Publications by authors named "Annie Willysson"

3 Publications

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Isolation and Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Associated Microvesicles.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2291:207-228

Department of Pediatrics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Microvesicles are shed from cell surfaces during infectious or inflammatory conditions and may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. During Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection, microvesicles are released from blood cells. These microvesicles play a part in inflammation, thrombosis, hemolysis, and the transfer of the main virulence factor of STEC strains, Shiga toxin, to target organ cells. This chapter describes how to isolate blood cell- and cell culture-derived microvesicles from plasma or cell culture medium, respectively, and how to characterize these microvesicles by various methods, with special focus on Shiga toxin-associated microvesicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1339-9_9DOI Listing
April 2021

Shiga Toxin Uptake and Sequestration in Extracellular Vesicles Is Mediated by Its B-Subunit.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 07 10;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, 22185 Lund, Sweden.

Shiga toxin (Stx)-stimulated blood cells shed extracellular vesicles (EVs) which can transfer the toxin to the kidneys and lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome. The toxin can be taken up by renal cells within EVs wherein the toxin is released, ultimately leading to cell death. The mechanism by which Stx is taken up, translocated, and sequestered in EVs was addressed in this study utilizing the B-subunit that binds to the globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptor. We found that Stx1B was released in EVs within minutes after stimulation of HeLa cells or red blood cells, detected by live cell imaging and flow cytometry. In the presence of Retro-2.1, an inhibitor of intracellular retrograde trafficking, a continuous release of Stx-positive EVs occurred. EVs from HeLa cells possess the Gb3 receptor on their membrane, and EVs from cells that were treated with a glycosylceramide synthase inhibitor, to reduce Gb3, bound significantly less Stx1B. Stx1B was detected both on the membrane and within the shed EVs. Stx1B was incubated with EVs derived from blood cells, in the absence of cells, and was shown to bind to, and be taken up by, these EVs, as demonstrated by electron microscopy. Using a membrane translocation assay we demonstrated that Stx1B was taken up by blood cell- and HeLa-derived EVs, an effect enhanced by chloropromazine or methyl-ß-cyclodextrin, suggesting toxin transfer within the membrane. This is a novel mechanism by which EVs derived from blood cells can sequester their toxic content, possibly to evade the host response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12070449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404996PMC
July 2020

Shiga Toxin-Bearing Microvesicles Exert a Cytotoxic Effect on Recipient Cells Only When the Cells Express the Toxin Receptor.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 25;10:212. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Shiga toxin is the main virulence factor of non-invasive enterohemorrhagic strains capable of causing hemolytic uremic syndrome. Our group has previously shown that the toxin can reach the kidney within microvesicles where it is taken up by renal cells and the vesicles release their cargo intracellularly, leading to toxin-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis and cell death. The aim of this study was to examine if recipient cells must express the globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) toxin receptor for this to occur, or if Gb3-negative cells are also susceptible after uptake of Gb3-positive and toxin-positive microvesicles. To this end we generated Gb3-positive A4GALT-transfected CHO cells, and a vector control lacking Gb3 (CHO-control cells), and decreased Gb3 synthesis in native HeLa cells by exposing them to the glycosylceramide synthase inhibitor PPMP. We used these cells, and human intestinal DLD-1 cells lacking Gb3, and exposed them to Shiga toxin 2-bearing Gb3-positive microvesicles derived from human blood cells. Results showed that only recipient cells that possessed endogenous Gb3 (CHO-Gb3 transfected and native HeLa cells) exhibited cellular injury, reduced cell metabolism and protein synthesis, after uptake of toxin-positive microvesicles. In Gb3-positive cells the toxin introduced via vesicles followed the retrograde pathway and was inhibited by the retrograde transport blocker Retro-2.1. CHO-control cells, HeLa cells treated with PPMP and DLD-1 cells remained unaffected by toxin-positive microvesicles. We conclude that Shiga toxin-containing microvesicles can be taken up by Gb3-negative cells but the recipient cell must express endogenous Gb3 for the cell to be susceptible to the toxin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261856PMC
June 2021