about the interaction between waning immunity and disease for the different serotypes in infants. In addition, we show that the mean age of infant cases over time is informative about transmission in the whole population. Therefore, ongoing surveillance for dengue in infants could provide useful insights into dengue epidemiology, particularly after the introduction of a dengue vaccine targeting adults and older children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4684242PMC
December 2015

Immune correlates for dengue vaccine development.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2016 24;15(4):455-65. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

b Dengue Vaccine Initiative , International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park , Seoul , Korea.

Dengue virus is the leading cause of vector-borne viral disease with four serotypes in circulation. Vaccine development has been complicated by the potential for both protection and disease enhancement during heterologous infection. Secondary infection triggers cross-reactive immune memory responses that have varying functional and epitope specificities that determine protection or risk. Strongly neutralizing antibodies to quaternary epitopes may be especially important for virus neutralization. Cell-mediated immunity dominated by Th1 functions may also play an important role. Determining an immune correlate of protection or risk would be highly beneficial for vaccine development but is hampered by mechanistic uncertainties and assay limitations. Clinical efficacy trials and human infection models along with a systems approach may provide future opportunities to elucidate such correlates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14760584.2016.1116949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5523864PMC
December 2016

Reconstruction of 60 Years of Chikungunya Epidemiology in the Philippines Demonstrates Episodic and Focal Transmission.

J Infect Dis 2016 Feb 25;213(4):604-10. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Proper understanding of the long-term epidemiology of chikungunya has been hampered by poor surveillance. Outbreak years are unpredictable and cases often misdiagnosed. Here we analyzed age-specific data from 2 serological studies (from 1973 and 2012) in Cebu, Philippines, to reconstruct both the annual probability of infection and population-level immunity over a 60-year period (1952-2012). We also explored whether seroconversions during 2012-2013 were spatially clustered. Our models identified 4 discrete outbreaks separated by an average delay of 17 years. On average, 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-37%) of the susceptible population was infected per outbreak, with >50% of the entire population remaining susceptible at any point. Participants who seroconverted during 2012-2013 were clustered at distances of <230 m, suggesting focal transmission. Large-scale outbreaks of chikungunya did not result in sustained multiyear transmission. Nevertheless, we estimate that >350 000 infections were missed by surveillance systems. Serological studies could supplement surveillance to provide important insights on pathogen circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiv470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4721913PMC
February 2016

Evaluation of Cardiac Involvement in Children with Dengue by Serial Echocardiographic Studies.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 30;9(7):e0003943. Epub 2015 Jul 30.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Infection with dengue virus results in a wide range of clinical manifestations from dengue fever (DF), a self-limited febrile illness, to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which is characterized by plasma leakage and bleeding tendency. Although cardiac involvement has been reported in dengue, the incidence and the extent of cardiac involvement are not well defined.

Methods And Principal Findings: We characterized the incidence and changes in cardiac function in a prospective in-patient cohort of suspected dengue cases by serial echocardiography. Plasma leakage was detected by serial chest and abdominal ultrasonography. Daily cardiac troponin-T levels were measured. One hundred and eighty one dengue cases were enrolled. On the day of enrollment, dengue cases that already developed plasma leakage had lower cardiac index (2695 (127) vs 3188 (75) (L/min/m2), p = .003) and higher left ventricular myocardial performance index (.413 (.021) vs .328 (.026), p = .021) and systemic vascular resistance (2478 (184) vs 1820 (133) (dynes·s/cm5), p = .005) compared to those without plasma leakage. Early diastolic wall motion of the left ventricle was decreased in dengue cases with plasma leakage compared to those without. Decreased left ventricular wall motility was more common in dengue patients compared to non-dengue cases particularly in cases with plasma leakage. Differences in cardiac function between DF and DHF were most pronounced around the time of plasma leakage. Cardiac dysfunction was transient and did not require treatment. Transient elevated troponin-T levels were more common in DHF cases compared to DF (14.5% vs 5%, p = 0.028).

Conclusions: Transient left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction was common in children hospitalized with dengue and related to severity of plasma leakage. The functional abnormality spontaneously resolved without specific treatment. Cardiac structural changes including myocarditis were uncommon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4520477PMC
April 2016

Absence of neutralizing antibodies against influenza A/H5N1 virus among children in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand.

J Clin Virol 2015 Aug 3;69:78-80. Epub 2015 Jun 3.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Influenza A/H5N1 actively circulated in Kamphaeng Phet (KPP), Thailand from 2004 to 2006. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of influenza virus infection in 800 adults conducted during 2008-2010 in KPP suggested that subclinical or mild H5N1 infections had occurred among this adult cohort. However, this study was conducted after the peak of H5N1 activity in KPP. Coincidentally, banked serum samples were available from a prospective longitudinal cohort study of primary school children who had undergone active surveillance for febrile illnesses from 2004 to 2007 and lived in the same district of KPP as the adult cohort.

Objectives: We sought to investigate whether subclinical or mild H5N1 infections had occurred among KPP residents during the peak of H5N1 activity from 2004 to 2006.

Study Design: H5N1 microneutralization (MN) assay was performed on banked serum samples from a prospective longitudinal cohort study of primary school children who had undergone active surveillance for febrile illnesses in KPP. Annual blood samples collected from 2004 to 2006 from 251 children were selected based on the criteria that they lived in villages with documented H5N1 infection.

Result: No H5N1 neutralizing antibodies were detected in 753 annual blood samples from 251 children.

Conclusion: During 2004-2006, very few subclinical or mild H5N1 infections occurred in KPP. Elevated H5N1 MN titers found in the adult cohort in 2008 were likely due to cross-reactivity from other influenza virus subtypes highlighting the complexities in interpreting influenza serological data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2015.05.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4515272PMC
August 2015

High rate of subclinical chikungunya virus infection and association of neutralizing antibody with protection in a prospective cohort in the Philippines.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 May 7;9(5):e0003764. Epub 2015 May 7.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally re-emerging arbovirus for which previous studies have indicated the majority of infections result in symptomatic febrile illness. We sought to characterize the proportion of subclinical and symptomatic CHIKV infections in a prospective cohort study in a country with known CHIKV circulation.

Methods/findings: A prospective longitudinal cohort of subjects ≥6 months old underwent community-based active surveillance for acute febrile illness in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012-13. Subjects with fever history were clinically evaluated at acute, 2, 5, and 8 day visits, and at a 3-week convalescent visit. Blood was collected at the acute and 3-week convalescent visits. Symptomatic CHIKV infections were identified by positive CHIKV PCR in acute blood samples and/or CHIKV IgM/IgG ELISA seroconversion in paired acute/convalescent samples. Enrollment and 12-month blood samples underwent plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using CHIKV attenuated strain 181/clone25. Subclinical CHIKV infections were identified by ≥8-fold rise from a baseline enrollment PRNT titer <10 without symptomatic infection detected during the intervening surveillance period. Selected CHIKV PCR-positive samples underwent viral isolation and envelope protein-1 gene sequencing. Of 853 subjects who completed all study procedures at 12 months, 19 symptomatic infections (2.19 per 100 person-years) and 87 subclinical infections (10.03 per 100 person-years) occurred. The ratio of subclinical-to-symptomatic infections was 4.6:1 varying with age from 2:1 in 6 month-5 year olds to 12:1 in those >50 years old. Baseline CHIKV PRNT titer ≥10 was associated with 100% (95%CI: 46.1, 100.0) protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated Asian genotype closely related to strains from Asia and the Caribbean.

Conclusions: Subclinical infections accounted for a majority of total CHIKV infections. A positive baseline CHIKV PRNT titer was associated with protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. These findings have implications for assessing disease burden, understanding virus transmission, and supporting vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4423927PMC
May 2015

Sequential dengue virus infections detected in active and passive surveillance programs in Thailand, 1994-2010.

BMC Public Health 2015 Mar 14;15:250. Epub 2015 Mar 14.

US Army Institute of Surgical Research, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Background: The effect of prior dengue virus (DENV) exposure on subsequent heterologous infection can be beneficial or detrimental depending on many factors including timing of infection. We sought to evaluate this effect by examining a large database of DENV infections captured by both active and passive surveillance encompassing a wide clinical spectrum of disease.

Methods: We evaluated datasets from 17 years of hospital-based passive surveillance and nine years of cohort studies, including clinical and subclinical DENV infections, to assess the outcomes of sequential heterologous infections. Chi square or Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions of infection outcomes such as disease severity; ANOVA was used for continuous variables. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for infection outcomes.

Results: Of 38,740 DENV infections, two or more infections were detected in 502 individuals; 14 had three infections. The mean ages at the time of the first and second detected infections were 7.6 ± 3.0 and 11.2 ± 3.0 years. The shortest time between sequential infections was 66 days. A longer time interval between sequential infections was associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the second detected infection (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). All possible sequential serotype pairs were observed among 201 subjects with DHF at the second detected infection, except DENV-4 followed by DENV-3. Among DENV infections detected in cohort subjects by active study surveillance and subsequent non-study hospital-based passive surveillance, hospitalization at the first detected infection increased the likelihood of hospitalization at the second detected infection.

Conclusions: Increasing time between sequential DENV infections was associated with greater severity of the second detected infection, supporting the role of heterotypic immunity in both protection and enhancement. Hospitalization was positively associated between the first and second detected infections, suggesting a possible predisposition in some individuals to more severe dengue disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1590-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4371716PMC
March 2015

Dengue virus neutralizing antibody levels associated with protection from infection in thai cluster studies.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 Oct 16;8(10):e3230. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Long-term homologous and temporary heterologous protection from dengue virus (DENV) infection may be mediated by neutralizing antibodies. However, neutralizing antibody titers (NTs) have not been clearly associated with protection from infection.

Methodology/principal Findings: Data from two geographic cluster studies conducted in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand were used for this analysis. In the first study (2004-2007), cluster investigations of 100-meter radius were triggered by DENV-infected index cases from a concurrent prospective cohort. Subjects between 6 months and 15 years old were evaluated for DENV infection at days 0 and 15 by DENV PCR and IgM ELISA. In the second study (2009-2012), clusters of 200-meter radius were triggered by DENV-infected index cases admitted to the provincial hospital. Subjects of any age ≥6 months were evaluated for DENV infection at days 0 and 14. In both studies, subjects who were DENV PCR positive at day 14/15 were considered to have been "susceptible" on day 0. Comparison subjects from houses in which someone had documented DENV infection, but the subject remained DENV negative at days 0 and 14/15, were considered "non-susceptible." Day 0 samples were presumed to be from just before virus exposure, and underwent plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT). Seventeen "susceptible" (six DENV-1, five DENV-2, and six DENV-4), and 32 "non-susceptible" (13 exposed to DENV-1, 10 DENV-2, and 9 DENV-4) subjects were evaluated. Comparing subjects exposed to the same serotype, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified homotypic PRNT titers of 11, 323 and 16 for DENV-1, -2 and -4, respectively, to differentiate "susceptible" from "non-susceptible" subjects.

Conclusions/significance: PRNT titers were associated with protection from infection by DENV-1, -2 and -4. Protective NTs appeared to be serotype-dependent and may be higher for DENV-2 than other serotypes. These findings are relevant for both dengue epidemiology studies and vaccine development efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199527PMC
October 2014
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