Publications by authors named "Annunziato Amendola"

231 Publications

Descriptive Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With and Without Tunnel Bone Grafting.

Am J Sports Med 2022 07;50(9):2397-2409

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Lytic or malpositioned tunnels may require bone grafting during revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (rACLR) surgery. Patient characteristics and effects of grafting on outcomes after rACLR are not well described.

Purpose: To describe preoperative characteristics, intraoperative findings, and 2-year outcomes for patients with rACLR undergoing bone grafting procedures compared with patients with rACLR without grafting.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: A total of 1234 patients who underwent rACLR were prospectively enrolled between 2006 and 2011. Baseline revision and 2-year characteristics, surgical technique, pathology, treatment, and patient-reported outcome instruments (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS], Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and Marx Activity Rating Scale [Marx]) were collected, as well as subsequent surgery information, if applicable. The chi-square and analysis of variance tests were used to compare group characteristics.

Results: A total of 159 patients (13%) underwent tunnel grafting-64 (5%) patients underwent 1-stage and 95 (8%) underwent 2-stage grafting. Grafting was isolated to the femur in 31 (2.5%) patients, the tibia in 40 (3%) patients, and combined in 88 patients (7%). Baseline KOOS Quality of Life (QoL) and Marx activity scores were significantly lower in the 2-stage group compared with the no bone grafting group (≤ .001). Patients who required 2-stage grafting had more previous ACLRs ( < .001) and were less likely to have received a bone-patellar tendon-bone or a soft tissue autograft at primary ACLR procedure (≤ .021) compared with the no bone grafting group. For current rACLR, patients undergoing either 1-stage or 2-stage bone grafting were more likely to receive a bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft (≤ .008) and less likely to receive a soft tissue autograft (≤ .003) compared with the no bone grafting group. At 2-year follow-up of 1052 (85%) patients, we found inferior outcomes in the 2-stage bone grafting group (IKDC score = 68; KOOS QoL score = 44; KOOS Sport/Recreation score = 65; and Marx activity score = 3) compared with the no bone grafting group (IKDC score = 77; KOOS QoL score = 63; KOOS Sport/Recreation score = 75; and Marx activity score = 7) (≤ .01). The 1-stage bone graft group did not significantly differ compared with the no bone grafting group.

Conclusion: Tunnel bone grafting was performed in 13% of our rACLR cohort, with 8% undergoing 2-stage surgery. Patients treated with 2-stage grafting had inferior baseline and 2-year patient-reported outcomes and activity levels compared with patients not undergoing bone grafting. Patients treated with 1-stage grafting had similar baseline and 2-year patient-reported outcomes and activity levels compared with patients not undergoing bone grafting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221104470DOI Listing
July 2022

Utilization of Arthroscopy During Ankle Fracture Fixation Among Early Career Surgeons: An Evaluation of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery Part II Oral Examination Database.

Iowa Orthop J 2022 06;42(1):103-108

Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

Background: Rotational ankle fractures are common injuries associated with high rates of intra-articular injury. Traditional ankle fracture open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) techniques provide limited capacity for evaluation of intra-articular pathology. Ankle arthroscopy represents a minimally invasive technique to directly visualize the articular cartilage and syndesmosis while aiding with reduction and allowing joint debridement, loose body removal, and treatment of chondral injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate temporal trends in concomitant ankle arthroscopy during ankle fracture ORIF surgery amongst early-career orthopaedic surgeons while examining the influence of subspecialty fellowship training on utilization.

Methods: The American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) Part II Oral Examination database was queried to identify all candidates performing at least one ankle fracture ORIF from examination years 2010 to 2019. All ORIF cases were examined to identify those that carried a concomitant CPT code for ankle arthroscopy. Concomitant ankle arthroscopy cases were categorized by candidates self-reported fellowship training status and examination year. Descriptive statistics were performed to report relevant data and linear regression analyses were utilized to assess temporal trends in concomitant ankle arthroscopy with ORIF for ankle fractures. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05.

Results: During the study period, there were 36,113 cases of ankle fracture ORIF performed of which 388 cases (1.1%) were performed with concomitant ankle arthroscopy. Ankle fracture ORIF was most frequently performed by trauma fellowship trained ABOS Part II candidates (n=8,888; 24.6%), followed by sports medicine (n=7,493; 20.8%) and foot and ankle (n=6,563; 18.2%). Arthroscopy was most frequently utilized by foot and ankle fellowship trained surgeons (293/6,270 cases; 4.5%) followed by sports medicine (29/7,464 cases; 0.4%) and trauma (4/8,884 cases; 0.1%). With respect to arthroscopic cases, 293 cases (75.5%) were performed by foot and ankle fellowship trained surgeons, 29 (7.5%) sports medicine, and 4 (1.0%) trauma. Ankle arthroscopy utilization significantly increased from 3.65 cases per 1,000 ankle fractures in 2010 to 13.91 cases per 1,000 ankle fractures in 2019 (p=0.010). Specifically, foot and ankle fellowship trained surgeons demonstrated a significant increase in arthroscopy utilization during ankle fracture ORIF over time (p<0.001; OR: 1.101; CI: 1.054-1.151).

Conclusion: Ankle arthroscopy utilization during ankle fracture ORIF has increased over the past decade. Foot and ankle fellowship trained surgeons contribute most significantly to this trend. .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9210429PMC
June 2022

Females have Lower Knee Strength and Vertical Ground Reaction Forces During Landing than Males Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction at the Time of Return to Sport.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2022 1;17(4):556-565. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Atrium Health Musculoskeletal Institute.

Purpose: There is a high rate of second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury (ipsilateral graft or contralateral ACL) upon return-to-sport (RTS) following ACL reconstruction (ACLR). While a significant amount of epidemiological data exists demonstrating sex differences as risk factors for primary ACL injury, less is known about sex differences as potential risk factors for second ACL injury. The purpose of this study is to determine if there are sex-specific differences in potential risk factors for second ACL injury at the time of clearance for RTS.

Methods: Ten male and eight female athletes (age: 20.8 years ±6.3, height: 173.2 cm ±10.1, mass: 76.6 kg ±18.3) participated in the study following ACLR at time of RTS (mean 10.2 months). Performance in lower extremity isokinetic and isometric strength testing, static and dynamic postural stability testing, and a single leg stop-jump task was compared between the sexes.

Results: Normalized for body weight, males had significantly greater isokinetic knee flexion (141±14.1 Nm/kg vs. 78±27.4 Nm/kg, p=0.001) and extension strength (216±45.5 Nm/kg vs. 159±53.9 Nm/kg, p=0.013) as well as isometric flexion (21.1±6.87% body weight vs. 12.5±5.57% body weight, p=0.013) and extension (41.1±7.34% body weight vs. 27.3±11.0% body weight, p=0.016) strength compared to females. In the single-leg stop jump task, males had a greater maximum vertical ground reaction force during landing (332±85.5% vs. 259±27.4% body weight, p=0.027) compared to females.

Conclusions: Based on these results, there are significant differences between sexes following ACLR at the time of RTS. Lower knee flexion and extension strength may be a potential risk factor for second ACL injury among females. Alternatively, the increased maximum vertical force observed in males may be a potential risk factor of second ACL injury in males. Although these results should be interpreted with some caution, they support that rehabilitation programs in the post-ACLR population should be individualized based on the sex of the individual.

Level Of Evidence: Level 3.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9159719PMC
June 2022

Returning to Activity After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Revision Surgery: An Analysis of the Multicenter Anterior Cruciate Ligament Revision Study (MARS) Cohort at 2 Years Postoperative.

Am J Sports Med 2022 06;50(7):1788-1797

Investigation performed at Slocum Research and Education Foundation, Eugene, Oregon, USA.

Background: Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision report lower outcome scores on validated knee questionnaires postoperatively compared to cohorts with primary ACL reconstruction. In a previously active population, it is unclear if patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are associated with a return to activity (RTA) or vary by sports participation level (higher level vs. recreational athletes).

Hypotheses: Individual RTA would be associated with improved outcomes (ie, decreased knee symptoms, pain, function) as measured using validated PROs. Recreational participants would report lower PROs compared with higher level athletes and be less likely to RTA.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: There were 862 patients who underwent a revision ACL reconstruction (rACLR) and self-reported physical activity at any level preoperatively. Those who did not RTA reported no activity 2 years after revision. Baseline data included patient characteristics, surgical history and characteristics, and PROs: International Knee Documentation Committee questionnaire, Marx Activity Rating Scale, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. A binary indicator was used to identify patients with same/better PROs versus worse outcomes compared with baseline, quantifying the magnitude of change in each direction, respectively. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate risk factors for not returning to activity, the association of 2-year PROs after rACLR surgery by RTA status, and whether each PRO and RTA status differed by participation level.

Results: At 2 years postoperatively, approximately 15% did not RTA, with current smokers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.3; = .001), female patients (aOR = 2.9; < .001), recreational participants (aOR = 2.0; = .016), and those with a previous medial meniscal excision (aOR = 1.9; = .013) having higher odds of not returning. In multivariate models, not returning to activity was significantly associated with having worse PROs at 2 years; however, no clinically meaningful differences in PROs at 2 years were seen between participation levels.

Conclusion: Recreational-level participants were twice as likely to not RTA compared with those participating at higher levels. Within a previously active cohort, no RTA was a significant predictor of lower PROs after rACLR. However, among patients who did RTA after rACLR, approximately 20% reported lower outcome scores. Most patients with rACLR who were active at baseline improved over time; however, patients who reported worse outcomes at 2 years had a clinically meaningful decline across all PROs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221094621DOI Listing
June 2022

Significant variations in surgical construct and return to sport protocols with syndesmotic injuries: an ISAKOS global perspective.

J ISAKOS 2022 02 17;7(1):13-18. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Duke University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Durham, NC, USA.

Objectives: Although the body of literature on syndesmosis injuries is growing with regard to both the biomechanics and clinical outcomes for various fixation constructs, there is little consensus on the optimal treatment and return to sport strategy for these injuries. We endeavoured to assess the current approaches to managing syndesmotic injuries through a Research Electronic Data Capture survey.

Methods: The survey consisted of 27 questions, including respondent demographics, indications for treatment of syndesmotic injuries, preferred treatment and technique, and postoperative management. Responses were generated through six different athlete scenarios: moderate impact, high impact, and very high impact athletes with/without complete deltoid injury. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all categorical responses.

Results: A total of 742 providers responded to the survey, including 457 American surgeons and 285 members of various international societies. Flexible devices were the preferred fixation construct (47.1%), followed by screws (29.6%), hybrid fixation (e.g. combination of flexible device and screw, 18%), and other (5.3%). Sixty-four percent of respondents noted that their rehabilitation protocols would not change for each athlete scenario. Considerable variability was present in anticipated return to full participation, largely dependent on the presence or absence of a deltoid ligament injury.

Conclusion: The most common elements used as surgical indications were syndesmosis widening > 2 mm on x-ray, an anterior inferior talofibular ligament injury in combination with a posterior inferior talofinular ligament or deltoid ligament involvement on magnetic resonance imaging, and widening of the distal tibiofibular joint during arthroscopic evaluation. Overall, flexible fixation (e.g. suture button) was the preferred device choice for the repair of an injured syndesmosis. Most respondents did not alter their rehab protocol or anticipated return to play timeline based on the injury severity. However, there was considerable variability between respondents on the time to weight-bearing, running, and full participation. Further pragmatic outcomes data are necessary to guide safe return to play protocols for syndesmotic injuries.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jisako.2021.10.005DOI Listing
February 2022

Outcomes, Complications, and Reoperations After Meniscal Allograft Transplantation.

Orthop J Sports Med 2022 Mar 10;10(3):23259671221075310. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

James R. Urbaniak Sports Sciences Institute, Division of Sports Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Outcomes following meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) are an evolving topic.

Purpose: To review clinical outcomes in younger, previously active patients who underwent an isolated MAT or MAT plus any osteotomy. Concurrent surgeries, complications, and graft survivorship are presented.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: Inclusion criteria included having undergone MAT with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up with at least 1 of the following patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures collected pre- and postoperatively: visual analog scale for pain, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and overall satisfaction. From patient records, we recorded descriptive data, side (medial/lateral), previous or concurrent procedures, perioperative complications, revisions, and conversion to arthroplasty. Two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in age and body mass index (BMI). A 2 × 2 chi-square test was used to determine if the spectrum of procedures performed on our study's patient group was representative of the entire population. PRO results were analyzed using a multivariate ANOVA.

Results: From a total of 91 eligible patients, 61 (63 knees) met our inclusion criteria. Mean presurgery age was 25.5 ± 9.2 years, and mean BMI was 26.7 (range, 18.5-38.4). At follow-up (mean, 4.8 years; range, 1.0-13.6 years) overall PROs were statistically and clinically improved at final follow-up ( ≤ .003); effect sizes were moderate and large. KOOS Pain and KOOS Activities of Daily Living showed some main or interaction effects that were trivial or small. Patient satisfaction with the treatment was ≥7 out of 10 in 85% of patients. A minimum of 1 subsequent surgery for various concerns was necessary in 23% of the 93 knees. Graft survival in the included patients was 100%.

Conclusion: Complications (conditions requiring at least 1 subsequent surgery) affected about one-quarter of the patients who underwent MAT. Nevertheless, MAT seemed to provide our patients with adequate pain relief and improved function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671221075310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8918750PMC
March 2022

Is It Time to Create Training Pathways Allowing Earlier Subspecialization within the "House of Orthopaedics"?: AOA Critical Issues.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2022 Feb 8. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

Abstract: The ability to train an orthopaedic resident in all aspects of orthopaedics in 5 years has become increasingly difficult due to the growth in knowledge and techniques, work-hour restrictions, and reduced resident autonomy. It has become nearly universal for our residents to complete at least 1 subspecialty fellowship prior to entering practice. In some subspecialties, the skills necessary to practice competently have become difficult to master. Simply adding to the current length of training may not address these issues effectively and would add to the economic cost of residency training. Novel training pathways that allow residents to focus earlier and in greater depth on their intended subspecialty while maintaining general orthopaedic competencies can be created without lengthening training. It is time to initiate discussions about these possibilities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.02166DOI Listing
February 2022

Altered lower extremity biomechanics following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction during single-leg and double-leg stop-jump tasks: A bilateral total support moment analysis.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2022 01 20;91:105533. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Atrium Health Musculoskeletal Institute, 2001 Vail Ave, Charlotte, NC 28207, United States.

Background: Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can lead to long-lasting biomechanical alterations that put individuals at risk of a second ACL injury. Examining the total support moment may reveal between- and within-limb compensatory strategies.

Methods: Twenty-six participants who were cleared to return to sport following ACL reconstruction were recruited. Each participant completed the single-leg and double-leg stop jump tasks. These tasks were analyzed using force plates and a 3D motion analysis system. The total support moment was calculated by summing the internal moments of the hip, knee and ankle at peak vertical ground reaction force.

Findings: Internal knee extensor moment was lower in the involved limb compared to the uninvolved for both tasks (17.6%, P = 0.022; 18.4%, P = 0.008). No significant between-limb differences were found for the total support moment. The involved limb exhibited an 18.2% decrease in knee joint contribution (P = 0.01) and a 21.6% increase in ankle joint contribution (P = 0.016) to the total support moment compared to the uninvolved limb in the single-leg stop jump task.

Interpretation: Compensation for the involved knee is likely due to altered biomechanics that redistributes load to the uninvolved knee or to adjacent joints of the same limb. A partial shift in joint contribution from the knee to the ankle during the single-leg stop jump task demonstrates a tendency to decrease load to the knee. Further studies are needed to investigate how these adaptations impact the prevalence of subsequent injury and poor joint health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2021.105533DOI Listing
January 2022

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Concomitant Meniscal Repair: Is Graft Choice Predictive of Meniscal Repair Success?

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Sep 14;9(9):23259671211033584. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

CU Sports Medicine, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Background: When meniscal repair is performed during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR), the effect of ACL graft type on meniscal repair outcomes is unclear.

Hypothesis: The authors hypothesized that meniscal repairs would fail at the lowest rate when concomitant ACLR was performed with bone--patellar tendon--bone (BTB) autograft.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Patients who underwent meniscal repair at primary ACLR were identified from a longitudinal, prospective cohort. Meniscal repair failures, defined as any subsequent surgical procedure addressing the meniscus, were identified. A logistic regression model was built to assess the association of graft type, patient-specific factors, baseline Marx activity rating score, and meniscal repair location (medial or lateral) with repair failure at 6-year follow-up.

Results: A total of 646 patients were included. Grafts used included BTB autograft (55.7%), soft tissue autograft (33.9%), and various allografts (10.4%). We identified 101 patients (15.6%) with a documented meniscal repair failure. Failure occurred in 74 of 420 (17.6%) isolated medial meniscal repairs, 15 of 187 (8%) isolated lateral meniscal repairs, and 12 of 39 (30.7%) of combined medial and lateral meniscal repairs. Meniscal repair failure occurred in 13.9% of patients with BTB autografts, 17.4% of patients with soft tissue autografts, and 19.4% of patients with allografts. The odds of failure within 6 years of index surgery were increased more than 2-fold with allograft versus BTB autograft (odds ratio = 2.34 [95% confidence interval, 1.12-4.92]; = .02). There was a trend toward increased meniscal repair failures with soft tissue versus BTB autografts (odds ratio = 1.41 [95% confidence interval, 0.87-2.30]; = .17). The odds of failure were 68% higher with medial versus lateral repairs ( < .001). There was a significant relationship between baseline Marx activity level and the risk of subsequent meniscal repair failure; patients with either very low (0-1 points) or very high (15-16 points) baseline activity levels were at the highest risk ( = .004).

Conclusion: Meniscal repair location (medial vs lateral) and baseline activity level were the main drivers of meniscal repair outcomes. Graft type was ranked third, demonstrating that meniscal repairs performed with allograft were 2.3 times more likely to fail compared with BTB autograft. There was no significant difference in failure rates between BTB versus soft tissue autografts.

Registration: NCT00463099 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211033584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8445540PMC
September 2021

Impact of Early Weightbearing After Ankle Arthroscopy and Bone Marrow Stimulation for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Sep 13;9(9):23259671211029883. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) may be caused by osteochondritis dissecans, osteochondral fractures, avascular necrosis, or focal arthritic changes. For certain focal cartilage defects, bone marrow stimulation (BMS) has been a widely used technique to restore a fibrocartilage substitute overlying the defect. There are various postoperative weightbearing protocols for this procedure, with no single gold standard method.

Purpose: To retrospectively review the outcomes of patients undergoing ankle arthroscopy with concomitant BMS to determine outcomes based on postoperative weightbearing status.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent ankle arthroscopy with BMS for OLTs between 2015 and 2018. Patients were placed into 2 cohorts based on postoperative immobilization status: the nonweightbearing (NWB) group and the weightbearing-as-tolerated (WBAT) group. Patient characteristics obtained included age, sex, comorbidities, and etiology of talar pathology. Outcomes included the pain visual analog scale (VAS), range of motion (ROM), complications, time to first weightbearing, and the method and length of immobilization. Patients who were lost to follow-up before 30 days were excluded. The chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables between cohorts, and the test was used for continuous variables.

Results: A total of 69 patients met the inclusion criteria for this study, 18 in the WBAT group and 51 in the NWB group. The mean lesion size was 9.48 × 9.21 mm (range, 3-15 mm × 2-20 mm) for the NWB group and 9.36 × 9.72 mm (range, 5-14 mm × 6-20 mm) for the WBAT group ( > .05). The VAS scores improved from 4.40 to 0.67 for the WBAT group and from 6.33 to 2.55 for the NWB group, with the difference in final values reaching statistical significance ( = .0002). Postoperative ROM was not significantly different between the groups. There were 4 repeat operations within the NWB cohort.

Conclusion: The surgical management of OLTs can be challenging, and the postoperative weightbearing protocol can be an extra obstacle for the patient to navigate. We found no difference in pain, ROM, or complications when allowing immediate, full WBAT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211029883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8442498PMC
September 2021

Articular Cartilage and Meniscus Predictors of Patient-Reported Outcomes 10 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Multicenter Cohort Study.

Am J Sports Med 2021 09 29;49(11):2878-2888. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Orthopaedics, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: Articular cartilage and meniscal damage are commonly encountered and often treated at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Our understanding of how these injuries and their treatment relate to outcomes of ACLR is still evolving.

Hypothesis/purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether articular cartilage and meniscal variables are predictive of 10-year outcomes after ACLR. We hypothesized that articular cartilage lesions and meniscal tears and treatment would be predictors of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) (all 5 subscales), and Marx activity level outcomes at 10-year follow-up after ACLR.

Study Design: Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 1.

Methods: Between 2002 and 2008, individuals with ACLR were prospectively enrolled and followed longitudinally using the IKDC, KOOS, and Marx activity score completed at entry, 2, 6, and 10 years. A proportional odds logistic regression model was built incorporating variables from patient characteristics, surgical technique, articular cartilage injuries, and meniscal tears and treatment to determine the predictors (risk factors) of IKDC, KOOS, and Marx outcomes at 10 years.

Results: A total of 3273 patients were enrolled (56% male; median age, 23 years at time of enrollment). Ten-year follow-up was obtained on 79% (2575/3273) of the cohort. Incidence of concomitant pathology at the time of surgery consisted of the following: articular cartilage (medial femoral condyle [MFC], 22%; lateral femoral condyle [LFC], 15%; medial tibial plateau [MTP], 4%; lateral tibial plateau [LTP], 11%; patella, 18%; trochlea, 8%) and meniscal pathology (medial, 37%; lateral, 46%). Variables that were predictive of poorer 10-year outcomes included articular cartilage damage in the patellofemoral ( < .01) and medial ( < .05) compartments and previous medial meniscal surgery (7% of knees; < .04). Compared with no meniscal tear, a meniscal injury was not associated with 10-year outcomes. Medial meniscal repair at the time of ACLR was associated with worse 10-year outcomes for 2 of 5 KOOS subscales, while a medial meniscal repair in knees with grade 2 MFC chondrosis was associated with better outcomes on 2 KOOS subscales.

Conclusion: Articular cartilage injury in the patellofemoral and medial compartments at the time of ACLR and a history of medial meniscal surgery before ACLR were associated with poorer 10-year ACLR patient-reported outcomes, but meniscal injury present at the time of ACLR was not. There was limited and conflicting association of medial meniscal repair with these outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211028247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9112230PMC
September 2021

Association Between Graft Choice and 6-Year Outcomes of Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the MARS Cohort.

Am J Sports Med 2021 08 14;49(10):2589-2598. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Although graft choice may be limited in the revision setting based on previously used grafts, most surgeons believe that graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is an important factor related to outcome.

Hypothesis: In the ACL revision setting, there would be no difference between autograft and allograft in rerupture rate and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) at 6-year follow-up.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: Patients who had revision surgery were identified and prospectively enrolled in this cohort study by 83 surgeons over 52 sites. Data collected included baseline characteristics, surgical technique and pathology, and a series of validated PRO measures. Patients were followed up at 6 years and asked to complete the identical set of PRO instruments. Incidence of additional surgery and reoperation because of graft failure were also recorded. Multivariable regression models were used to determine the predictors (risk factors) of PROs, graft rerupture, and reoperation at 6 years after revision surgery.

Results: A total of 1234 patients including 716 (58%) men were enrolled. A total of 325 (26%) underwent revision using a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) autograft; 251 (20%), soft tissue autograft; 289 (23%), BTB allograft; 302 (25%), soft tissue allograft; and 67 (5%), other graft. Questionnaires and telephone follow-up for subsequent surgery information were obtained for 809 (66%) patients, while telephone follow-up was only obtained for an additional 128 patients for the total follow-up on 949 (77%) patients. Graft choice was a significant predictor of 6-year Marx Activity Rating Scale scores ( = .024). Specifically, patients who received a BTB autograft for revision reconstruction had higher activity levels than did patients who received a BTB allograft (odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.25-2.94). Graft rerupture was reported in 5.8% (55/949) of patients by their 6-year follow-up: 3.5% (16/455) of patients with autografts and 8.4% (37/441) of patients with allografts. Use of a BTB autograft for revision resulted in patients being 4.2 times less likely to sustain a subsequent graft rupture than if a BTB allograft were utilized ( = .011; 95% CI, 1.56-11.27). No significant differences were found in graft rerupture rates between BTB autograft and soft tissue autografts ( = .87) or between BTB autografts and soft tissue allografts ( = .36). Use of an autograft was found to be a significant predictor of having fewer reoperations within 6 years compared with using an allograft ( = .010; OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.87).

Conclusion: BTB and soft tissue autografts had a decreased risk in graft rerupture compared with BTB allografts. BTB autografts were associated with higher activity level than were BTB allografts at 6 years after revision reconstruction. Surgeons and patients should consider this information when choosing a graft for revision ACL reconstruction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211027170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9236596PMC
August 2021

Long-term National Trends of Arthroscopic Meniscal Repair and Debridement.

Am J Sports Med 2021 05 2;49(6):1530-1537. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

Background: Optimal treatment of meniscal pathology continues to evolve in orthopaedic surgery, with a growing understanding of which patients benefit from which procedure and which patients might be best treated nonsurgically. In 2002, Moseley et al found no difference between arthroscopic procedures, including meniscal debridement and sham surgery, in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. This called into question the role of routine arthroscopic debridement in these patients. Additionally, an increased interest in understanding and maintaining the function of the meniscus has more recently resulted in a greater focus on meniscal preservation procedures.

Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose was to evaluate the trends of arthroscopic meniscal debridement and repair and the characteristics of the patients receiving these treatments, compare the differences in practice between newly trained orthopaedic sports medicine specialists and those of other specialties, and analyze if there are differences in practice by region. It was hypothesized that the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) database would evaluate practice patterns of recent graduates as a surrogate for current treatment and training and, consequently, demonstrate a decreased rate of meniscal debridement.

Methods: Data from ABOS Part II examinees from 2001 to 2017 were obtained from the ABOS Case List. Current Procedure Terminology (CPT) codes related to arthroscopic meniscal treatment were selected. The examination year, age of the patient, practice region, and examinee subspecialty were analyzed. Patient age was stratified into 4 groups: <30, 30 to 50, 51 to 65, and >65 years. Examinee subspecialty was stratified into sports medicine and non-sports medicine. Statistical regression analysis was performed.

Results: Between 2001 and 2017, ABOS Part II examinees submitted 131,047 cases with CPT codes 29880 to 29883. Meniscal debridement volume decreased for all age groups during the study period, while repair increased. Sports medicine subspecialists were more likely than their counterparts to perform repair over debridement in patients aged younger than 30 years ( = .0004) and between 30 and 50 years ( = .0005).

Conclusion: This study provides insights into arthroscopic meniscal debridement and repair practice trends among ABOS Part II examinees. Meniscal debridement is decreasing and meniscal repair is increasing. Younger patient age and treatment by a sports medicine subspecialty examinee are associated with a higher likelihood of repair over debridement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546521999419DOI Listing
May 2021

The Intrarater and Inter-rater Reliability of Radiographic Evaluation of the Posterior Tibial Slope in Pediatric Patients.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Jul;41(6):e404-e410

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ortho Carolina, Durham, NC.

Background: In young athletes, an association exists between an increased posterior tibial slope (PTS) and the risk of primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, ACL graft rupture, contralateral ACL injury, and inferior patient reported outcomes after ACL reconstruction. In spite of this, there is no consensus on the optimal measurement method for PTS in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of previously described radiographic PTS measurement techniques.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 130 patients with uninjured knees between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The medial PTS was measured on lateral knee radiographs by four blinded reviewers using three previously described methods: the anterior tibial cortex (ATC), posterior tibial cortex (PTC), and the proximal tibia anatomic axis (PTAA). The radiographs were graded by each reviewer twice, performed 2 weeks apart. The intrarater and inter-rater reliability were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Subgroup analyses were then performed stratifying by patient age and sex.

Results: The mean PTS were significantly different based on measurement method: 12.5 degrees [confidence interval (CI): 12.2-12.9 degrees] for ATC, 7.6 degrees (CI: 7.3-7.9 degrees) for PTC, and 9.3 degrees (CI: 9.0-9.6 degrees) for PTAA (P<0.0001). Measures of intrarater reliability was excellent among all reviewers across all 3 methods of measuring the PTS with a mean ICC of 0.87 (range: 0.82 to 0.92) for ATC, 0.83 (range: 0.82 to 0.87) for PTC, and 0.88 (range: 0.79 to 0.92) for PTAA. The inter-rater reliability was good with a mean ICC of 0.69 (range: 0.62 to 0.83) for the ATC, 0.63 (range: 0.52 to 0.83) for the PTC, and 0.62 (range: 0.37 to 0.84) for the PTAA. Using PTAA referencing, the PTS was greater for older patients: 9.9 degrees (CI: 7.7-9.4 degrees) vs 8.5 degrees (CI: 9.2-10.7 degrees) (P=0.0157) and unaffected by sex: 9.5 degrees (CI: 8.8-10.1 degrees) for females and 9.0 degrees (CI: 8.0-10.0) for males (P=0.4199). There were no major differences in intrarater or inter-rater reliability based on age or sex.

Conclusions: While the absolute PTS value varies by measurement technique, all methods demonstrated an intrarater reliability of 0.83 to 0.88 and inter-rater reliability of 0.61 to 0.69. However, this study highlights the need to identify PTS metrics in children with increased inter-rater reliability.

Level Of Evidence: IV, Case series.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001792DOI Listing
July 2021

Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in a Cohort of Division I NCAA Athletes From a Single Institution.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Feb 19;9(2):2325967120982281. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Iowa Health Care, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are common in collegiate athletes. The rate of return to the preinjury level of sport activities after ACL reconstruction continues to evolve.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose was to determine the return-to-sport rate after ACL reconstruction in a cohort of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes in different sports. It was hypothesized that, with intensive supervision of rehabilitation, the return-to-sport rate would be optimal.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 75 collegiate athletes from a single institution who had undergone unilateral or bilateral ACL reconstruction between 2001 and 2013 and participated in an extensive supervised rehabilitation program. Prospectively collected athlete data as well as data about preinjury exposure, associated lesions, surgical technique, time lost to injury, number of games missed, time to return to full sport activity or retire, and subsequent surgical procedures were extracted from the medical and athletic trainer records.

Results: The 75 patients (40 male, 35 female; mean age, 20.1 years) underwent 81 reconstruction procedures (73 primary, 8 revision). The mean follow-up was 19.3 months. The overall return-to-sport rate was 92%. After reconstruction, 9 athletes (12%) retired from collegiate sports, but 3 of them returned to sport activities after graduation. Overall, 8 athletes (11%) experienced an ACL graft retear.

Conclusion: The return-to-sport rate in our National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes compared favorably with that reported in other studies in the literature. The strict follow-up by the surgeon, together with the high-profile, almost daily technical and psychological support given mainly by the athletic trainers during the recovery period, may have contributed to preparing the athletes for a competitive rate of return to sport at their preinjury level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120982281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900794PMC
February 2021

In Response to COVID-19: Current Trends in Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine Fellowships.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Feb 9;9(2):2325967120987004. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: The COVID-19 (SARS-COV-2) pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges to the health care system and education models. The reduction in case volume, transition to remote learning, lack of sports coverage opportunities, and decreased clinical interactions have had an immediate effect on orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship programs.

Purpose/hypothesis: Our purpose was to gauge the response to the pandemic from a sports medicine fellowship education perspective. We hypothesized that (1) the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant change in training programs, (2) in-person surgical skills training and didactic learning would be substituted with virtual learning, and (3) hands-on surgical training and case numbers would decrease and the percentage of fellows graduating with skill levels commensurate with graduation would decrease.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: In May 2020, a survey was sent to the fellowship directors of all 90 orthopaedic sports medicine fellowships accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education; it included questions on program characteristics, educational lectures, and surgical skills. A total of 37 completed surveys (41%) were returned, all of which were deidentified. Responses were compiled and saved on a closed, protected institutional server.

Results: In a majority of responding programs (89%), fellows continued to participate in the operating room. Fellows continued with in-person clinical visits in 65% of programs, while 51% had their fellows participate in telehealth visits. Fellows were "redeployed" to help triage and assist with off-service needs in 21% of programs compared with 65% of resident programs having residents rotate off service. Regarding virtual education, 78% of programs have used or are planning to use platforms offered by medical societies, and 49% have used or are planning to use third-party independent education platforms. Of the 37 programs, 30 reported no in-person lectures or meetings, and there was a sharp decline in the number of programs participating in cadaver laboratories (n = 10; 27%) and industry courses (n = 6; 16%).

Conclusion: Virtual didactic and surgical education and training as well as telehealth will play a larger role in the coming year than in the past. There are effects to fellows' exposure to sports coverage and employment opportunities. The biggest challenge will be how to maintain the element of human interaction and connect with patients and trainees at a time when social distancing is needed to curb the spread of COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120987004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876773PMC
February 2021

Optimizing Return to Play for Common and Controversial Foot and Ankle Sports Injuries.

JBJS Rev 2020 12 18;8(12):e20.00067. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Duke Sport Science Institute, Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

»: Surgical decision-making should consider factors to help optimize return to play for athletes with foot and ankle injuries, including injuries to the syndesmosis, the Achilles tendon, the fifth metatarsal, and the Lisfranc complex. Understanding influential factors on return to play may help orthopaedic surgeons counsel athletes and coaches on expectations for a timeline to return to play and performance metrics.

»: Outcomes after rigid and flexible fixation for syndesmotic injuries are generally favorable. Some data support an earlier return to sport and higher functional scores with flexible fixation, in addition to lower rates of reoperation and a decreased incidence of malreduction, particularly with deltoid repair, if indicated.

»: Minimally invasive techniques for Achilles tendon repair have been shown to have a decreased risk of wound complications. Athletes undergoing Achilles repair should expect to miss a full season of play to recover.

»: Athletes with fifth metatarsal fractures have better return-to-play outcomes with surgical management and can expect a high return-to-play rate within approximately 3 months of surgery.

»: Percutaneous treatment of Lisfranc injuries may expedite return to play relative to open procedures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.RVW.20.00067DOI Listing
December 2020

Meniscus cell regional phenotypes: Dedifferentiation and reversal by biomaterial embedding.

J Orthop Res 2021 10 25;39(10):2177-2186. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Meniscus injuries are common and a major cause of long-term joint degeneration and disability. Current treatment options are limited, so novel regenerative therapies or tissue engineering strategies are urgently needed. The development of new therapies is hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding the cellular biology of the meniscus and a lack of well-established methods for studying meniscus cells in vitro. The goals of this study were to (1) establish baseline expression profiles and dedifferentiation patterns of inner and outer zone primary meniscus cells, and (2) evaluate the utility of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) polymer hydrogels to reverse dedifferentiation trends for long-term meniscus cell culture. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we measured expression levels of putative meniscus phenotype marker genes in freshly isolated meniscus tissue, tissue explant culture, and monolayer culture of inner and outer zone meniscus cells from porcine knees to establish baseline dedifferentiation characteristics, and then compared these expression levels to PEGDA/GelMA embedded passaged meniscus cells. COL1A1 showed robust upregulation, while CHAD, CILP, and COMP showed downregulation with monolayer culture. Expression levels of COL2A1, ACAN, and SOX9 were surprisingly similar between inner and outer zone tissue and were found to be less sensitive as markers of dedifferentiation. When embedded in PEGDA/GelMA hydrogels, expression levels of meniscus cell phenotype genes were significantly modulated by varying the ratio of polymer components, allowing these materials to be tuned for phenotype restoration, meniscus cell culture, and tissue engineering applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203760PMC
October 2021

Evolution in Surgical Management of Ankle Instability in Athletes.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Jan;29(1):e5-e13

From the Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedics, Duke Sport Science Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC (Lau and Amendola), the Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (Barg), The Steadman Clinic and Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO (Haytmanek), and the Kansas City Orthopaedic Institute, Leawood, KS (McCullough).

Recent concepts are changing the management of ankle instability. These include concurrent medial and lateral instabilities, use of ankle arthroscopy, use of suture anchors, all-arthroscopic stabilization, synthetic augmentation, and early postoperative rehabilitation. Medial sided injuries occur in up to 72% of the lateral ankle sprains, and concomitant repair may provide greater stability. Suture anchors are equally as strong as transosseous tunnels, and the technique is simple, reproducible, and may decrease complications, but anchors do increase costs. Synthetic augmentation demonstrates greater strength than Broström alone in cadaver-based biomechanical testing. Although clinical studies of synthetic augmentation have demonstrated equivocal stability and pain compared with Broström alone, synthetic augmentation may expedite rehabilitation. All-arthroscopic ankle stabilization is gaining popularity with increasing publications. Early findings demonstrate comparable biomechanical and clinical data compared with open techniques. Early postoperative weight-bearing within 2 weeks seems to be safe and may shorten time to return to play. Surgeons may consider using these novel techniques in the management of lateral ankle instability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-20-00176DOI Listing
January 2021

Patient Preferences for Surgical Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Discrete-Choice Experiment Evaluating Total and Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020 Dec;102(23):2022-2031

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis but is associated with increased complication rates compared with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). UKA offers better functional outcomes but is associated with a higher risk of revision. The purpose of this study was to apply good-practice, stated-preference methods to quantify patient preferences for benefit-risk tradeoffs associated with arthroplasty treatments for end-stage knee osteoarthritis.

Methods: A discrete-choice experiment was developed with the following attributes: chance of complications, functional ability, awareness of the knee implant, and chance of needing another operation within 10 years. Patients included those aged 40 to 80 years with knee osteoarthritis. A pivot design filtered respondents into 1 of 2 surveys on the basis of self-reported functional ability (good compared with fair or poor) as measured by the Oxford Knee Score. Treatment-preference data were collected, and relative attribute-importance weights were estimated.

Results: Two hundred and fifty-eight completed survey instruments from 92 males and 164 females were analyzed, with 72 respondents in the good-function cohort and 186 in the fair/poor-function cohort. Patients placed the greatest value or relative importance on serious complications and rates of revision in both cohorts. Preference weights did not vary between cohorts for any attribute. In the good-function cohort, 42% of respondents chose TKA and 58% chose UKA. In the fair/poor-function cohort, 54% chose TKA and 46% chose UKA.

Conclusions: Patient preferences for various treatment attributes varied among patients in a knee osteoarthritis population. Complication and revision rates were the most important factors to patients, suggesting that physicians should focus on these areas when discussing treatments. The proportion of patients who chose UKA suggests that the current trend of increased UKA utilization is aligned with patient preferences.

Clinical Relevance: Systematic elicitation of patient preferences for knee arthroplasty procedures, which lays out evidence-based risks and benefits of different treatments, indicates a larger subset of the knee osteoarthritis population may prefer UKA than would be suggested by the current rates of utilization of the procedure. Arthroplasty treatment should align with patient preferences and eligibility criteria to better deliver patient-centered care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.00132DOI Listing
December 2020

Rate of infection following revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and associated patient- and surgeon-dependent risk factors: Retrospective results from MOON and MARS data collected from 2002 to 2011.

J Orthop Res 2021 02 19;39(2):274-280. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Bridger Orthopedic and Sports Medicine, Bozeman, Montana, USA.

Infection is a rare occurrence after revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (rACLR). Because of the low rates of infection, it has been difficult to identify risk factors for infection in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to report the rate of infection following rACLR and assess whether infection is associated with patient- and surgeon-dependent risk factors. We reviewed two large prospective cohorts to identify patients with postoperative infections following rACLR. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, history of diabetes, and graft choice were recorded for each patient. The association of these factors with postoperative infection following rACLR was assessed. There were 1423 rACLR cases in the combined cohort, with 9 (0.6%) reporting postoperative infections. Allografts had a higher risk of infection than autografts (odds ratio, 6.8; 95% CI, 0.9-54.5; p = .045). Diabetes (odds ratio, 28.6; 95% CI, 5.5-149.9; p = .004) was a risk factor for infection. Patient age, sex, BMI, and smoking status were not associated with risk of infection after rACLR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854959PMC
February 2021

Meniscal Repair in the Setting of Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Results From the MARS Cohort.

Am J Sports Med 2020 10 21;48(12):2978-2985. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

All authors are listed in the Authors section at the end of this article.

Background: Meniscal preservation has been demonstrated to contribute to long-term knee health. This has been a successful intervention in patients with isolated tears and tears associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, the results of meniscal repair in the setting of revision ACL reconstruction have not been documented.

Purpose: To examine the prevalence and 2-year operative success rate of meniscal repairs in the revision ACL setting.

Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: All cases of revision ACL reconstruction with concomitant meniscal repair from a multicenter group between 2006 and 2011 were selected. Two-year follow-up was obtained by phone and email to determine whether any subsequent surgery had occurred to either knee since the initial revision ACL reconstruction. If so, operative reports were obtained, whenever possible, to verify the pathologic condition and subsequent treatment.

Results: In total, 218 patients (18%) from 1205 revision ACL reconstructions underwent concurrent meniscal repairs. There were 235 repairs performed: 153 medial, 48 lateral, and 17 medial and lateral. The majority of these repairs (n = 178; 76%) were performed with all-inside techniques. Two-year surgical follow-up was obtained on 90% (197/218) of the cohort. Overall, the meniscal repair failure rate was 8.6% (17/197) at 2 years. Of the 17 failures, 15 were medial (13 all-inside, 2 inside-out) and 2 were lateral (both all-inside). Four medial failures were treated in conjunction with a subsequent repeat revision ACL reconstruction.

Conclusion: Meniscal repair in the revision ACL reconstruction setting does not have a high failure rate at 2-year follow-up. Failure rates for medial and lateral repairs were both <10% and consistent with success rates of primary ACL reconstruction meniscal repair. Medial tears underwent reoperation for failure at a significantly higher rate than lateral tears.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520948850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8171059PMC
October 2020

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Comparative Clinical Study Between Adjustable and Fixed Length Suspension Devices.

Iowa Orthop J 2020 ;40(1):121-127

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston, MA.

Background: Adjustable-length cortical suspension devices provide technical advantages over fixed-length devices for femoral graft fixation during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction but have shown increased lengthening during cyclic loading in biomechanical studies. The purpose of this study was to prospectively measure graft elongation in vivo along with patient reported outcomes.

Methods: Thirty-seven skeletally mature patients diagnosed with anterior cruciate insufficiency who underwent ACL reconstruction using autogenous hamstring graft were included in this study. Thirteen patients received an ACL reconstruction using a fixed loop device (FL) and twenty-four patients were treated with an adjustable-length device (AL) based on surgeon preference. Bilateral knee laxity was measured with a KT1000 Arthrometer before surgery and immediately after surgery with the patient under anesthesia, and at the 6-week, 3-month, and 6-month clinical follow-up appointments. All measurements were made by the same operator with maximum force testing. Differences between the affected knee and the contralateral knee were measured. Patient reported outcomes were collected at 6 and 24 months post-operatively.

Results: No difference was found between the FL and AL groups in either knee laxity or patient reported outcomes. Average side-to-side difference at 6 months was 1.8 ± 2.6 mm for the FL group and 1.7 ± 2.4 mm for the AL group (p=.874). One patient in the FL group (7.7%) and two in the AL group (9.5%) had a side to side difference in laxity greater 5 mm. Patient reported outcomes did not differ between groups and no patients underwent revision surgery.

Conclusions: The adjustable-length cortical suspension device (AL) did not demonstrate increased laxity as compared to fixed-length devices. There was no difference in patient reported outcomes between the groups..
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7368520PMC
February 2021

Atlantic Coast Conference Mandatory College Football Medical Observer. A Necessary Addition to the Preexisting Medical Team?

Iowa Orthop J 2020 ;40(1):115-120

Carolinas Musculoskeletal Institute, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte, NC.

Background: Some NCAA conferences now require a press box-based Medical Observer for all football games to identify injuries missed by on-field providers. The objective of this study was to determine whether a Medical Observer identified injuries missed by the on-field medical personnel.

Methods: This was a comparative observational study of injury identification methods which was done at nine NCAA football games. The athletes on a single institution's varsity football team participated. Eight games and one bowl game were studied. Observers were sports medicine Fellows (Orthopaedic, Primary Care). Injury logs were kept by the Medical Observer to document game day injuries. The athletic training staff collected injury reports in the days following games. These were compared with game day injury logs to identify any injuries that were not reported to the medical staff during competition.

Results: A total of 41 game injuries were identified (4.56 injuries/ game). 29 injuries (29/41; 71%) were identified by both the sideline medical providers and the Observer, 12 (12/41; 29%) were identified by only the sideline medical providers and no injuries were identified by only the Observer. A total of 95 game-related injuries were evaluated in the training room on the day after each game. 27 injuries (27/95; 28%) had been identified during the game (9 [33%] by the sideline medical team and 18 [67%] by both the sideline medical team and the Observer). Fourteen game injuries were not severe enough to require care the following day. There were 68 (68/95; 72%) delayed self-reported injuries treated by the training room staff the next day.

Conclusions: A press box-based Medical Observer did not identify any injuries missed by the on-field medical staff. This study did, however, identify a large number of unreported game-day injuries that were treated the following day..
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7368541PMC
February 2021

Do Patient Positioning and Portal Placement for Arthroscopic Subtalar Arthrodesis Matter?

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Jul 8;8(7):2325967120926451. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

Background: Arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis was first described over 2 decades ago and originally performed in the lateral decubitus or supine position using anterolateral and posterolateral portals situated about the fibula. More recently, several authors have advocated for prone positioning utilizing posteromedial and posterolateral portals with an optional accessory lateral portal. To date, a comparison of these techniques has been limited.

Purpose: To determine the effect of patient positioning and portal placement on complication rates after arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis.

Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Patients were placed into 1 of 3 groups: the lateral group if they were positioned lateral or supine with lateral-based portals; the 2-portal prone group if they were positioned prone with posteromedial and posterolateral portals; or the 3-portal prone group if posteromedial, posterolateral, and accessory lateral portals were utilized in the prone position. Inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects models were used to evaluate pooled estimates.

Results: A total of 20 studies examining 484 feet in 468 patients with a mean follow-up of 36.1 months were included for analysis. Overall, 8 studies examined patients in the prone position with 2 posterior portals (n = 111; 22.9%), 7 articles evaluated lateral portals (n = 182; 37.6%), and 5 studies examined patients in the prone position with 3 portals (n = 191; 39.5%). The total complication rate was similar ( = .620) between the 2-portal prone (18.9%), 3-portal prone (17.8%), and lateral (17.6%) groups. There was no difference observed in the rate of complications secondary to portal placement ( ≥ .334), rate of painful hardware ( ≥ .497), and rate of repeat surgery ( ≥ .304). The 2-portal prone group had a significantly higher rate of nonunion than the lateral group (8.1% vs 1.1%, respectively; = .020) but not the 3-portal prone group (5.8%; = .198).

Conclusion: The current study demonstrated a higher rate of nonunion following arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis with prone patient positioning using posteromedial and posterolateral portals without an accessory lateral portal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120926451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346701PMC
July 2020

Trends in open shoulder surgery among early career orthopedic surgeons: who is doing what?

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Jul 24;29(7):e269-e278. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: The incidence of various open shoulder procedures has changed over time. In addition, various fellowships provide overlapping training in open shoulder surgery. There is a lack of information regarding the relationship between surgeon training and open shoulder procedure type and incidence in early career orthopedic surgeons.

Methods: The American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery Part-II database was queried from 2002 to 2016 for reported open shoulder procedures. The procedures were categorized as follows: arthroplasty, revision arthroplasty, open instability, trauma, and open rotator cuff. We evaluated procedure trends as well as their relationship to surgeon fellowship categorized by Sports, Shoulder/Elbow, Hand, Trauma, and "Other" fellowship as well as no fellowship training. We additionally evaluated complication data as it related to procedure, fellowship category, and volume.

Results: Over the 2002-2016 study period, there were increasing cases of arthroplasty, revision arthroplasty, and trauma (P < .001). There were decreasing cases in open instability and open rotator cuff (P < .001). Those with Sports training reported the largest overall share of open shoulder cases. Those with Shoulder/Elbow training reported an increasing overall share of arthroplasty cases and higher per candidate case numbers. The percentage of early career orthopedic surgeons reporting 5 or more arthroplasty cases was highest among Shoulder/Elbow candidates (P < .001). Across all procedures, those without fellowship training were least likely to report a complication (odds ratio [OR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.86; P < .001). Shoulder/Elbow candidates were least likely to report an arthroplasty complication (OR, 0.84, P = .03) as was any surgeon reporting 5 or more arthroplasty cases (OR, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.94; P = .006).

Conclusion: The type and incidence of open shoulder surgery procedures continues to change. Among early career surgeons, those with more specific shoulder training are now performing the majority of arthroplasty-related procedures, and early career volume inversely correlates with complications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.01.075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305957PMC
July 2020

Total Ankle Arthroplasty and Ankle Arthrodesis Use: An American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery Part II Database Study.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Mar - Apr;59(2):274-279

Assistant Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA.

Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) use has increased during the past 20 years, whereas ankle arthrodesis (AAD) use has remained constant. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in TAA and AAD use in American Board of Orthopedic Surgery Part II candidates while considering the influence of fellowship training status on treatment of end-stage ankle arthritis. The American Board of Orthopedic Surgery Part II database was queried to identify all candidates who performed ≥1 TAA or AAD from examination years 2009 through 2018. Candidates were categorized by examination year and by self-reported fellowship training status. Descriptive statistical methods were used to report procedure volumes. Trends in use of TAA and AAD were examined by using log-modified regression analyses. From 2009through 2018, there was no significant change in TAA or AAD use among all candidates (p = .92, p = .20). Candidates reporting a foot and ankle fellowship trended toward increased use of TAA relative to AAD compared with non-foot and ankle fellowship candidates, but this failed to reach statistical significance (p = .06). The use of arthroscopic AAD increased over time (p < .01) among all candidates. TAA and AAD use did not change over the study period. Volume of TAA and AAD performed by early-career surgeons remains low. The findings in this study should serve as an important reference for orthopedic trainees, early-career surgeons, and orthopedic educators interested in optimizing training curriculum for surgical management of end-stage ankle arthritis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2019.08.014DOI Listing
January 2021

Optimizing Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Outcomes: What Else Needs Fixing Besides the ACL?

Instr Course Lect 2020 ;69:653-660

This review focuses on the management of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction patients when other concomitant pathology may need to be addressed at the time of surgery. Given the role of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in preventing osteoarthritis progression and contributing to knee stability, medial meniscus repair should always be considered when performing ACL reconstruction. Meniscal transplant may also be appropriate in select patients with normal knee alignment and absent of cartilage abnormalities in the compartment. Varus alignment with a varus thrust or increased posterior tibial slope will increase stress on the ACL graft and may predispose to early failure. Alignment should be assessed with appropriate radiographs and corrective osteotomy in isolation or in conjunction with ACL reconstruction should be considered for certain patients. Low-grade medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injuries can be treated nonsurgically prior to ACL reconstruction. These are frequently missed with either physical examination or radiographic imaging. High-grade LCL injuries are often treated with repair versus reconstruction in conjunction with ACL reconstruction depending on the timing of the injury. When chronic MCL injuries show opening in extension, MCL reconstruction may be needed in addition to the ACL reconstruction to improve outcome. The role of extra-articular reconstruction or anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction remains controversial but may have a role in protecting rotatory stability in primary ACL reconstruction for high-risk patients, and in the revision setting. Cartilage lesions noted in the setting of ACL injury should be considered. Small, asymptomatic lesions in locations unrelated to the ACL injury may not necessitate additional intervention. Large symptomatic lesions may require additional cartilage restoration procedures at the time of ACL reconstruction or in a staged fashion. In this ICL, we will address the diagnosis, management, and surgical indications of other concomitant pathology associated with ACL ruptures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in High School and College-Aged Athletes: Does Autograft Choice Influence Anterior Cruciate Ligament Revision Rates?

Am J Sports Med 2020 02 9;48(2):298-309. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Investigation performed at Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, and Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Physicians' and patients' decision-making process between bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) and hamstring tendon autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) may be influenced by a variety of factors in the young, active athlete.

Purpose: To determine the incidence of both ACL graft revisions and contralateral ACL tears resulting in subsequent ACLR in a cohort of high school- and college-aged athletes who initially underwent primary ACLR with either a BTB or a hamstring autograft.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: Study inclusion criteria were patients aged 14 to 22 years who were injured in sports, had a contralateral normal knee, and were scheduled to undergo unilateral primary ACLR with either a BTB or a hamstring autograft. All patients were prospectively followed for 6 years to determine whether any subsequent ACLR was performed in either knee after their initial ACLR. Multivariable regression modeling controlled for age, sex, ethnicity/race, body mass index, sport and competition level, baseline activity level, knee laxity, and graft type. The 6-year outcomes were the incidence of subsequent ACLR in either knee.

Results: A total of 839 patients were eligible, of which 770 (92%) had 6-year follow-up for the primary outcome measure of the incidence of subsequent ACLR. The median age was 17 years, with 48% female, and the distribution of BTB and hamstring grafts was 492 (64%) and 278 (36%), respectively. The incidence of subsequent ACLR at 6 years was 9.2% in the ipsilateral knee, 11.2% in the contralateral normal knee, and 19.7% for either knee. High-grade preoperative knee laxity (odds ratio [OR], 2.4 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9]; = .001), autograft type (OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.3-3.5]; = .004), and age (OR, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.7-1.0]; = .009) were the 3 most influential predictors of ACL graft revision in the ipsilateral knee. The odds of ACL graft revision were 2.1 times higher for patients receiving a hamstring autograft than patients receiving a BTB autograft (95% CI, 1.3-3.5; = .004). No significant differences were found between autograft choices when looking at the incidence of subsequent ACLR in the contralateral knee.

Conclusion: There was a high incidence of both ACL graft revisions and contralateral normal ACL tears resulting in subsequent ACLR in this young athletic cohort. The incidence of ACL graft revision at 6 years after index surgery was 2.1 times higher with a hamstring autograft compared with a BTB autograft.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546519892991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319140PMC
February 2020

Anterolateral Complex Reconstruction Augmentation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Biomechanics, Indications, Techniques, and Clinical Outcomes.

JBJS Rev 2019 11;7(11):e5

Duke Sport Science Institute, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.RVW.19.00011DOI Listing
November 2019
-->